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OTTOMANS. J. C. 1726. expected from it. A number of soldiers, touched Heg.1138, & 1139with the eloquence and outward appearance of

these effendis, followed them to the usurper's camp. Achmet bashaw, having sent armed troops after these deserters, had the mortification to see the major part of them desert likewise, The Turkish general, in order to prevent a more considerable defection, resolved to give battle as soon as poffiblę; and, the next day, having made a march forward, he found himself close to the enemy, who had advanced with the same

celerity. Vi&tory of Much valour was shewn the following day on vans over both sides. After a rather equal fight of eight

hours, Aschraf, seeing the victory declare for his troops, took a flute and began to play on the elez phant which carried him, either to brave the enemy, or inspire his soldiers with more confidence, When the Turks had lost twelve thousand of their soldiers they were seized with a panic; they fed, and Afchraf, who was desirous of pleasing them even in war, forbade to pursue the fugicives, saying, that it was with regret he saw the swords of Mussulmen dipped in Mahometan blood. He sent the Turks, who had retreated more than thirty miles, a great deal of baggage and booty, which he would not permit his men to plunder. He also sent a sort of herald, to declare from him to Achmet bashaw, that, noc considering booty between people of the same religion as lawful, he wished to take possession


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of his dominions as a magnanimous prince, and L.C. 1726.

Heg. 1138, not like a freebooter enriched with the substance & 1139. of his brethren ; that, in consequence, Achmet Archraf might send for his treasure, equipages, and number of generally all that his troops had left in their Turkisha camp after their defeat, except only the arms into his

" army. This same officer brought back to the Turks a great number of prisoners, who highly extolled the kindness of the usurper. This conduct, more ingenious than could have been expected from a barbarian, gained him the love of those whom he had juft vanquished. Every day his army was in. creased by those whom the good treatment they experienced in the camp of the Asghvans detached from the party of the Turks,

The news of the victory of the Afghyans, and Revolt at the desertion which daily diminished the Ottoman Cor ambici. army, being arrived at Constantinople, had the occafions 2 greater effect there, as they had just learned that the a rebellion had broken out in Egypt. The beis, Egyptian lords who compose a sort of fenate to which the government is intrusted, did not agree between themselves ; and the balhaw of Grand Cairo, who is rather an envoy invested with an honorable title than a provincial governor, had been driven from that town for having įmprudently endeavoured to support the weakest party with the authority of the grand reignior. An army was on the point of being sent into Egypt, and the people and janissaries cried aloud, that the Ottoman arms were no longer employed


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THE OTTOMANS. J.C. 1726. but against Mussulmen: The pacific Ibrahim Heg.1138, & 1139. had no difficulty to make his master perceive

that it was time to conclude a peace with Aschraf, if he would preserve the conquests made in Perfia, and manage the humour of the people, who should never be occupied with disputes on religion. Achmet bashaw, instead of the reinforce. ments which he desired from the Porte, received instructions to enter on å treaty. Aschraf, who had learned with some inquietude that Shah Thamnas was assembling a new army in the Mafanderan, began to fear left he should be attacked the following campaign by three enemies at once. He listened to propositions which he had formerly made himself. The most difficult matter to secele was the universal sovereignty claimed by Achmet III. and denied by Aschraf. While both had hoped to vanquislı, each had remained untractable with regard to what established the foundation of his power. But the desire of a peace made them seek and find palliatives. After a rather long discussion, the grand feignior was confirmed in the quality of chief of the Muffulmen and lawful

successor of the caliphs. It was decided, that he Archní acknow. should be stiled such in the koubé or public prayer ledged king of Perba. used throughout Persia, but that Aschraf should

be acknowledged by Achmec III. lawful and irrevocable sovereign of the kingdom of Persia, and named as such in the koubé after the grand feignior. The right to coin money and adminifter justice was folemnly and irrevocably granted

him in all the provinces which he poffeffed, and J.C. 1726. those that he might conquer; Georgia and the & 1139. other territories which Achmet III. had conquered in Persia were declared to belong to the Ottoman sceptre. Aschraf thought to gain confiderably by this peace, even in acknowledging Achmet III. for commander of the Faithful, because the chief of the law having acknowledged him in his turn for lawful fovereign of Perfia, no Sunnite could any longer contest with him this fovereignty conquered from the Aliians. The peace was signed by Achmet bashaw and by Afchraf in his own camp. He affected great pomp on this occasion. The immense riches found in Ispahan decorated the usurper's tent, who was desirous of giving the Turks a high idea of the power of him whom they had made fo much difficulty to treat as fovereign. ' . The rebellion a: Grand Cairo was the occasion 1.C.1727. of this peace. However, there was no necessity & 11400* to agree with enemies in order to give way to disobedient subjects as Achmet III. did. One of the cwenty-seven beis who governed Egypt had revolted in concert with the foldiery; he had seized the or on the treasury, and refused to send to Constan- vizier ap. tinople the twelve hundred purses, the product of troubles ihe impofts or rather tribute : for the Egyptians Grand Cai. pay a fixed sum to the grand feignior. The Smyrna. grand vizier Ibrahim contented himself with changing the baskaw of Grand Cairo, as if the rebels had only made a lawful resistance against



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.C.1727. tyranny. However, by means of caresses, they Heg. 1139, & 1540. drew the bei of Grand Cairo, the author of the

révolt, to Constantinople; and, as weak governments are often obliged to substitute treachery for the want of authority, this Egyptian, who had been loaded with honors, and had had the interest to have the bashaw of Grand Cairo deposed, was thrown into the sea in a leather fack in the night, left his friends, on being informed of his fate, should attempt to avenge his death. This conduct produced the effect which should have been expected, that is to say, the supposed impunity foon invited other revolts. · This is the property of despotic governments, when they are weak, the fubalterns tyrannise, and the oppressed at last throw off the yoke. A servant of Ibrahim's, whom that vizier had put in some office at Smyrna, occasioned by his bad conduct a revoke of all the janissaries in garrison in that town. The malecontents proposed nothing less than to seize on Smyrna, and to keep it 'till the grand vizier should be punilhed. A bashaw of twotails, called Abdalla, who was bringing back ten thousand men from Persia, quelled this rebellion by his address and firmness. A hundred of the most feditious were punished, notwithstanding the general amnesty which Abdalla had promised. This insurrection, which had no other disagreeable consequences at that time, left deep traces in the hearts of those who hated the grand vizier. Nevertheless, the peacę which he


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