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1:C, 1718. on himself to spend. His avarice however was noHeg.1130

thing but a delirium ; for he loved gold more as a precious metal than as a mean to extend his power, to fubjugate mankind, and to remedy the misfortunes of his empire. The sultan filled crystal yases with all sorts of gold and silver money; he had them ranged on shelves in his private apartments, and ftupidly enjoyed the fight of these riches whilst the enemies of his empire were

massacring his soldiers and wresting provinces The grand from him. The new grand vizier Ibrahim, who new digni- knew that the only way to please his master was

to Aatter his caprices, would by no means think of depriving him of the idol of his adoration. Persuaded too that, in order to obtain any tolerable conditions from the Imperialists, it was necessary to shew them that the empire was not without resources; and that a peace could be procured only by preparing for a war; he contrived to lay an impoft on men's vanity. Titles of seraskier, bashaws of the different orders, and agas in the different military corps, were created and fold to those who were rich enough to pay for them. Though elevation among the Turks is subject to more frequent and fatal falls than among other people, yet the thirst of grandeurs is neither less common nor ardent than elsewhere. Those, who wish to excuse it, fay, that the prophet has decided that the just shall have the same rank in the other life as they have in this; and, as we have said elsewhere, the Muffulmen abuse


the dogma of predestination so far as to believe L.C. 1718.

Heg.1130. that human prudence can have no effect on the future; that the days of man are numbered ; and that he cannot, in any case, prolong, or preserve his life. The new created dignities were bought at the price which the grand vizier put on them: four thousand purses were raised by this novelty, which served to levy troops and repair the dirafters of the last campaign.

Meanwhile the mediation of England and Hol- Congress land was accepted. Lord Montague, the English fowitz. ambassador, and baron Colliers, the Dutch amballador, endeavoured to bring about matters between the belligerent powers. A place was agreed on for the conferences: this was the small town of Passarowitz, situated in Servia on the Moravia. The preparations of the Turks for the continuation of the war, and the menaces of Spain, which had not yet concluded a very solid peace with Charles VI. rendered that, prince more tractable. Moreover, neither England, nor Holland, nor France, would have consented that the Turks should be confined to Alia, as Charles VI. seemed to delire. The balance of Europe required, that this barrier hould be kept up against the ambition of a house, heretofore accused of aiming at universal monarchy. The emperor of the West fent as plenipotentiaries to Paffarowitz baron Dalleman his resident at the Porte, and count Virmont. The republic of Venice lens thither the noble Ruzzini; and the aga Ibrahim



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Debates between

J.C. 1718. and Mehemet effendi were the plenipotentiaries Heg. 11300

from the Porte. Sir Robert Sutton and baron Colliers represented the mediation of England and Holland. There were eight conferences, in which the rights and interests of the two empires were warmly difcuffed on both sides. The Germans, who opened the first conference, demanded from the Turks all that prince Eugene had com

prised in his last dispatches, and likewise that the pleni- prince Ragotski should be delivered up to them potentia

as a rebel subject.Mehemet effendi, the same who a little time after was senton an embassy to France, supported the cause of the Porte with ability, and even dignity. He treated prince Eugene's first propositions as chimerical, saying, that the Ottoman plenipotentiaries would not have come to the congrefs, if they had foreseen that they would again be insisted on ; that the Ottoman empire had still sufficient resources to defend effectually what was meant to be wrested from it with so much injustice, and to recover what it had loft; that with respect to the proposal which the Imperialists had presumed to make, of delivering up prince Ragotski to their master, bound hand and foot, he was unable to conceive how they could think that the Muffulmen would listen to such an infamous request; that the sublime emperor of the Turks was the refuge, support, and consolation of the unfortunate, and that he would sooner see his empire overturned, which was established on such a solid basis, than deliver to his



enemies a prince that he had invited to his court, t.C.1918.

Heg.1130. and armed himself; that with regard to the Morea, the Turks had done no more than re-enter their domain ; and that if the Imperialists were resolved to take advantage of their success over the Ottoman arms, not only to keep their conquests but even to expect to usurp new provinces, it was neither just nor reasonable to think that the Turks, who were vanquishers of the Venetians, should give them up the possesions which they had recovered; that, in fine, if the Germans had nothing to alter in such extravagant proposals, they, the plenipotentiaries of the Porte, declared they should leave Paffarowitz; and they withdrew in fact-from the congress room.

: It was the interest of the two mediators to make up matters between the licigant parties. Being Peace cona very certain that the Germans had not exhausted the basisutá

palidatis. their powers, they followed the Turkish plenipotentiaries, in order to prevail on them to put off their departure for soine days; and in this interval, by persuasions and intreaties, they procured a second conference. At length, after all the plenipotentiaries had debated their respective interests during eight long fittings, the mediators brought them to consent, thac each should keep what he possessed at the time of the signing of the treaty, and that prince Ragotski should continue under the protection of the grand seignior. The preliminaries were figned on the basis uti pofidetis, and the three powers voluntarily racified


J.C.1718. what their representatives had concluded. Prince Heg.1130 w Rago:ski was sent to Rodosto, with a thaim of a

hundred piastres a day.* This is what they call at the Porte the daily subsistence granted to foreign princes, and ambassadors and ministers extraordinary.

However disadvantageous this peace might seem for the Turks, they recovered the Morea, a province without doubt much richer than the countries of Belgrade and Temeswar, and they prevented the discouragemeni of their troops, over whom the Austrians had taken an ascendency which might last a long time. Ibrahim, having loft the Ottoman frontiers opposed to the most formidable enemy of this empire, hastened to fortify the barrier towns, with the money that he had drawn from the new bashaws, and which he had at first intended for the war. He caused Niffa, Viden, Nicopoli, and Sophia, to be fortified, in order that Servia and Bulgaria might not be open to a neighbour against whom it would be always necessary to guard. The troops, difcouraged, saw with pleasure an end to the war;

but all the true Mussulmen regretted the ancient Discontent barriers of the empire. They grieved to think that occafion of Christian churches would be raised on the ruins of Pallas of the mosques. They said, that the imposts with

which the commerce had been burdened for several years pait should have secured the Ottoman empire from this difgrade ; that a disadvantageous


peace, * The Turkish piastre is valued at balf-a-crown sterling.


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