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THE OTTOMANS. J.C. 1738. mies to retire to Inatim. Siegen recommenced Heg.1151.

the siege of Orsowa, and in six weeks took that place, with great slaughter. Sciaus bahaw took Semendriah and Ignipalé with less difficulty. In the midst of the rejoicings occasioned by these important conquests, they learned that the captain balhaw, who kept the sea with a hundred and twenty fail, had blocked up the Russian admiral in a corner of the straits of Zabach; that the Rusians had been constrained to abandon their vessels, after having set them on fire; that they had been harrassed by the Turks in their retreat from Crimea; and that they had passed the Boristhenes in disorder. Prince Ragotski less fortunate than his allies, had not been able to raise up many malecontents either in Hungary or Transylvania; and as it was impossible for him to undertake any thing with so few men, he was come to put himself in safety in the Turkish camp. Siegen bashaw, elated with these fucçesles, was desirous of crowning them by the siege of Belgrade ; but the season was far ad. vanced. The governor of Nissa having sent word to him that a corps of Imperialists had passed the Danube, and were threatening his town, which was neither sufficiently well guarded nor provisioned to sustain a long siege, Siegen refolved through necessity to retreat towards tñat place; this was what the Imperialists wanted, They turned back under Belgrade, and went into winter quarters. The grand vizier, who learned


from Swe

fecretly that they were caballing against him at L.C. 1736.

Heg. 1151. Constantinople, desired his master's permission to a return thither, that the affairs of state, he said, might be transacted under the eyes of the emperor. Sultan Mahmout wished to have the success of this campaign represented to the people and his enemies as of great importance. He 'would have Siegen make a triumphant entry, and went himself to meet him. The grand vizier, immediately on the sultan's approach, laid at his feet the standard of Mahomet, which he had always had carried before him, and the keys of Meadia, Semendriah, Ignipalé, and Orsowa, towns conquered during the campaign.

Siegen, on his arrival at the Porte, found two Ministers brothers there fent from Sweden, who were come den arrive to conclude a treaty of commerce with the Turks, at the and to endeavour to come to some agreement about the ancient debts contracted by Charles clufion of XII. These two points were foon settled. The Turks, who looked upon the money which they had lent Charles XII. as a bad debt, were contented to receive for payment a ship of seventy-two guns, which came with the Swedish ministers to Conftantinople, and thirty thousand firelocks brought in that ship. The treaty of commerce was cons cluded on the conditions granted to the other Christian nations. But another secret object of the mission of the Swedes was to have their master included in the intended treated of pacification between the Porte and the confederate powers.


Porte. Obstacles to the con

the treaty

J.C.1738. The Swedes had a very powerful interest in it;
Heg. 1151.
so they were afraid that the czarina would declare

war against them as soon as she should be at peace
with the Turks, and they would fain have the
mediator obtain places of security for the Swedes
on the frontiers of Russia which adjoin Sweden.
The marquis of Villeneuve, who saw already too
many difficulties in the great work which he had
undertaken, remonstrated to the grand vizier,
and even to the Swedish envoys, how unreason-
able it would be to include in a treaty of pacifi-
cation a power that was not at war with either of .
the contracting parties. The bashaw of Bonneval,
the only man who possessed knowledge at the Porte,
says abbot Laugier, and whom the ministry listened
to, without however giving him any confidence,
supported the pretensions of the Swedes with all
his might. He was strongly suspected of having
raised up this obstacle through animosity against
the emperor Charles VI. to retard the peace; he
was sent into exile at Castellemonen. This stroke,
which came from the prime minister, made peo-
ple think that he wilhed for a peace; but his
success had so elațed him, that he offered it only
on conditions which the belligerent powers could
not accept without disgrace. Prince Ragotski
was lately dead. Though this event seemed to
remove an obstacle, since the Ottoman empire
was neither connected with the posterity of that
prince nor with his supposed subjects, Siegen de-
manded to have Transylvania restored its right of

election ;

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election; that all the places which he had con- 1.C. 1739.

Heg.1151. quered the last campaign should be confirmed to the Porte; and that the Russians, who had just demolished and abandoned Kilbournow and Oczacow, should restore Asoph fortified, in order that the Turks might be able to keep them from the Black sea.

It was not solely to the enemies of the Porte that Siegen bashaw shewed himself untractable; the vanquisher of the Germans did not take the pains to conceal his contempt for the killar aga, whom the valid sultaness and the sultan equally favored. He heard with indignation the advice which this officer and those of his party gave the monarch, to take advantage of the fortune of his arms to make a solid peace, and never to contemn a vanquished enemy. The marquis of Villeneuve, who was well acquainted with courts, foresaw the fall of this imperious minister, and announced it in France several weeks before it happened, on the druggerinan of the Porte's relating to him, that the reis effendi and the mektoupchi had presumed to contradict the grand vizier openly about the peace, in presence of Mahmout. The grand vizier, having a good opinion of J.C. 1739.

Hieg. 1152. himself, and persuaded that the command of the

Depofition army durft not be intrusted to any other than of the vi

zer Siegen. him, was preparing to return to Adrianople, when the capiggi pachi came to demand the seals of the empire of him, and to declare, that he



1.C. 1739. must instantly depart for which of the isles of Heg. 1152

the Archipelago he should think- fit to choose. His property was not touched, without doubt

through acknowledgment for the real services Elias made which he had done.

The seals of the empire grand vi,

were given to Elias Mehemet, the bashaw who commanded the army with success in 1737, and who had been constrained to raise the siege of Orsowa the beginning of the last campaign. Siegen, jealous of this general, perhaps by a foresight of what was to happen, had taken the dignity of bashaw of three tails from him after the raising of the fiege of Orsowa ; but it was restored to him almost immediately by the credit of the sultaness-mother. The disgrace of Siegen put an end to that of the bashaw of Bonneval, who was recalled from his exile and consulted afterward with precaution in all affairs, as a man whose abilities were esteemed, but whose uprightness was suspected.

The new grand vizier had more pacific views than his predecessor ; but he thought like him that a solid and honorable peace could be made at the head of a victorious army only. He repaired to Viden to make preparation for the campaign, and wrote to the marquis of Villeneuve, that he must receive his audience of the grand seignior in quality of mediator, and that he would join him afterward at the army, where they would hear together the proposals of the emperor of the West and of the czarina. The caimacan Ach


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