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4.C. 1698. the dauphin was elder than the mother of the
& 11102" king of the Romans. These good reasons easily

prevailed on the grand vizier to permit Mauro
Cordato to make overtures to the two ambal-
sadors of England and Holland, on condition of
his not acknowledging to them that he was sent,
This Greek had taken for the rule of his conduct
a maxim of a Turkish poet, which says, that a
falshood which brings about an affair, is preferable
to the truth that embroils it. He went imine-
diately to the two ambassadors ; and having first
exacted a solemn oath from each of them that
they would not discover any thing of what he
was going to tell them, he assured them, that
the Turks were reduced to such a state, that
they would accept any conditions which should
be proposed to them; that no moment could be
more favorable for concluding a glorious peace;
that if they would make the first overture, he
would be answerable that they would find as
much facility in the negotiation as they had
before met with obstacles; that his being a
Christian and the kindness which he had received
at Vienna during his residence there, strongly
attached him to the interest of Leopold ; and
that it was his regard for the emperor of the
West which made him inform them of what
might be very useful to his service. Sir
Paget and Mr. Colliere replied unanimously,
that all the advances which the Turks might
make would be favcrably received; but that it


was not proper either for the mediating powers, He: 1199; or Leopold as vanquisher, to make the first ad- & 1110. vances. Mauro Cordato, having gotten this answer from the two ambassadors, haftened back to the grand vizier's to tell him that he was commissioned by sir .....

..... Paget and Mr. Colliere to ask him if he were willing to appoint a conference for a peace. Hussain bathaw replied to his druggerman only by embracing him with transport, and immediately sent the reis effendi and his kiaia to the ambassadors to settle with them the place and time. Mauro Cordato followed them with intention to be their interpreter. As matters stood, it was highly necessary that the office of druggerman should be trusted to none but him. Each of 'the iwo parties being well convinced that they had not made the first overtures, both were conducted where both earnestly desired to arrive.

The mediators wrote to Vienna, Venice, Warsaw, and Moscow, immediately, in order that the different powers might send their plenipotentiaries to the place of conference, which they appointed at Carlowitz, a small town situated be- French tween Peterwaradin and Belgrade. The French complains ambassador, who did not learn thefe news 'till

against it. they were public, made vain efforts to traverse the peace. The grand vizier replied to his reproaches, that the French, having themselves concluded the treaty of Ryswick, ought not to be astonished' at the Porce's being desirous of putting an end to the war likewise..




in vain

J.C.1698. Meanwhile the armies entered the field; but Heg. 1109, & UIO. they remained in observation without under

taking any thing on either side. Each was sufficiently tired with the preceding fatigues to relish the repose which the circumstances admitted, Thé plenipotentiaries repaired to the place appointed; the little town being scarcely sufficient to hold their carriages and retinue, they had recourse to tents. The Porte sent thither the reis effendi Ramni Mehemet, with Mauro Cordato, likewise invested with an honorable title, which fignifies nearly private secretary to the divan; the plenipotentiaries for Leopold were, count Petingen and count Schlik, privy counsellers ; for the czar, Procope Bognavits and Vosnicini; for Poland, Stanislaus Michael Noski, waywode of Posnania; lastly, for the republic of Venice, the noble Rofini. ,Lord Paget and Mr. Colliere, the English and Dutch ambassadors, acted as mediators. What had already happened in several congresses was the case at Carlowitz, that the ceremonial was longer and more difficult to settle than the objects for which the assembly was held.

The place where the conferences should be ; the precedency, whether of the mediators, or between the plenipotentiaries; the reciprocal visits; in Thort, every thing gave subject for contest. The Turks claimed the first place, and the ambassadors of Leopold would not give it up. The English and Dutch ambaffadors, as mediators, would have the first rank. The


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& IDO.

Polish ambassador claimed the seat next to the J.C. 1698.

Heg.1109, Imperial powers; but neither the Russians nor the Venetian would confent to be placed after him. They had the same claims and disputes with respect to their visits; and things were gotten to such a height, that, after continuing for more than three months in this manner, the plenipotentiaries were on the point of separating without having seen one another. Mauro Cordato, more ingenious, or rather more cunning, than the rest, thought of a way to manage the pride of all these nations. An edifice of a round form was built in the middle of the square at Carlowitz, consisting of a large room, with as many doors as there were nations, opening on the side that looked towards each country. The tents of the ambassadors were disposed in the same manner at equal distances. The first day of the congress, at a signal given by the mediators, they all left their pavilions at the same time, arrived at the same time in the congress chamber, faluted one another at the same time, and took each the seat that was prepared for him at a table which was likewise of a round forin, on which the mediators had disposed every thing necessary for the discussion of the different interests.

The conferences began the 14th of November, 1.C.1699. and every thing was concluded by the 26th of & 1!11. January, the Christians too had obtained an intermission of some days to celebrate their Christ




of the

J.C. 1699. mas.

The emperor Leopold agreed to a truce Heg.1110,

& 1111. with the Turks for the space of twenty-five years, Treaty of The following were the conditions of it. All Conditions Transylvania was ceded to the emperor Leopold

in the same extent that it had been pofseffed by the last prince Michael Abaffi and his predeceffors; Temeswar was confirmed to the fultan; and in order to prevent all possibility of blocking up or famishing this town, fix neighbouring towns were dismantled, without the fortifications being permitted to be raised again. It was also stipulated, that the navigation of the Teiffe and Marosch should be free for both empires; that the emperor of the West should continue master of all the country between the Danube and the Taiffe; that in order to fix the limits of Hungary on the east side, a straight line should be drawn from the mouth of the Marosch along the borders of the Taiffe as far as the mouth of the Boffat at the place where it enters the Save; that on the south side the Save should serve for limits between the dominions of the Turks and those of the emperor of the West as far as the place where the confluence of the Unna is formed ; that in this extent of reciprocal frontiers, no fortress should be raised or repaired, except Belgrade and Peterwaradin. The czar of Russia concluded a truce for two years only, during which each was to remain in possession of what he had taken. The Poles agreed to the same truce as the emperor ; the conditions were, that Kaminieck,


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