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T.C.1716. feeking to divide them in order to beat them Heg.1128.

down one after another, and that they would attack Hungary, after having stripped the republic of Venice. Lewis XIV. too was dead, and the emperor did not seem to have any thing more to fear from France, which, in the embarrassment of a regency, was not likely to think of undertaking a foreign war.

All these motives prevailed on Charles VI. It was resolved to send an army into Hungary, under the command of prince Eugene. They sent into this kingdom a great number of recruits, cannon newly founded, and ammunition. All the troops reduced at the peace of Raftat were recalled to their colours, and ordered to hold themselves in readiness to march by the month of April. The emperor signed a new treaty of alliance offensive and defensive with the republic of Venice.

The news of these preparations of war arrived

at Conftantinople when the sultan was overcome fultaness. with grief at the recent death of the valid sulta

ness, whom he had always greatly loved. Curdisca had enjoyed under two sultans her sons, Mustapha and Achmet, the greatest advantages which a woman can think of enjoying in Turkey; for the most beloved affaky may have more influence, but never so much authority as the mother of the emperor. Curdisca had had a great deal of both, and had made rather a good use of it. The riches which the valids dispose of, and which they often throw away in profusions and


Death of Curdisc, the vaild

mans de

prodigalities, were employed by Curdisca in J.C.1716.

Heg.1128. building caravansaries and hospitals, and in digging wells in the deserts around Mecca, for the relief of pilgrims. It was not her fault, as we have seen, that her son Achmet did not powerfully aslift Charles XII. king of Sweden. The reputation of this sultaness was more extensive in the Ottoman empire, than that of all the sultaness mothers, who 'till then had been known, only by the factions which they had promoted and the commotions that they had occasioned without knowing why.

Achmet had not yet gotten the better of his The Ger. grief, when the resident of the emperor of Ger- clare war

against the many signified to the reis effendi from his master, Turks. that if, by the 15th of May at furthest, an Ottoman minister did not arrive on the frontiers of Hun. gary, charged with a promise from the grand seignior to accept of the mediation of the emperor Charles VI. between the republic of Venice and him, the emperor of the West was determined The em to declare war against the Porte. The divan had peror of the already made great preparations. Temeswar had and fifty been repaired with great expence and quickness, as there was reason to expect that this would be the the com: place first attacked. All the troops that were to compose the army marched from different places to Adrianople, where the grand feignior reviewed them; and having committed his fleec to the charge of the captain baihaw, to attempt the Conquest of the ille of Corfu, he put a hundred


thousand men under

of the grand vizier.

the war.


1.C. 1716. and fifty thousand men under the command of Heg.1128.

his grand vizier, who had never commanded, nor even served in any subaltern rank. But the favor and prosperity of Coumourgi had persuaded

him that he was invincible. A cadiler- It was even against the wishes of the ulema ker deposed for speaks thet he undertook this war. The effendis of the ing against

court said publicly, that it was infringing a solemn treaty

which the Germans had no way broken; that God would not give his blessing to arms turned against a nation which had not merited to be looked upon as an enemy. These clamours became so common, that the grand vizier thought it necessary to stifle them. He assembled the divan, where he introduced all the mollacs of Adrianople. Having demanded of the mufti, with a tone of authority, if he would not give his fetfa to approve of the war against Infidels who presumed to protect the declared enemy of the Porte, the chief of the law replied with submission, and in a very few words, that his fetfa was ready, and he read it immediately. As no one was in hafte to approve or blame it, Coumourgi ordered the premier cadilesker to give his opinion on what he had just heard. This cadilesker was a venerable old man, whose uprightness and perfect knowledge of morality had raised him, after much time, to the second place in the ulema. Mehemet effendi (that was his name) replied, that the Alcoran forbade the violation of treaties, and that the Musulmen had always given the Giaurs the


example of fidelity in this respect; that the em- 1.C.1716.

Heg. 1128. peror of Germany justly demanded the execution of the treaty of Carlowitz, and that he offered to enter into an examination whether the Vene. tians or the Ottomans had first broken it, in order to render a necessary justice to those whom this treaty had made allies; that if it were thought the Germans were enfeebled and ruined by their long wars with France, it should be likewise believed that God would punish ambition and rapacity; that the old Ottomans had enlarged the bounds of their empire, by employing their arms in none but just wars; that the true Believers not being excused from that fidelity to the Giaurs which they required from other people, they might be chastised by the arms which they had already found fo formidable, as the Giaurs had formerly been chastised by them.

The grand vizier, whom this discourse greatly enraged, endeavoured to justify the war; but Mehemet effendi having constantly combated him with substantial reasons, the prime minister was reduced to use authority, the sole advantage which he had left, to impose filence on equity and jufcice. The old cadilesker was deposed, and all the ulema remained in that profound silence which fear imposes.

The grand feignior caused his troops to be preceded by a kind of manifesto, which he spread sultan. through all the provinces, the object of which was, to persuade that he was not the first infringer


Manifesto of the



1.C.1716. of the treaty of Carlowitz. It said, that he had I sent an ambassador to Vienna, to assure that

court, that all the preparations which he was making menaced the Venetians only, that it was true the German resident had then offered the mediation of his master; that prince Eugene, the president of the council of war, had likewise of fered it, as well as the English and Dutch am: baffadors that of their nations; but that, though all of them had beeen accepted, the Venetians had nevertheless continued hoftilities; that their feet had wintered at Corfu, a town about two iniles from the coast of the frontiers of the Ottoman empire; that at length on the intelligence which arrived from the confines of Hungary, of the extraordinary preparations which the emperor of the West was making, such as levies, assembling troops, establishing magazines, and building vefsels on the Danube, the resident had been again preffed to declare himself; a fresh delay of thirty days had been given him to make a precise reply, and that, after two months' silence, he had thought fit to say verbally, that the ministers of the Porte had not given him any pofitive reply to the offer which he had made of the mediation of the emperor, or to the letters remitted by prince Eugene to the aga Ibrahim ; that he had added several reasons equally weak, the conclusion of whicb had been, that the emperor having ancient esgagements with the Venetians, he was obliged to support their interests; that at length he had said,

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