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L.C. 1723. toman emperor and the czar of Russia to solicit Heg.1135, & 1136. fuccours. . It was already known that Shah Thaa

mas had concluded a treaty with Peter the Great. They learned during the same ramazan, that the Khilan, a province on the coast of the Caspian sea, had just submitted to the Russian arms, and that Shah Thamas confirmed all these conquests to the czar, on condition that the Russian monarch should allift him to drive the Asghvans out of his empire. The Persian ambassador was badly received at Constantinople; he could not see the grand feignior but at his coming out of a mosque during the beirain. He delivered to him, in the same manner as the lowest of the populace could have done, a memorial in behalf of his master, conceived in the most humble and pressing terms. Achmet III. replied to this sort of request, as he always did, by giving it to his grand vizier. They had not dared receive this Persian as the character with which he was invefted feemed to require, because the people, equally dissatisfied that war was not declared against the Rullians, and that government seemed to incline towards Shah Thamas against the Afghvans, who were Sunnice Muffulmen, threatened a fedition that might have

broken out during the ceremony of the audience. J.C.1723. Meanwhile, nothing was talked of at ConstanHeg.1136.

tinople but a war against Ruflia. The bashaw of Diarbekar had entered into the province of Shirvan; and the Armenians of Naksivan, displeased with their unfortunate king Shah Thamas, who


Hoftilities against Rusia,

of the mar

had been so indiscreet as to treat those sub- J.C.1724.

Heg.1131., jects with rigour who remained faithful to him, invited the bashaw of Van to come and take poffeffion of their country.

This chief had no difficulty to drive out of a desolated province what Persian soldiers were left there. The Turks, always taking advantage of the disorder and misfortunes of their neighbours, penetrated as far as Amadan ; but they met with so little opposition, that this success scarcely deserved the name of a conqueft.

During the rejoicings which these advantages Mediation occafioned at Conftantinople, and which were quis of mixed with those of the beiram, the conferences appointed between the grand vizier, the reis rences effendi, and the Russian resident, commenced in under the eyes of the French ambassador. The Porte and time for the campaign drew near. Ibrahim ob- of the tained, by the advice of the marquis of Bonac, that Achmes should appoint a general divan, where all the principal persons of the ulema and the general officers should be called. The grand vizier laid before this assembly the situation of affairs, the claims of the czar, those of the Porte, and the disputes that might raise up a war between the two empires. The fear of becoming suspected either by the ulema or the troops, prevented his recommending conciliatory measures, which he so much wished; but as all the members of the divan were for having war declared against the czar, the druggerman VOL. IV. Nn


Bonac. Confe. rences be. tween the ministers of the

the envoy


J.C. 1724. of the Porte desired permission to enter the Heg.1136.

afsembly in behalf of the French ambaffador. Being admitted, he desired leave to present the proposals of the mediator. When he had obtained it, he began by declaring, that the parties were of a mind, as the czar confined himself to the borders of the Caspian sea, which the Turks had no thoughts of conquering, and that he would voluntarily abandon to the Ottomans Georgia and all Armenia, provinces more fertile and nearer the frontiers of the empire; that the Ottoman Porte should never think of conquering all Persia, since history taught, that dominions too much extended had always been destroyed by difunion, after long and bloody wars ; that it was easy to draw a line of limits, to separate the provinces that should belong to Russia, from those which the Porte would reserve to itself; that this agreement would spare much blood, and fix the chances of a war, always doubtful and ruinous; that it was not the interest of the Porte to oppose the rise of Ruflia, fince that power, become more formidable, would keep the house of Austria in awe, the almost natural enemy of the Mussulmen; that in fine though neither the French ambassador nor he, the druggerman, were well versed in the Alcoran, both being Christians, they were however of opinion that the Afghvans were wrongly considered as Sunnites and orthodox Muffulmen, since they would not acknowledge the powerful emperor of the Turks for commander of the


Faithful; that therefore it was both reason and J.C. 1724.

Heg.1136. justice to take up arms against the usurpers for the son of the fophi, the lawful inheritor of Persia, making him pay for the succours which should re-place him on the throne, with provinces that should settle the Ottoman power on the most solid foundation. This discourse, which lasted more than half an hour, pronounced with precision and clearness, made a great impression on the assembly. It stifled particularly the clamours of the ulema. The grand vizier having asked the mufti, if a prince who refused to acknowledge the commander of the Faithful could be considered as a Sunnite, and if it was not enjoined to reduce him by force of arms, the chief of the law replied, that, as the true Muffulmen had but one God, they should have but one master to represent that God on earth. Ibrahim having taken the votes immediately after this answer, three parts of the assembly were of the druggerman's opinion, to recommence the conferences with the Ruflian resident, under the mediation of the French ambassador. “ Since this is your opinion,” Peace is said the grand vizier rising, “I will go and in the « inform the emperor of it." This prince, as much pleased as surprised at the sudden change, admitted the druggerman of the Porte into his presence, for him to repeat what he had just said in the divan. This was perhaps the first time that a druggerman was introduced into the inner rooms of the seraglio. He was loaded with preVOL, Iy.

Nn 2


resolved on


1.C. 1734. sents, and, a little time after, Achmet placed him Heg.1136. w on the throne of Moldavia.

The conferences were recommenced the next day, and the preliminaries were foon settled. The marquis of Bonac sent a relation of his with these preliminaries to the czar, and to receive the orders of that prince. Peter the Great did not fail of approving conditions that granted him every thing which he had claimed; but when Mr. Duffon Daillon (that was the name of the marquis's relation) had brought back Peter the Great's accession to the treaty, there were again long debates, as the Turkish ministers were afraid the people would dislike to see the Mussulman Tartars under the sceptre of a Christian prince. The marquis of Bonac repeated to them several times, that these Tartars came from the dominions of the Aliians, whom the Sunnites looked upon as Giaurs as well as the Christians. The desire which the grand feignior and his prime minister had for peace, made them stifle all fear. They caused their consent to be preceded by a fetfa from the mufti, which declared the Afghvans heretics, ufurpers, and rebels. A few days after the publication of this mandate, which great care was taken to distribute in Constantinople and all the great towns of the empire, the treaty was figned.

It contained fix articles, preceded by a preamble, in which was mentioned the cession made to the czar by prince Thamas of the provinces


Conditions of the Treaty.

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