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o deliver you this letter, adorned with our im- 1.C. 1712.

Heg.1124. « perjal seal, be persuaded and convinced of the « truth of our intentions therein contained, to “ wit, that though we had proposed once more « to march our ever victorious army against the " czar; yet that prince, in order to avoid the « just resentment which we had conceived at his « delaying to execute the treaty concluded on " the banks of the Pruth, and afterward renewed « at our sublime Porte, having surrendered into « our hands the castle and town of Asoph, and « endeavoured, by the mediation of the English «c and Dutch ambaffadors, our ancient allies, to “ cultivate a lasting peace with us, we have “ granted his request, and delivered to his plesc nipotentiaries, who remain with us as hostages, « our imperial ratification, after having receiyed se his from their hands...

« We have given to the most honorable and so valiant Delvet Gerai, khan of Budziack, Cri " mea, Nogai, and Circassia, and to our most « wise counsellor and noble seraskier of Bender, rc Ishmael, (the magnificence and wisdom of $c whom may God preserve and increase,) our "inviolable and falutary orders for your return " through Poland, according to your first inten« tion, which has again been represented to us « in your name. You must therefore prepare to « set out next winter under the protection of « Providence, and with an honorable escort, in fr order to recurn to your own territories, taking

a care

J.C. 1712.. care to pass through those of Poland in a Heg. 1 1 24. r friendly manner.

" Whatever is necessary for your journey shall “ be furnished you by my sublime Porte, as well « in money as in men, horses, and waggons. « Above all things we advise and exhort you to «s. give the most particular and express orders to all “ the Swedes and other persons in your retinue, «.to commit no outrage, nor to be guilty of any , ar action that may tend, either directly or indi" rectly, to break this peace and alliance. . :,:By these means you will preserve our good “ will, of which we shall endeavour to give you .cs as great and as frequent proofs as we shall have « opportunities. The troops designed to attend “ you shall receive orders agreeably to our im"perial intentions.

“ Given at our sublime Porte of Constantinople " the 14th of the moon Rebyul Eureh, 1124

" (which answers to the 19th of April 1912).” He refufes. “This letter did not deprive the king of Sweto comply. den of all hopes. He wrote to the sultan, that

he should ever retain a grateful remembrance of the favors his highness had bestowed upon him; but that he believed the sultan was too just to send him back with the simple escort of a fying camp into a country that still fwarmed with the . czar's troops. And indeed the emperor of Russia, potwithstanding the first article of the treaty of Pruth, by which he had engaged to withdraw all his troops from Poland, had sent fresh ones into

that a

that kingdom; and what seems astonishing is, J.C.1712

Heg. 1124 that the grand feignior knew nothing of it.

. The bad policy of the Porte, in being so much guided by the motives of vanity as to allow Christian princes to have ambassadors at Conftantinople, without ever sending a single agent to any Christian court, gives the latter an opportunity of discovering, and sometimes of directing, the most secret resolutions of the sultan, and keeps the divan in a profound ignorance of what passes in the Christian world. .

The sultan, shut up in his seraglio, among his women and eunuchs, can only see with the eyes of his grand vizier. That minister, as inaccesfible as his master, his time wholly engrossed with the intrigues of the seraglio, and having no foreign correspondence, is commonly deceived himfelf, or else deceives the sultan, who deposes o: causes him to be strangled for the first offence, in order to choose another minister as ignorant or as perfidious, who behaves like his predecessors, and foon shares the same fate.

So great, for the most part, is the inactivity and supine negligence of this court, that, were the Christian princes to combine against it, their fleets might be at the Dardanelles and their land forces at the gates of Adrianople, before the Turks would think of taking any measures for their defence; but their jarring interests, that must ever divide the Christian world, will preserve the Turks from a fate to which they seem at present

exposed,

1.C.1712: exposed, by their want of policy, and by their Heg.1124. a ignorance of the art of war, both by sea and land.

So little was Achmet acquainted with what paffed in Poland, that he sent an aga to inquire if it were true that the czar's troops were still in that country. The aga was accompanied by two secretaries of the king of Sweden, who understood Turkish, and were to serve as evidences against him, in case he should give in a false report.

The aga saw the Russian forces with his own eyes, and informed the sultan of every particular. Achmet, fired with indignation, was going to have the grand vizier strangled; but the favorite, who protected him, and who thought he should have further occasion for him, obtained his pardon, and supported him some time longer in the ministry.

The cause of the Russians was openly espoused by the vizier, and secretly favored by Ali Coumourgi, who had changed sides. But the sultan was so provoked, the infraction of the treaty was so manifest, and the janissaries, who often make the ministers, the favorites, and even the sultans tremble, called out for war with so much importunity, that no one in the seraglio durst offer a more moderate proposal.

The grand seignior immediately ordered the to arm the Russian ambassadors to be committed to the Seven favor. Towers, who were already as much accustomed

to go to prison as to an audience. War was declared anew against the czar, the horse-tails were displayed, and orders were given to all the

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balhaws to assemble an army of two hundred 1.C. 1712.

Heg.1124. thousand men. The sultan himself quitted Conftantinople, and fixed his court at Adrianople, that he might be so much the nearer to the seat of the war. ". Meanwhile a folemn embassy, sent to the grand feignior by Augustus and the republic of Poland, was upon the road to Adrianople. The palatine of Massovia was at the head of this embasly, with a retinue of above three hundred persons.

All the members of the embassy were seized and imprisoned. Never was the king of Sweden's party, more highly flattered than on this occasion' ; and yet these great preparations were rendered abortive, and all their hopes were again disappointed.

• If we may believe a public minister, a man of fagacity and penetration, who then resided at Constantinople, young Counourgi had already formed other designs than that of disputing a defert country with the czar of Moscovy,' by a war the event of which must have been so uncertain. He had resolved to strip the Venetians of Peloponnesus, now called the Morea, and to make himself master of Hungary.

These projects he proposed to carry into execution, as soon as he should have attained the post of grand vizier, from which he was still excluded on account of his youth. In this view it was more for his advantage to be the ally than the VOL.IV.

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