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J.C.1695, bade the exercise of the Roman religion through
out the island.
On the news of this success, the grand feignior made deposed the captain bashaw, and conferred his bahaw. dignity on the pirate of Tunis, to whom he sent Liec.1695: the three tails, which made him bashaw of the
bench or of the arched roof. Notwithstanding these honors so well merited, Mezzomorfo could never be prevailed on to quit the dress of a sailor, in which he always appeared in the divan as well as, on board his vefsels. He replied to those who wanted to have him clothe himself better : “ If the captain bashaws, my prede
ceffors, had never worn any other than this “ habit which you despise, the marine of the “ empire would be in a better state ; and, in“ stead of retaking what they have lost, as I have “ just done, I should have made new conquests.” Since Mezzomorto, the captain bashaws have al-ways worn the dress of a sailor, made, it is true, of rich stuffs and fine furs.
Mustapha had not taken the field when he Campaign of Mufta- learned the success of Mezzomorto. Under this fha.
favorable presage, he put himself at the head of his army, which was composed of forty-five thousand men only. As he knew that Frederick Augustus, elector of Saxony, the German general, had not so many troops under his command, he thought it wiser to employ a few foldiers, who, inured to the hardships of war and well disciplined, would cost less money to the empire and
serve it better, than the innumerable crowd of L:C. 1695.
Heg.1107. combatants assembled by his predecessors, rather to familh the country than to conquer it, and who made more confusion in battle then they did fervice. - Mustapha re-established a fevere discipline in his army, which had always been kept up among the Turks when they had good generals, and which is easy to be maintained in this nation, already reduced to obedience. The sultan conducted his army like a fage, humane prince, who has learned from the law of nations, that in war, an upright man does no more injury to human kind than is absolutely indispensable. He left Adrianople the tenth of June, passed the Danube åt Belgrade, took Lippa and Titul, and caufed them to be demolished. Having learned by the Tartarian scouts that general Veterani was adyancing at the head of eight thousand Transylvanians, he came up with and charged them ; but small body the Turks, who knew very little of military dif- This ac. cipline, advancing in disorder against a corps him much well closed and chick fer with pikes, whose fire was so directed, that each shot, fired at a finall diftance, carried off a man, were foon put to fight. Mustapha, full of courage and shame, rode full speed to rally them. He brought them back in reality; and a second discharge, as well directed and as bloody as the first, put them again to fight. The voice of the emperor with still more difficulty once more assembled these dispersed troops. This prince, meeting a balhaw who was
Vol. IV. - F
He beats a
J.C. 1695. an officer in the spahis, and who was fleeing as
fast as he could, said to him, alluding to his
pursuit of the Transylvanians was as bloody as T.C. 1695.
Heg.1107 the battle had been, Mustapha secretly ordered the mufti, who had followed him to the army, to find an expedient to leffen the ardor of the Cavalry. The chief of the law immediately iffued a fetfa, which imported, that the great prophet forbids to follow a fleeing enemy with too much earnestness, and whoever perishes in infringing this precept loses the crown of martyrdom. Mustapha therefore permitted the Germans to make good their retreat, and returned through Walachia to Adrianople, where he entered triumphantly.
The people exaggerated the exploits of their sovereign, which amounted only to the taking of two small places badly defended, and to a victory over' a body of troops six times less in number than the Ottoman army, which advantage had likewise been purchased very dear; but the remembrance of the expedition of Scio and the news of a considerable booty which the khan of the Tartars had taken from the Poles, increased their joy, and caused this year to be considered as very fortunate, as Frederick Augustus, at the head of the main army, had not made a single conquest. The czar of Myscovy,* Peter the The Rur.' Great, had attempted to take Asoph'; but, not-tempt in
vain to take withstanding the endeavours of that prince to Stop the VOL. IV.
: F2 ' ' 'teach
* It is remarked that Peter the Great, who would have every officer pass through all the ranks, and who gave the example himself, served at this first sege in quality of colonel.
1.C. 1695. teach his soldiers the art of war, the Muscovites Heg.1107.
did not yet know how places are fortified, nor how to attack fortified towns. Their repeated efforts cost them much blood, and they were constantly repulsed; thus, the principal success of the Turks this year, was in the defence of their
towns. J.C. 1696. At the court of a prince resolved to govern by Heg. 1107 & 1108.' himself, there must be more intrigue, than when
a grand vizier decides despotically in the name of an indolent, invisible master. Elmas balhaw had
the confidence of Mustapha ;, but he divided it The mufci with the mufti. He had found a dangerous rival church in the latter, whose credit was supported by an Christians old ascendency that the preceptor had had over to make a mofque his pupil, and the authority of the Alcoran, to
which the chief of the law had continual recourse. Elmas, more political than religious, wished to please the allies of the Porte. With this view he had granted the French ambassador, Mr. Dechateauneuf, liberty to rebuild a church at Pera, and though the Alcoran expressly forbids the permitting of new churches to be raised, or those which the Christians should be desirous of rebuilding to be enlarged, the minister, who thought he had interest to please the greatest enemy of the house of Austria, had shut his eyes at the new plan of this church which took in much more ground than the old one. This - toleration served the mufti as a pretext for raising himself against Elmas balhaw with all the energy