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L.C. 1702. Mustapha to call up all his remaining resolution Heg. 1114. un to endeavour to make himself obeyed; it was in

yain for him to think of avoiding this visit; the two deputies who had spread terror over the seraglio reached the room where his highness was. They ordered, rather than asked him, in the name of the army, to deliver that instant into their hands the grand vizier Rami bashaw, the mufti Fezula, and Mauro Cordato. The first and last had taken to Aight; but the old mufti, full of confidence in the veneration which he fancied all the Mussulmen had for his dignity, always expected that they would obey the sovereign interpreter of the law. Without doubt he would have been right, if the rebels had not had the address to oppose law to law, and had not chosen from among them a mufti more eloquent and sensible than the emperor's, and who knew how to manage the people. The rebels, without reflecting on the legality of the appointment, considered Fezula as degraded by his prevarications and by the declaration which the mufti Kiasibi had made with pomp in the name

of all the ulema. The unfortunate old man, The grand abandoned by his pupil, was dragged co the gives up camp, where he was put to the most cruel torthe old mufti, who tures to make him discover his riches and in what death. place he had hidden them. He replied to their

interrogations, only by imprecations against those who durst lay violent hands on the vicar of Mahomet. The rebels, after having exhausted their


is put to

rage against Fezula, gave him the death stroke J.C.1702.

Heg.1114. and threw his body into the river, denying him even the honors of interment. This barbarous execution increased the terror of Mustapha ; thinking that he should appease the people by

by The grand

by reignior fhewing them all his weakness, he sent to the acknow

ledges the vizier Dorojan to confirm him in that dignity, officers of

Yo the rebels. and to carry him the seals of the empire. The same deputies were charged with a catcherif which confirined likewise the mufti of the rebels, and they were ordered to say to those who bore offices among them, that the most magnicent and invincible emperor acknowledged them for officers of the Porte and took them under his powerful protection. The terror was so great in the court of Mustapha, that those whom he ordered to carry these promises of peace, remembering the reception of their master's first envoy, had much difficulty to prevail with themselves to discharge their mision. The more the rebels faw the sultan give way, the more they became untractable. The meannesses to which this prince descended to save his sceptre were precisely what caused it to fall from his hands.

The emperor had only children very young. His brother Achmet, che lawful heir to the throne, was guarded in the seraglio of Adrianople'; for the heirs to the empire had for a long time paft been carried about with the emperor. The mufti, the grand vizier, and Caracach Mehemet, wrote to prince Achmet, that Mustapha


write to


to ascend

The letter

cepted and

L.C. 1702. having rendered himself unworthy to reign, all Heg.1114.

the hopes of the good Mussulmen centred in

's him ; that he was the only one of his family in palichernet to a situation to govern and avenge the Turks; that invite him it was the general wish that he should be placed the throne. on the throne; and that he must yield to circumis inter- stances and the cry of the nation. As this letter carried to was sent openly, it could not fail of being interMustapha.

cepted. It is supposed that the rebels had expected it; that an ancient respect for the sea raglio and the blood of their master having prevented them from forcing this venerated place to signify to Mustapha his depoftion, they thought that the feeble emperor, being destitute of the means to maintain himself on the throne, would descend from it himself, and spare them the crime of attempting his life or liberty. If this were their expectation, they

were not deceived. Mustapha had no sooner He goes to read the letter addressed to his brother, than he Achmet and refigns ran to his apartment to carry it him, and, after the fceptre to him. an affectionate embrace, he said to him: “ Since

“ Heaven will have it so, mount in my place " on the throne of our ancestors; remember, “ that, whilst I was your master, I treated « you kindly; you are going to be the lawful “ sovereign, lince I relign all my right to you. “ But don't forget that your elevation is the work of some rebels, who will soon treat you in the same manner, if you leave their " crime unpunished.” After these words, he


begged his brother to repair to the divan cham- J.C. 17021 ber, and remained himself in the apartment which that prince quitted. Thus was terminated, the 24th of August, this revolution, which had lasted since the month of May. Mustapha descended from the throne, aged forty years, after having reigned seven. The beginning of his reign had given great hopes; but in a little time he apa peared very different from himself. The blind confidence which he devoted to the mufti Fezula enervated his faculties, destroyed his understanding, and made a feeble, timid monarch of a prince who had at first appeared sage and magnanimous. Mustapha died of a dropfy the year after his deposition.

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III. af


ACHMET found, as he came out of his Achmet

apartment, or rather prison, all the officers cends the of the seraglio who had conducted his brother thither. He repaired to the throne chamber with his retinue, and dictated a catcherif which ordered the grand vizier, the mufti, and all the officers of the ulema, the divan, and the army, to come and pay their compliments to him. Achmet had preserved in his heart the last words



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J.C. 1702. of Mustapha. However, he received with affaHeg.1114. in bility, even with marks of favor, those to whom

he owed his elevation. He carried his confability at descendency so far as to banish at their request

the valid sultaness, who was his mother as well his reign. as Mustapha's, because that sultaness had favored

the last mufti Fezula. Achmet made considerable presents to the army, and as he knew that the soldiery and the people of Constantinople had reproached Mustapha with his residence at Adrianople, he resolved to return to the capital the second week of his reign. He girded on the sword of Othman in Jub mosque with all the customary ceremonies and pomp.

Achmet was thirty-six years old when he came to the throne. Owing to the attention of the valid sultaness, whom he had just banished, and the humanity of his predecessor, his prison had not been so strait but that he had found means to acquire a good deal of knowledge. He had read every thing that could be read in the Turkish language, and had had the society of some white eunuchs, and even of some effendis, who had entertained him often with an account of the last trou. bles and the facts most known of the Ottoman history. It was without doubt in these conversations that he acquired the first notions of policy, and learned to diffemble with those whom he meant to punilh. Achmet had formed a close intimacy with the selictar aga, called Affan. As soon as he found himself on the chrone, he made this favorite

• bashaw


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