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this history that these benefices are reyocable ac pleasure, though hereditary. They pass indeed to the eldest son, when there is but one timar. When there are several, the children divide them between them by as many heads as there are fimars. But the emperor, or even the bathaws in his name, can take them away without giving any reason for so doing, whether from those to whom they have been given, or their posterity. It is not so with the lands that the grand feignior has been pleased to grant in the territory belonging to the sword of Othman, nor those which are situated in the portion of the mosques. . There always go to the children unless the property of their father is confifcated. But in all cases, a great part of the chattels of the officers of the Porte who die in some place is seized by the grand feignior, who leaves the children just what he pleases of the furniture or money which their father is looked upon to have acquired in the service of the Porte.. This is what has made several travellers say, that the Ottoman emperor is the fole proprietor in his empire, and the heir of all his subjects. . It is very certain however that he can put to death or strip of all his property whomsgever he shall, think fit to punish, without the form of a trials or even his crimę being known. :)

The members of the ulema, called effendis, or men of the law, who serve the mosques in quality of imans, or who administer justice as cadis,




according to the words of the Alcoran, cannot be put to death ; but the grand feignior finds means to elude this law, which may be considered as fundamental, since it is written in plain and express terms, by giving the effendi a superior place in the divan, which removes him out of the ulema, and consequently deprives him of his privilege.

I have read in the writings of several travellers, that the mufti or chief of the ulema, and all his effendis, are liable to be put to death in one manner only, which is, pounding them in a mortar. I have not observed any trace of this barbarity in all the course of the Turkish history, nor seen any thing in the Alcoran that could give credit to this opinion.* The adıniniftration of justice, as well as of divine worship, belong entirely to the ulema; this gives that body considerable power. But as the Turkish government is entirely military, and the finances as well as the troops are in the hands of bashaws and fangiacs, officers that compose the divan, and even thę prince's council; when they have reached the dignity of viziers, that is to say, bashaws of the first order, the ministers of the Alcoran have no other authority than to determine controversies between private perfons. The mufci, or chief of the ulema, is certainly the person most venerated


* We find, however, that Othman 11. threatened twenty of the ulema, who waited on him to make remonftrances, to have them executed in this

See vol. II, page 349. T.


next to the grand feignior, but is far from being the most powerful. Indeed the emperor -undertakes nothing considerable without the rnufti's having given his fetfa (they call fo an opinion founded on some text of the Alcoran); but when this fetfa is not favorable, the chief of the law is deposed, with more ease even than a vizier would be; which often renders these pontiffs very com: plaisant and attentive to make the Alcoran bend to the will of their master.

To avoid tautology, I have not mentioned the Ottoman soldiery. We have seen in the course of this history that it consists in the first place of timarians or holders of military benefices, who are obliged to entertain at their expence, and to conduct to the army or on the frontiers, in case of necellity, a number of troopers, in proportion to the value of their timars. We have feen the spahis, a cavalry better disciplined and more con, ftantly assembled together, paid out of the public treasury, contribute greatly to the numerous conquests which the emperors have made. We have seen the institution, the force, the success, the discipline, or the undiscipline, of that formidable infantry called janiffaries. We chave seen two corps less considerable, the jebeggis and copggis, affist the janissaries to enlarge the bounds of the empire, and make tremble, even depose or emprison, him whom all the Ottomans consider as the most powerful of mortals. We have seen, in the course of the different wars, other troops



3 H 2

gathered together, who serve in the moment of ñecellitý only, and who might be compared to the coast-guards and arriere-ban in France, though there is no nobility in Turkey. These foldiers fight on horseback or on foot, according to ciccumstances. They are sometimes called araps, Sometimes zegbans: they are raised and paid rather badly by the balhaws, who have very often made an ill use of these forces, and stirred up the provinces, and who, in the foreign wars, have facrificed a number of asaps or zagbans, whom the Muffulman religion and the system of predestination had made valiant, but whose perfect ignorance of military discipline and little ác. quaintance with war rendered not very formidable. For fear of abusing the attention of my readers, I suppress the other details, and excuse myself from placing here under their eyes what they have already seen in the course of this historý,



in which will be found An Explanation of several Turkish Words

Made use of in the course of this work.

The aumeral capitals refer to the volume; the small numeral letters to the pages

of the Historical Discourle; and the figures to those of the History.


AARON RACHID, caliph, I.

lvi, lviii. Abaffi (Michael), is made prince

of Transylvania, JII. 178;

cedes it to the Auftrians, 357. Abafa, revolts, III. 3 ; obtains

honorable conditions, 16; his

success against the Poles, 40. Abbas, king of Perfia, goes to

war with the Turks, 11. 316;

dies, III. 20. Abbasians, seize on the califate,

1.1; lose it, lxx. Abdallah, caliph, I. xlii ; his

cruelty, xlv; his death, xlvii. Abdalmalec, caliph, 1. xlv. xlvii. Abdest, the washing of the hands. Abu-Arifah, a false prophet,

I. lv. Abubeker, caliph, arranges the

Alcoran and Sunna, 1. xxiv;

dies, xxvi. Abul Abbas, usurps-the califate,

I. li. Acciaioli, loses Athens, 1.155. Achmet I., II. 257; treats with

the emperor of the West, 261; with France, 266; builds a

mosque, 286 ; is like to be killed by a dervis, 304 ;

dies, 316. Achmet II., IV.1; wants to have Kiuperli put to death, but

cannot succeed, 3; dies, 26. Achmet III., IV.95; his educa.

tion, 96; causes those to be put to death who had placed him on the throne, 97, 110; goes to war with the Ruflians, 135; with the Venetians,214; with the Western empire, 225; with the king of Persia, 266, 293 ; harbours Charles XII. 114; orders him to quit his dominions, 156, 166 ; keeps a mistress out of the seraglio, 105 ; his avarice, 241, 266 ; his amusements, 305, 306;

is dethroned, 323. Achmet, the son of Bajazet II.,

the Turks refuse to have him for emperor, I. 235; is put

to death by his brother, 248. Achmet, an able engineer, I.301;

is made grand vizier, 305 ; is deposed, 326.

| Achmet,

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