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of the most furious zeal. The latter having at- 1.C.1696. tempted to defend his proceeding, the enraged & 1108. mufti repaired to the place where it was building, ordering all the good Muffulmen to destroy the resort of the Giaurs: which was done immediately with great tumult. The vizier having complained of it to Mustapha, the chief of the law was ordered before him, where he supported this proceeding by several passages of the Alcoran, with the non-observance of which he reproached his adversary, and concluded with faying, that he had been forced to arm the friends of God against the opposers of his worship, and that he should find in the zeal of good Mussulmen the protection which he was refused by government. His clamours overcame the prince and his minister. The church which had been meant to be rebuilt, instead of being so on the proposed plan, was given up to the mufti, who, without any pretext, had it converted into a mosque.

They learned in the beginning of the spring that Frederick Augustus had besieged Temeswar. This intelligence increased the grand seignior's eagerness to take the field. He passed the Danube with whaç troops he had, resolved to cause the fiege to be raised, or to fight the Germans. They went and pitched their camp in an advantageous place, called Olach, twenty-four iniles from the town which they had besieged. Mustapha came up with and defeated them, but would

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J.C. 1696. not pursue them. Proud of this success, he con& 1108. tented himself with the slaughter that his troops

had made, and twenty-four pieces of cannon which the Germans were constrained to abandon. The emperor of the West was so employed against France, that it was enough for him to guard his frontiers on the side of Turkey. Prince Frederick Augustus was ordered to keep on the defenfive the rest of the campaign, and Mustapha, fonder of triumphs than of victories, returned to Adrianople, where he learned that the Poles, who had lately lost their king, had been taken up the whole summer with other matters than insulting

his frontiers. Taking of

It had not been the same on the confines of Afoph by the Rule Russia. The czar, Peter the Great, more fortu

nate this year than the preceding one, had recommenced the siege of Afoph with the assistance of German engineers and matrosses. The town had been so hard pressed, that in two months the garrison, reduced to four hundred men from fix thousand which at first composed it, was obliged co surrender to avoid being put to the sword. This considerable loss opened the commerce of the Black sea to the Russians, in case that nation should be capable of trading. The Venetians in Albania consumed themselves at the fiege of

Dulcigno, which they did not take. Their Inaction of fleet, watched by that of the Turks 'with all the

vigilance of the captain bashaw Mezzomorto, rer mained in the most perfect inaction. The Vene


the Vene. tians.

tians saw with grief their enemy become as for- 1.C. 1696.

Heg. 1J07, midable by sea as he had been a few years before. & 1108.

Such was the state of the war, when Mustapha Triumph hastened to go and triumph at Adrianople. He of Mudacaused the twenty-four cannon, taken in the last drianople. battle, to be drawn before him, and these to be followed by such captives as he had been able to collect, imitating, as much as he could, the triumphant pomp of ancient Rome. He supplied by the appearance of gold, by the beauty of horses, by the lustre of precious stones, in a word, by AGatic luxury, the representation of the fubjugated provinces, the innumerable crowd of captives, and all those striking images that marked the triumphs of the Romans. This pomp fo flattered his pride, that he would fain go and display it again at Constantinople. Multapha had not appeared in the capital of the empire since his accession to the throne. A ceremony had even been left out at his proclamation at Adrianople, because it could not be performed any where but at Constantinople, and which che fuperftitious Turks considered of great importance. We will mention the cavalcade which the new emperor makes to Jub mosque soon after his accession. There, the mufci, or in his absence the scheik of the mosque, girds on the sword on, the inonarch, which answers nearly to the crowning of our kings. Mustapha went through this ceremony in presence of the inhabitants of his capital, whose good opinion he wished to gain,



& 1109.

J.C. 1696. with great pomp and an apparent affability & 1108. which his predeceffors had rarely shewn. He not

only often walked the streets in disguise, both at Adrianople and Conftantinople, to know by his own eyes what it would have been impoflible for him to perceive from his throne, but sometimes admitted subjects to his audience, and did not disdain to speak to shipwrights or other artists, interrogating them on their profession, and praif

ing or blaming according to circumstances. 3.C.1697, Having learned by his own experience in two Heg.1108,

different battles how necessary it was to maintain order in the different regiments, to make them march and fire together, and to form of a group of foldiers a moving machine, obedient to the voice or gesture, always formidable to the enemy: the emperor endeavoured, during the first winter which he passed at. Constantinople, to profit by the bloody lessons which the enemy had given him. He had the janiffaries manæuvred in a large square, where he himself saw the efforts that they made to learn military disci

pline; but whether the officers, little formed for janiffaries this sort of fighting, had not the art to bring tary difci- their soldiers to it, or that they beheld with an pline.

evil eye this familiarity of the emperor with his troops, which was contrary to the custom of the empire, and lessened in their opinion their superiority over those who were under them, nei. ther the janissaries nor the other corps ever learned these evolutions, by means of which well disci

The empe

ror at.

tempts in vain to

plined troops have gained fo, many battles. All 1.C. 1697.

Heg.1108, this winter was passed in gathering up the remains & 1109. of the treasures of the mosques, raising recruits, and building vessels. Mustapha was so attentive to these matters, that he left the grand vizier and the other minifters little more than the trouble of giving him an account, and the fear of failing therein,

The peace that was preparing between France and the confederate powers, and which was concluded the following summer, gave the ambarsadors of England and Holland an occasion of renewing their efforts to get the Turks to accept it likewise. They represented the German power as móre formidable than ever, as all the forces of the empire would be turned against the East. The reasons of the two ambassadors, far from intimidating Mustapha, made him redouble his effors to oppose the house of Austria. His public He pretreasury had been filled by ceconomy, vigilance, bring a and confiscations. The rebels of Hungary were army inte more and more animated. The sultan, in order to take advantage of this diversion, though it would be right to issue a catcherif declaring count Tekli king of Hungary. This prince, who was much troubled with the gout, had been to Bursa to endeavour to get some relief from the baths there, but the state of affairs foon forced him to join the Turkish army. The Hungarian malecontents had taken Tockay in the name their new king; they filled Hungary with their



pares to


the field,



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