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bordering on the Caspian sea. The first article J.C. 1734 fixed the barrier between Russia and Turkey, by na means of a line drawn at sixty-six miles from the sea on the confines of the Daghestan, passing at a like distance from the shore of Derbent, and ending at the confluence of the Kur and Araxes: by the fame article the contracting parties were to name commissioners, and desire a mediator from France for the execution of this clause, and that both should be at liberty to build forts on their own territories. By the second article, the town of Schamachya, the capital of the Shirvan, which was to remain under the sovereignty of the Porte, could not be fortified on any pretence, and the grand feignior was not to keep a garrison there but with the consent of Russia, in case of an insurrection, and solely for that time; the grand seignior engaged likewise never to let his troops pass the river Kur, without informing the czar of it. The third article fixed the limits of the T'urkish empire and of the kingdom of Persia, by a line which commenced where the other ended : that is to say, at the confluence of the Kur and Araxes. In the fourth, the czar promifed his mediation or his forces to procure the voluntary cession of, or to conquer by a common effort, the provinces guarantied to the grand seignior by this treaty: the contracting parties agreed, that if Shah Thamas refused to accede to ir, they would begin with conquering those provinces which they had divided between them but were not in pora


OTTOMANS. 1.C.1724. session of, and that they would conjointly make

themselves masters of the rest of Persia, to give is
to him whom the two parties should unanimously
judge most worthy of reigning, without the
Porte or Russia's being able to keep any other
province than those which they had mutually at-
tributed to each other in the preceding articles.
In the fifth, the grand feignior engaged to ac-
knowledge Shah Thamas for king of Persia, and
to give him every' neceffary succour to re-place
him on his throne, on condition of his con-
senting to the treaty. Lastly, by the sixth article,
if Shah Thamas refused this agreement and the
succours of Turkey, the Russians and Turks
would agree together to place any other prince
than Mir Mamout on the throne, in whose favor
they would never hear any proposal. This treaty
was signed the eighth of July. The ratification
of the czar arrived soon, and the exchange was
solemnly made the next day at the grand vizier's.
The chancellor of the French embaffy prepared the
necessary acts, and the marquis of Bonac signed
in quality of mediator. He was clothed on this
occasion with a cloak of fable, an honor that had
never yet been received by any minister but the
ambassador from the emperor of the West after the
peace of Paffarowitz; and the czar conferred the
Order of St. Andrew on him.
· Shah Thamas having learned in his retreat that'
his pretended friends had parted between them the
best part of his dominions, to pay themselves in


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Shah Tha

les his


advance for the succour that they intended him; 1.C.1724.

Heg.1136, fell into the most violent despair. He sent back & 1737. the czar's resident, bidding him tell his master, The fophi that he would not think of accepting succours master which were to be sold him at fo dear a rate, and which he thought too well paid for already by the tion at it to giving up of the Daghestan and Shirvan. He ménaced in his letter this ally, whom he called a perfidious man, and told him that Providence was already come to his succour, since the usurper Mamout, after having been beaten by the people of the Khilan, who were tired of his tyranny, had been obliged to raise the siege of Ield in Irac.

And indeed fortune began to forsake Mir Ma- Affairs in inout, and his disgraces raised up the feditious complaints of his soldiers. They reproached him with having let the Persians in their turn triumph over his courage, by infecting him with their manners, their sensuality, their effeminacy, and even their religion, which he had the weakness to tolerate and partly to adopt, to please them. They talked with enthusiasm of a lieutenant of Mir Mamout's called Aschraf, whom thar jealous prince had sent out of the way, because the soldiers, who had often vanquished under the orders of that general, were continually extolling his talents, sagacity, and bravery. The reiterated clamour of the Afghvans constrained Mamout to recal Archraf after a few months. The usurper of the Persian throne, full of talents for war, and of that ferocious valour which braves perils and



the OTTOMANS. .C. 1724. delights in blood, absolutely wanted that moral Heg.1136, &°1137. courage which fagacity alone can give. Mir

Mamout, incapable of resisting his prejudices, and of seeking to regain the public esteem, thought to put a stop to the clamours of the foldiery, by the execution of those who had the boldness to make him just reproaches. This cruelty naturally increased the number of the malecontents. The imprudent Mir Mamout, who began to fear the fate which he had himself made Shah Hussein suffer, fancied he should pacify his army by austere practices of religion, and that in an intimate acquaintance with God he should receive lights that would enable him to manage a people of soldiers little under subjection. He resolved to execute the Riadhiat, which is an abfolute retreat that the dervises and most devout of the Mussulmen sometimes impose on themfelves. It consists in fhutting one's self up for several weeks in a dark place, without taking any other food than a little bread and water once in twenty-four hours, repeating almost without interval the name of all the attributes of God. This toilsome exercise causes the person who condemns himself to it to fall into an agitated Neep, during which the unusual diet occasions him dreams which he does not fail to take for extafies. Mir Mamout must have been very little better than a madman, to condemn himself to this absurd practice, in a time when his presence was To necessary at the head of his people.


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When he came out of his dungeon, after a L.C. 1724

* Heg.1136. month of this odd austerity, he had quite'lost his & 1137. reason. The first order that he gave was to bring Shah Hussein's children into a court of the palace, where they were guarded to the number of seventy. Shah Thamas alone, of this unfortunate race, had escaped during the fiege of Ispahan. When these young victims came before Mir Mamout, he had their hands tied

Malacre of with their girdles, - and having armed himself Shah Huf

sein's chil with a poniard, began to massacre them him-dren by Mir

- Mamout. self. The unfortunate Shah Hussein, drawn by the cries of his dying children, ran to this bloody scene, when only the two youngest were left to Naughter, the eldest of whom was five years old.' The old king covered them with his body, which he offered to the blows of the abominable executioner. Mir Mamout struck Shah Hussein in several places, without being able to touch the two children, to whom this wretched father gave life a second time. The monster, weakened by his long fast and by his rage, fell down with fatigue before he was able to complete his design. His followers, less barbarous, saved the three last victims, escaped from the frenzy of their master. Heaven began in this life

Chandise the chastisement which so many cruelties merited. ments of A few days after the massacre of Shah Hufein's

* Heaveni children, the tyrant was attacked with an inward diltemper that gnawed his bowels, and which, VOL. IV. : 00


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