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Heg. 11443


Armiaud was but just embarked to return home, 1.C. 1732. loaded with the favors of the grand vizier, when & 1145 that minister was deposed by the intrigues of the kisar aga, the mufti, and the valid sultanefs, pored. cewho persuaded Mahmout, that Topal Ofman protected the Giaurs, too openly. The emperor listened much to his mother ; but he would not punish a man who had done good. Ali bashaw, who commanded in Georgia, was recalled to come and govern the empire under the orders of the imperious valid. Topal Osman was fent in the place of the new grand vizier, with the title of bashaw of three-tails.

Topal Osman poffeffed talents for war, and J.C.1733. foon found an occasion to exercise them. He & 1146.' was hardly arrived at Teflis, when he learned the The war news of a third revolution in Perfia. Thamas recomKouli-khan, notwithstanding the signification of Thamas the name which he had taken, having declared khan emhis disapprobation of the peace concluded by his master and

usurps the master without his participation, had entered If- regency. páhan, shut up Shah Thamas in a close prison, and caused a child of that prince, about fix weeks old, to be proclaimed fophi of Persia. He had declared himself regent of the kingdom under the name of this child; and the troops had acknowledged him without any one's presuming to oppose his design, or even murmur in favor of the dethroned prince. These commotions had been foreseen at Constantinople some time before they happened, because Thamas Kouli-khan had preVOL. IV.


with Perfia recom-, mences.


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9.C. 1733. sumed to write in the name of his master, to disHeg. 1 145, & 1146. claim the peace which had been concluded; and

that a few days after, fresh dispatches had arrived from Ispahan, by which Shah Thamas in his turn disclaimed his minister. When Topal Ofman wrote to Conftantinople that Shah Thamas was dethroned, they had just learned there that the Ruffians had concluded a peace with Persia, and that all the efforts of the new usurper were going to be turned against the Porte. Mahmout wrote a circular letter to all the Persian governors to exhort them to be faithful to the fophi, reminding them how much mischief the preceding revolurions had done their country.

Meanwhile Thamas: Kouli-khan, who had confirmed the peace made with Russia, menaced Bagdad. The bashaw of that place had shut himself up there with a strong garrison. The bashaw of Aleppo had received orders to join Topal Osman, bashaw of Teflis. All the beglerbegs and fangiacs of Asia had likewise sent off the corps that they commanded, to increase the army of Topal Osman. This general, who knew the value of time, had hastened to fuccour Bagdad before all these troops had joined his army. He kept Thamas Kouli-khan in observation, and prevented his beginning the fiege ; but he would

not give him bacele 'cill he should be the strongest. Barcle near At length, as soon as he had gotten together an gained by hundred and fifty thousand men, he began his Topal Ofmarch to attack the Persians, Thamaş Kouli



khan would rather go against an enemy than wait 1.C.1733.

Heg. 1 145, for him in a disadvantageous situation : in order & 1146. to defend his camp against the garrison of Bagdad, which he knew to be considerable, he left twenty thousand men there. The battle was long and bloody; the dispositions of Topal Osman were so made as to enable his army to surround the Perfians. Notwithstanding their valour and the talents of their general, after an uninterrupted struggle of seven hours, they took to fight, leaving thirty thousand dead on the field of battle. Thamas Kouli-khan had been dangeroudy wounded in the beginning of the battle; this misfortune contributed greatly to the defeat of his army. The garrison of Bagdad fallied out to attack the guard of the camp, which was presently put to flight. The Turks pillaged the tents of this Persian who two days before had menaced to fack Bagdad and drag all those who should escape the sword into the dungeons of Ispahan. Topal Osman having the next day made his entry into the town, the sort of rejoicings made by the Turks shewed that they had not yet forgotten their ancient barbaricy; for, instead of these brilliant festivals made by the Christian people, where taste, magnificence, and gaiety, reign at the same time, the Turks, to celebrate their victory, raised, in the middle of the grand square at Bagdad, a pyramid composed of all the heads of the Persians that they could find, and gave vent to their ferocious joy at the light of this carnage, which


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1.C.1733• should have occasioned only pity, disgust, and Heg.1 145, & 11460" horror. .

Topal Osman learned that Thamas Kouli-khan was at Hamadan, where he had gathered together the broken remains of his army, and where the neceflity of healing his wounds retained him against his will. The Turkish bashaw would willingly have pursued the vanquished enemy; bui he wanted the means to fubfist his troops.

The desolated country offered but very few reThis genesal is re- sources, and the grand vizier, Ali bashaw, who

.. had sent Topal Osman orders to make war, had

neglected to furnish him with the money necessary pay his

to maintain a great army in a barren country, These circumstances forced the general to consent to the separation of his forces, which he could not otherwise maintain. He sent fix thousand men to occupy the narrow passes that separate the country of Hamadan froin Georgia, and retired himself to Kerkoud with thirty thousand men only, dispersing the rest of his victorious army in the fangiacates from whence they had been taken, Topal Osman was quiet at Kerkoud and proposed to pass the winter there, as his want of money would not permit him to profit by the victory, when he learned that Thamas Kouli-khan, whose wounds were healed, had just received a reinforcement of forty thousand men, which his son had brought him from several provinces of Persia. Topal wrote to Conftantinople to press the succours necessary to act against the Persian usurper,


representing how wrong it was to prolong the war, 1.C. 1733: whilft with victorious troops he could have put & 1146. an end to it gloriously in a fingle campaign, if he had been furnished with the money necessary to fubfift these brave men three months only. The court of Conftantinople was at that time taken up with European affairs; and the valid sultanefs, the kisar agasi, and the grand vizier, would fain deprive Topal Osman of the means to acquire more glory. The general received no answer : he thought it his duty to do his utmost to serve He finds the cause of his master, in spite of those who be- means to trayed him. Topal Osman solicited the neigh-some. bouring Arabians, in the name of the powerful emperor of the Turks, to lend him money, for which he had the greatest occasion, and which, he faid, circumstances had not perinitted to be sent into Georgia, but that should be faithfully repaid, and would bring them recompenfes proporcionable to the service. He pawned every thing that he had valuable, and, with the resources which his zeal furnilhed him, he assembled forty thousand men, whom he encamped under Kerkoud, as likewise the thirty thousand that he had there already behind intrenchments which he had made by way of employing his troops when they were at rest. This army was scarcely gotten together, when Topal Osman learned, that the defilés which he had caused to be guarded had just been forced by the Persians, and that Thamas Kouli-khan was advancing towards him with his



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