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Mezzomorto is made


J.C. 1695, bade the exercise of the Roman religion throughHeg. 1106.

out the island.

On the news of this success, the grand feignior

deposed the captain bashaw, and conferred his captain bashaw. dignity on the pirate of Tunis, to whom he sent L.C. 1695. the three tails, which made him bashaw of the

bench or of the arched roof. Notwithstanding these honors so well merited, Mezzomorio could never be prevailed on to quit the dress of a sailor, in which he always appeared in the divan as well as, on board his vessels. He replied to those who wanted to have him clothe himself better : “ If the captain bashaws, my prede« ceffors, had never worn any other than this “ habit which you despise, the marine of the

empire would be in a better Itate; and, in“ stead of retaking what they have lost, as I have

just done, I should have made new conquests.” Since Mezzomorto, the captain bashaws have always worn the dress of a sailor, made, it is true, of rich stuffs and fine furs.

Mustapha had not taken the field when he Campaign of Mufta- learned the success of Mezzomorto. Under this

favorable presage, he put himself at the head of his army, which was composed of forty-five thousand men only. As he knew that Frederick Augustus, elector of Saxony, the German general, had not so many troops under his command, he thought it wiser to employ a few foldiers, who, inured to the hardships of war and well disciplined, would cost less money to the empire and


serve it better, than the innumerable crowd of 1.C. 1695. combatants assembled by his predecessors, rather to familh the country than to conquer it, and who made more confusion in battle then they did fervice. Mustapha re-established a severe discipline in his army, which had always been kept up among the Turks when they had good generals, and which is easy co be maintained in this nation, already reduced to obedience. The sultan conducted his army like a fage, humane princé, who has learned from the law of nations, that in war, an upright man does no more injury to human kind than is absolutely indispensable. He left Adrianople the tenth of June, passed the Danube at Belgrade, took Lippa and Titul, and caufed them to be demolished. Having learned by the Tartarian scouts that general Veterani was advancing at the head of eight thousand 'Transyl

He beats a vanians, he came up with and charged them ; but finall body the Turks, who knew very little of military dif- This aco.

tion costs cipline, advancing in disorder against a corps him much

blood. well closed and thick set with pikes, whose fire was fo directed, that each shot, fired at a sinall dira tance, carried off a man, were foon put to flight. Muftapha, full of courage and shame, rode full speed to rally them. He brought them back in reality, and a fecond discharge, as well directed and as bloody as the first, put them again to Might. The voice of the emperor with still more difficulty once more assembled these dispersed troops. This prince, meeting a balhaw who was VOL. IV.


J.C. 1695. an officer in the spahis, and who was fleeing as
Heg. 1107.

fast as he could, said to him, alluding to his
name, Schain, which in Turkish signifies a Hawk :'
« Go, Hawk, thou art nothing but a foolish bird
“ that gives the example of Aight to others like
“ thyself.” Schain, touched with this reproach,
returned immediately, and contributed greatly to
the rallying of the cavalry for the second time.
This third attack was equally bloody with the
two others: the Turks kept fleeing; and the
Germans, though severely mauled, remained
nevertheless unshaken. In this manner, during
several hours, eight thousand' Transylvanians
maintained a fight against forty-five thousand
Turks, without losing an inch of ground, and
without executing any other maneuvre, than that
of closing their ranks as their comrades were
killed away. Constancy and firmness would have
prevailed over number, if general Veterani, who
was grievously wounded, had not been obliged to
get off his horse. They carried him to a car-
riage, where the violence of the anguish soon
deprived him of his senses. The Transylvanians
meditated to retire in good order ; reduced to
the number of four thousand, they rejoined the
army of the elector of Saxony, after having killed
more than fifteen thousand of the Turks, among
whom were a great number of bashaws, agas, and
officers of distinction, who had ventured their life
with more bravery than prudence in order to
merit the attention of their sovereign. As the


pursuit of the Transylvanians was as bloody as 1.C.1695.

Heg.1107. the battle had been, Mustapha secretly ordered the mufti, who had followed him to the army, to find an expedient to lessen the ardor of the Cavalry. The chief of the law immediately iffued a fetfa, which imported, that the great prophet forbids to follow a fleeing enemy with too much earnestness, and whoever perishes in infringing this precept loses the crown of martyrdom. Mustapha therefore permitted the Germans to make good their retreat, and returned through Walachia to Adrianople, where he entered triumphantly.

The people exaggerated the exploits of their sovereign, which amounted only to the taking of two small places badly defended, and to a victory over' a body of troops six times less in number than the Ottoman army, which advantage had likewise been purchased very dear; but the remembrance of the expedition of Scio and the news of a considerable booty which the khan of the Tarcars had taken from the Poles, increased their joy, and caused this year to be considered as very fortunate, as Frederick Augustus, at the head of the main army, had not made a single conquest. The czar of Muscovy,* Peter the The Rur. Great, had attempted to take Asoph'; but, not- tempt in withstanding the endeavours of that prince to "Alopi.

fians at

vain to take

F 2



It is remarked that Peter the Great, who would have every officer pass through all the ranks, and who gave the example himself, served at this first lege in quality of colonel.

wrests a
from the

to make a

J.C. 1695. teach his soldiers the art of war, the Muscovites

did not yet know how places are fortified, nor
how to attack fortified towns. Their repeated
efforts cost them much blood, and they were
constantly repulsed; thus, the principal success
of the Turks this year, was in the defence of their

towns. J.C. 1696. At the court of a prince resolved to govern by Heg.11072 & 1108.' himself, there must be more intrigue, than when

a grand vizier decides despotically in the name of an indolent, invisible master. Elmas bashaw had

the confidence of Mustapha ;, but he divided it The mufci with the mufti. He had found a dangerous rival

in the latter, whose credit was supported by an Christians old ascendency that the preceptor had had over mosque his pupil, and the authority of the Alcoran, to

which the chief of the law had continual recourse. Elmas, more political than religious, wished to please the allies of the Porte. With this view he had granted the French ambassador, Mr. Dechateauneuf, liberty to rebuild a church at Pera, and though the Alcoran expressly forbids the permitting of new churches to be raised, or those which the Christians should be desirous of rebuilding to be enlarged, the minister, who thought he had interest to please the greatest enemy of the house of Austria, had shut his eyes at the new plan of this church which took in much more ground than the old one. This toleration served the mufti as a pretext for raising himself against Elmas balhaw with all the energy


of it.

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