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and earnestly conjured him to give up a claim 1.C.1697. which was without foundation, and might em- & 1109.,' broil two powers which had been friends for several years, saying, that it was the duty of ambassadors to surmount or elude difficulties, not to start them. Mr. Deferiolles replied haughtily to this pathetic exhortation, that he was not come to start difficulties, but at the same time he would not debase his character and nation; that, sup. posing he were not an ambassador, as a French gentleman he never ought to lay aside his sword but by order of his master; that as to the rest, the account given in to Lewis XIV. by his predeceffor was in his instructions; that he was ordered to conform thereto; and that he could not disobey his master. The chiau pachi, to whom the grand vizier had left every thing, durst not introduce the ambassador into the throne chamber, nor deny him the entrance of it. He sent for the grand vizier to inform him of what was paffing. The sultan had been feated on his throne for more than half an hour, surrounded by the bashaws of the bench, the mufti, the mollacs, all the agas of the seraglio, in short, all the pomp which the Porte never fails of displaying on such occasions. The grand vizier intreated Mr. Deferiolles to take off his sword, for . the same reasons as Mauro Cordaco had given him ; but he could not prevail more than the interpreter. As he was on the point of declaring to him that he should not be admitted to the



J.C. 1697. grán id feignior's audience, the chiau pachi took : Heg.1 108, & 1109, the prime minister aside, and conferred with him

some moments, after which the grand vizier returning into the throne chamber, without speaking to the ambassador, the chiau pachi told him that he was going to have audience, and that he must begin his march. Mr. Deferiolles thought he had obtained by his perseverance what the officers of the Porte had attempted to refuse him; he arrogantly placed himself between the two capiggis pachis who were to walk by him during the ceremony. Those of his attendants, who - were to follow him into the throne chamber, being ranged in order, marched between two rows of boftangis, capiggs and black eunuchs, which extended from the didan chamber to that of the throne. As soon as the door was opened, Mr. Deferiolles saw the estrade of the grand seignior, and at the same time felé a hand endeavouring to wrest his sword from him, on which he immediately directed his thither, and, making a few steps backward, exclaimed: "Is it to my « master or me this insult is intended, and what " is the meaning of this violence ?”. These words, pronounced very loud, were heard by the emperor, who, though he did not understand thein, suspected what was the matter. He sent the capi aga, or chief of the white eunuchs, to forbid any violence beirg used. The grand vizier followed the chief of the eunuchs; he found Mr. Deferiolles returned to the place from whence


he had begun his march, and who bitterly com- J.C.1697.

Heg.1108, plained to him of the insult that he had received. & 1109. Hufsain replied, that it was contrary to the sultan's orders and his own that his person had been touched, and that he was assured it had happened entirely through inadvertency, on account of the crowd that surrounded the door and without any intention to take his sword from him; but he told him at the same time that he would never appear before Mustapha, unless he voluntarily laid it aside. Mr. Deferiolles anfwered only by taking off his caftan, ordering his reținue to do the same, and his equerry to bring his horses. The caftans were piled up on the sofas, left the Turks should accuse the ambassador's officers of having rejected them with contempt; and Mr. Deferiolles remounted his horse, without being accompanied by any but his houshold and the janissaries appointed to attend him. It was thought for some time that this affair would produce serious consequences. The Turks had often violated the law of nations on less important occasions; but the low state in which the ·Porte was, would not permit Mustapha to lhew the least resentment. The presents intended to be offered were sent back the same day to the ambassador's palace, and the grand vizier seemed to forget this affair, to attend only to that which J.C.1698. interested the Porte before all others.

The preparations were making for the ensuing campaign with great difficulty and discourageVOL.IV. : 12


Hegj 109, & I110.

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THE OTTOMANS. J.C. 1698. ment. The people no longer shewed that eager. Heg. 1109, & 1110. ness which they had discovered at first for inlifting

in the different military corps. The tirnarians were obliged to be summoned several times to appear with the number of men which they were to entertain; before their troop was complete. The grand seignior, who, in order to know the sentiments of the people and of the army, mixed often with the crowd, heard nothing but complaints and fatal presages. Since the battle of Zenta he had lost the esteem and confidence of the people. They said aloud, that God had declared for the Infidels, and that, the European poffefsions must be expected to be entirely lost if the war lasted much longer; that the treasuries of the mosques being soon drained, the impofts with which the subjects of the empire would be oppressed, would only enrich the enemy and expose more men to the destroying sword; and that generals without talents led to certain death soldiers without courage. These repeated complaints grieved the emperor to the very heart; he felt his incapacity, and knew no one in his empire that he could oppose against prince Eugene. His grand vizier Hussain baThaw was 'continually repeating to him, that a peace must be had at any price; but neither he nor his master expected that the victorious enemy would listen to reasonable conditions. The minister earnestly defired to renew the conferences with the English and Dutch ambassadors, who,



disheartened by the little success of their former T:C.1698. efforts, observed the profoundest filence. The & 1110. grand vizier was afraid if he spoke first, that he Mauro should be made buy what he so much wished for Cordato it too dear a rate: At length Mauro Cordato, a confethe Greek whose address and abilities were so a peace. much esteemed by the Turks, and whom the · money of Lewis XIV. had 'till then made very much against a peace, being at variance with Mr. Deferiolles, who was exceedingly displeased with him on account of the audience affair, went to the grand vizier, to give him to underttand, that - it would not be impossible to bring on a negotiation, and that there was every reason to think it would be attended with success; that Leopold, all victorious as he was, had many reasons to defire a peace with the Porte ; that every one knew how much his finances were drained; that the treaty lately concluded at Ryswick would not procure him a long repose, as the king of Spain, on the brink of the grave, would soon leave a succession to dispute between the house of France and the branch of Leopold ; that the king of France and the emperor of the West, the dauphin and the king of the Romans, were equally descended from Austrian princesses of the Spanish branch ; that the Germans had the greatest interest to fix this rich succession in the house of Austria which had remained in it a long time, but that the French claimed the right of primogeniture ; for the princess that was mother to


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