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an ainballado ecause, they lis He C. 1725.

not give his mioister the title of ambassador. He 1.C. 1.725.

Heg.1137. was stopped at Scutari, because, they said, he 81138. could not be an ambassador who represented only a rebel.

Abdulazis, (that was the name of Aschraf's How rerepresentative,) could never obtain an audience ceived. of the monarch. Conducting himself always with as much haughtiness to the Turks as he experienced from them, he refused to let the grand vizier have any thing but a copy of the letter addressed to his master, which contained the pretensions of Aschraf, and in which he took the pompous title of king of kings. On the seal of these letters were engraved two Arabian verses, which may be thus translated : The blood of our enemies is our drink, and their sculls serve us for cups. In the private conferences which this Afghvan had with the reis effendi, he insisted that his master was a lawful prince like the Ottoman emperor : that Aschraf's elevation had been inore agreeable to God than that of any other prince; since it had been operated by the arms of the Sunnites on the ruins of the throne of the Aliians, whom the Alcoran orders to be exterminated, and that his master and his predeceffors, without any other succour than their zeal and courage, had beaten down the enemy of God, whilst the Ottoman emperors had been sleeping on their throne amidst so much power and riches; that if the Ottoman emperor thought to be commander of the Faithful in the countries under


J.C. 1725. his obedience, Aschraf had a still better title to it Heg.1537, & 1138.' in that which he had conquered and was going to

conquer; since his valour had extended the empire of truth, and that for the future, thanks to his conquests, the Sunnite dominions would be too extensive to obey one potentate. All the discussion between the ministers of the Porte and Aschraf's envoy was confined to the superiority claimed by the Ottoman emperor, and constantly denied by the usurper. The ministers, who had never fufficiently explained the grounds of this quarrel to the people, and who perceived the neceffity of convincing them that the Afghvans were not real Sunnites, published the demands of Aschraf, and the fetfa of the mufti, which decided, that every Mussulman who presumed to dispute the sovereign power of the Ottoman house was'a rebel and a heretic, and consequently deserving of death. Abdulazis was sent back with letters addressed to his master, more haughty

and menacing than those which he had brought. 1.C. 1726. Meanwhile the czar, Peter the Great, died. Heg. 1138, 17

•His widow, who remained on the throne by the Death of desire of her husband, was too much taken up Peter the Great. with maintaining herself thereon, to think of fulfians ne- filling the articles of the treaty concluded with fend troops the Turks under the mediation of the marquis of

Bonac. On her neglecting to send troops to the borders of the Caspian sea, the Turks cook advantage of this inaction to encroach on che line which was to be drawn between the present or fu


& II

The Rur

glect to

isto Perfia.

ture conquests of the two powers. Mr. Romenzof, J.C. 1726.

Heg.1138, the commissioner sent for this purpose, pressed & 11392 the Turks to finish it. They sent off the commiffioner who was to stipulate for them; but, though Mr. Daillon, the relation of the marquis of Bonac who had been sent into Ruffia two years before, had been named by the court of France to affist in this business, the marquis of Andresel, the successor of the marquis of Bonac, had received orders from Versailles, not only to fuf. pend the mediation, but likewise to thwart the Russians at the Porte-with all his power. This change in the court of France proceeded from their having received certain intelligence of the czarina's having formed a secret alliance with the emperor of the West. These circumstances animated the Turks; they The Turks

prepare for no longer talked but of conquests. Achmet ba- war. Deshaw, the Turkish general, menaced Ispahan; Alchraf. in which the usurper had fortified himself. As the barbarous policy of his predecessors and himself had greatly diminished the number of the inhabitants of this capital, he thought to defend himself better by forming an enclosure within the walls of a less extent, which, in less than six months, was fortified in the eastern manner; that is to say, he made a wall, ditches, and redoubts at equal distances, to oppose his enemies, in case i they should come to attack him.. Aschraf prepared likewise another sort of defence more known among the Persians and more congenial to his VOL, IV.



fence of


& 1139.

dis into the Turkish camp.

L.C. 1726. ferocious soul; this was to ruin all the country Heg.1138,

from Calbin to Ispahan, in order to impede the march of the enemy; and, mixing hypocrisy with cruelty, he spread a manifefto in the army of Achmet bashaw, which contained in substance, that he, Aschraf, saw with grief Mussulmen obftinately bent on destroying one another; that this impious war had lasted but too long; that he : called God and his prophet to witness his dispofition for peace; and that he would neglect no

thing to facilitate its completion. He sends .

In Tacly hc

In fact, he chose from his nation four effendis, limeeffen- venerable by their age, their doctrine, and their

mạnners, whom he sent into the camp of the enemy under the safeguard of the law of mankind. Achmet bashaw received these deputies with honor in the middle of his council of war. The oldest of them, speaking in the name of the whole, said, that Aschraf their sovereign lord had sent them to Muffulmen, his brethren and friends, to invite them to sheathe the sword, which they ought to reproach themselves with having drawn against trye Believers, faithful observers of their law, and destroyers of the throne of the Aliians ; that Afchraf, though astonished at being treated as an enemy by Sunnite Muffulmen, had had much difficulty to believe that the Ottomans could have solicited the alliance of the Christians against a disciple and descendant of Mahomet ; that it was this same Mahomet who had armed him, and that he prayed the God of the holy

. prophet

prophet not to impute to him a single drop of 1.C. 1726.

Heg. 1138, the blood that would be spilt, if Achmet III., & 1139 persisting in his resolution to hinder him from extending the true worship, obliged the Afghvans to make use of their arms against their brethren. The Ottoman general perceived the impression which the old man's pathetic discourse made on the assembly. He replied, that, agreeably to the law insisted on by the Afghvans, he neither knew nor could know but one fole commander of the Faithful; that it was that prince, the successor of Mahomet, and God's lieutenant on earth, who had sent him against the man who endeavoured to diffuade the Mussulmen from their obedience; and that, if Aschraf persisted in his rebellion, he would soon know on which fide the good cause was. The general had hardly done speaking when the moisins* called and announced it was noon, which is the hour of the third prayer ordered by Mahomet as the most folemn of the day. The four Afghvan effendis, without reply. ing to the bashaw, fell on their knees with their faces to the east, and gave all the Mussulmen the example to pray; then, raising their voices at the end of their prayer, they conjured Heaven to open the eyes and touch the hearts of these Mufsulmen their brethren who would be their enemies. The deputies retired immediately with the escort that brought them. This step produced one part of the effect which Aschraf had VOL. IV.

Pp 2

expected * The moisins are those who call the people to prayer. T.

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