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unread. Poniatowski had no other way of con- .C.1710. veying the king of Sweden's complaint to the grand seignior. He drew up a heavy charge Obliged against the grand vizier. Mr. Deferiolles, who titions prewas then the French ambassador, and who gave the fultan. me an account of the whole affair, got the inemorial translated into Turkish. · A Greek was hired to present it. This Greek, mingling with the grand feignior's guards, held up the paper so high for so long a time, and made such a noise, that the sultan observed him, and took the memorial himself. . This method of presenting memorials to the grand seignior against the viziers was frequently employed. A Swede, called Leloin, gave in another petition a few days after. Thus, in the Turkish empire, Charles XII. was reduced to the necessity of using the same expedient as an oppressed subject.

Some days after this, the sultan sent the king of Sweden, as the only answer to his complaints, five and twenty Arabian horses, one of which, that had carried his highness, was covered with a saddle and housing enriched with precious stones, and the stirrups were of massy gold. This present was accompanied with an obliging letter, but conceived in general terms, and such as gave reason to suspect that the minister had done nothing without the sultan's consent. Chourlouli too, who was a perfect master of the art of dirfimulation, sent the king five beautiful horses. But Charles, with a lofty air, said to the person


L.C. 1710. that brought them: Go back to your master, and Heg. 1122.

tell him, that I don't receive presents from my enemies.

Poniatowski, having already ventured to have a petition presented against the vizier, next formed the bold design of deposing him. Understanding that the vizier was disagreeable to the sultanessmother, and that he was hated by the killar aga, the chief of the black eunuchs, and by the aga of the janissaries, he prompted them all three to speak against him. It was something very surprising to see a Christian, a Pole, an uncoinmillioned agent of the king of Sweden, who had taken refuge among the Turks, caballing almost openly at the Porte against a viceroy of the Ottoman empire, who, at the same cime, was both an able minister and a favorite of his master. Poniatowski could never have succeeded, and the bare attempt would have cost him his life, had not a power, superior to all those that operated in his favor, given a finishing stroke to the for

tune of the grand vizier Chourlouli. Strange vic The sultan had a young favorite, who afterziers.

ward governed the Ottoman empire, and was killed in 1716 at the battle of Peterwaradin, which prince Eugene of Savoy gained over the Turks. His name was Coumourgi Ali: his birth was much the same with that of Chourlouli; be. ing the son of a coal-heaver, as Coumourgi imports, coumor, in Turkish, signifying coal. The emperor Achmet II. uncle of Achmet III. having

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met Counourgi, while yet an infant, in a little L.C. 1710. wood near Adrianople, was struck with his extraordinary beauty, and caused him to be conveyed to the seraglio. Mustapha, the eldest son of Mahomet IV. was very fond of him; and Achmet III. made him his favorite. He had then the place of felictar aga, or sword-bearer to the crown. His extreme youth did not allow him to make any open pretensions to the post of grand vizier; and yet he had the ambition to aspire at it. The Swedish faction could never draw over this favorite to their side. He had never been a friend to Charles, or to any other Christian prince, or to any of their ministers; but on this occasion he served king Charles XII. without intending to do so. He joined with the valid sultaness, and the great officers of the Porte, to haften the ruin of Chourlouli, who was equally hated by them all. This old minister, who had served his master for a long time, and with great fidelity, fell a victim to the caprice of a boy, and the intrigues of a foreigner. He was stripped of his dignity and riches. His wife, who was the daughter of the late sultan Mustapha, was taken from him; and himself was banished to Caffa, formerly called Theodosia, in Crim Tartary.* The VOL. IV.

S . . .. bull

* It is said in one of the dispatches of Mr Deferiolles, that the vizier. Chourlouli having had an explanation with sultan Achmet III. at the time that the seals were demanded of him, this minister spoke to the prince with a liberty which the Turkish monarch was little accustomed to. Achmet caught up a club which lay near him to knock him down. “My life is in

" thy


Heg. I 122.

J.C. 1710. bull or seal of the empire was given to Numan

Kiuperli, grandson to the great Kiuperli who
took Candia. This new vizier was, what ill-
informed Christians can hardly believe it possible
for a Turk to be, a man of incorruptible virtue,
a scrupulous observer of the law, and one who
frequently opposed the rigid rules of justice to
the wayward will of the sultan. He could not
endure to hear of a war against Moscovy, which
he considered as alike unjust and unnecessary;
but the same attachment to his law, that pre-
vented his making war upon the czar, contrary
to the faith of treaties, made him observe the
rights of hospitality towards the king of Sweden.
He would say to his master : “ The law forbids
« thee to attack the czar, who has done thee no in-
“jury; but it commands thee to fuccour the king
“ of Sweden, who is an unfortunate prince in thy
“ dominions.” He sent his majesty eight hundred
purses (a purse is worth about fixty pounds fter-
ling), and advised him to return peaceably to his
own dominions, either through the territories of
the emperor of Germany, or in some of the French
veffels which then lay in the harbour of Constan-
tinople, and which Mr. Deferiolles, the French
ambassador at the Porte, offered to Charles to
conduct him to Marseilles. Count Poniatowski


“thy power,” said Chourlouli to him, “ I have dedicated it to thee a long « time; I have done even more, I have exposed myfelf to public hatred to “ fill thy coffers and serve thee well. Punish me for it, if thou darest and « art desirous of encouraging those no better who shall serve thee after me." The monarch, astonished, ordered Chourlouli out of the room. AUTHOR.

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carried on his negotiations with greater activity 1.C.171.

Heg.1122. than ever, and acquired such a superiority with a an incorruptible vizier, as the gold of the Mofcovites was unable to counterbalance. The Ruffian faction, thought it would be their wiseft course to poison such a dangerous negotiator. They gained one of his servants, who was to give him poison in a dish of coffee; but the design was discovered before it was carried into execution. The poison was found in the servant's hands, contained in a small vial, which was carried to the grand feignior. The prisoner was tried in open divan, and condemned to the galleys; the justice of the Turks never inficting deach for those crimes that have not been perpetrated. - Charles XII. who could not be persuaded but that, sooner or later, he should be able to engage the Turkish empire in a war against Moscovy, rejected every proposal that was made for his peaceable return home. He was continually representing to the Turks, how formidable the power of that same cżar was, whom he had so long despised. His emiffaries were perpetually insinuating, that Peter Alexiowitz wanted to make himself master of the navigation of the Black sea; and chat, after having subdued the Coffacks, he would carry his arms into Crim Tartary. Sometimes these representations aroused the Porte, at others the Russian ministers destroyed all their effect. VOL. IV.



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