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Madmen are not accountable for their ac- reader to substitute Irishman for “Animal" tions. It is possible to drive a man mad by wherever that word occurs, and the whole persecution. We know that many a man scope of the article will be plain as a pikewith mens sana in corpore sano,” has been staff. Take, according to the animal's immured in a lunatic asylum, by pretended (Irishman's) age, a stout cane, a supple-jack friends, for the purpose of appropriating to or an iron rod. If the creatures be very their own uses his inheritance, and that the young,

the cane

will be sufficient ; if persecutions he has there endured, have suc- greater, or from that to half-grown, you ceeded in making him actually inad. Should will require the supple-jack, and let it be the man turn and rend his keeper, would he thicker at one end than the other. For a halfbe guilty of murder ? Certainly not. That grown animal (Irishman) the iron rod will this is a case in point, we think is easily be absolutely necessary; and it must be shewn.

of sufficient weight, that a blow of it on the We are aware, that when a man begins to skull may be sufficient to produce a tempotell the tale of Ireland's wrongs, he is met by rary insensibility-the only chance you will the generality of Englishımen of the present have of escape, should the fierce brutes at day, with laughter loud and long. We are any time take it into their heads to rebel." prepared to endure this. It is a strange way Then our satirist particularizes the dress and of answering a man, it must be admitted. bearing of the Tamer, and proceeds in these Not so bad, however, as that adopted towards words :-" Thus accoutred with your rod in Sydney–when they could not answer him, your hand, and if the animal (Irishman) be they cut off his head. He was an overgrown more than half-grown, a brace of pistols in poppy to be sure.

your breast, approach the cage of the young For centuries our countrymen had been animal (Irishman) which you design to tame suffering under “ the oppressor's wrong, the ......let there be two assistants near at hand, proud man's contumely,"—from the times in and a small stove, in which half a dozen iron which an appetite for breakfast was procured rods are heating.” The clever allegorical by the then fashionable amusement of wing- writer has omitted to mention some other asing half a dozen of the mere Irish, for the sistants that were usually employed by the small charge of half-a-crown a-piece; when very celebrated Tamers, such, for instance, the slaughtering of a hare within the pale, as the "walking-gallows” and “triangle by any of these mérè Hibernici, was punish- people. He goes on—"speak kindly to the

-able with death; from the times in which animal,' and caress him through the bars of the patriarch of fathers, “ father Mole,” so his cage,(there's a touch above Goethepathetically describes the utter wretchedness Mephistophiles never equalled that for of the then Irish, down to the days in which mockery) "or the suddenness of your entrance the maddened people—the point of endur- may irritate or alarm him, and thus induce ance being passed—rose tumultuously; their him to attack you." This has not only a rehabits, their tempers, their feelings being trospective, but a prospective meaning. The changed for the time, into a reckless fero- writer so evidently points to the wily managecity, which we may lament and condemn, ment of Sir Robert Peel, previous to his inbut can hardly wonder at. Their chiefs were tended entrance on the Premiership, that despoiled of their estates once, twice, thrice comment is totally unnecessary. He then in a century; their priests were hunted as follows this up with some further hints to wild beasts, and they themselves were treat- Sir Robert, in his advice to the Tamer. ed somewhat as Van Amburgh treats his “ Your costume should likewise by no means animals, according to an article on "animal have been put on for the first time; you taming" in that most excellent and truly should have dressed in a similar manner durnational publication, “ the Irish Penny ing all your former visits." Let Sir Robert Journal,

,"* which article would appear to Peel look to this. Our author. then advises, be a transcript from the English treatment " to throw open the door and enter with a of the Irish. Indeed it seemed to us through- firm and resolute step. Speak kindly toout, a sustained double entendre, a covert wards the 'animal,' and if he comes over satire on our history.

to you, fear nothing, but stretch forth your “ Take,” says the writer of the article, hand and caress him. The creature will pretending to address the amateur animal then probably purr and rub against you," tamer, but manifestly meaning the quondam (this has been done often, and was met pretamers of the Irish. We recommend the cisely as our author advises it should be)

“ but if it offer to play with you, repress * Vol. 1, No. 20.

such disposition with firmness; repress every

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attempt to play- use your rod freely and being torn to pieces some fine morning, and severely. Do so not merely for a grievous devoured for his breakfast.” fault, but for the most distant appearance of

Now all this is, in many respects, a fair insubordination. Let your corrections be and accurate description of the treatment terrible when you do inflict them.” “ Some,” which Irishmen had experienced from their the clever H. D. R. goes on to say, “and English Van Amburghs, previous to their Van Amburgh I believe among the rest”— forgetting themselves and despising the Here there is also a prospective as well as a authority” of their masters. retrospective meaning ; the retrospective Nevertheless we do not mean for a momeaning is evident. To explain thoroughly ment to justify the cruelties of our countrythe prospective, we will substitute for Van men. We entirely reprobate them. Our Amburgh the individual really pointed at, business, however, in accordance with our and then the passage will be "Some, and plan, “if plan that can be called, which plan ! Lord Stanley' I believe among the rest, are is none,” is to see whether we cannot find in favour of beating the Irishmen' every things equally repugnant to humanity in the morning, whether they deserve such chastise- doings of Englishmen. It is an unpleasant ment or not, just by way of keeping up a office, but not of our seeking. If dirt is salutary, awe of their masters." To this Aung upon a man, he must in the wiping it H. D. R. objects, as " he conceives it to be off, necessarily soil his fingers. We must both cruel and unnecessary,” but suggests, premise that, in our estimation, atrocities de“ If," says he “ animals are of an unruly liberately planned and coolly executed, bedisposition, I should rather recommend that speak a nature infinitely more depraved than they should be visited every morning" (with do those perpetrated in moments of passionwhat appliances we beg our readers to ate excitement. bear in mind) “and an opportunity of It ought to be sufficient for our purpose to misbehaving themselves thus afforded, when shew, as we easily could, that the treatment indeed a good thrashing might be admi- which has been glanced at, as driving the nistered with much greater justice—thus, Irish into rebellion, and the counter cruelties in close imitation of the fine old Floren- practised during and after these rebellions, tine, under the guise of pointing out how were at least fully commensurate with the certain matters should in future be ma- deeds of the insurgents.

But it may be, naged, painting in the vividest of colours, this is not enough—we have plenty from and holding up to the reprobation of man- which to pick and choose. We will not kind, the exact course pursued in these and refer to the deeds done in the wars of the similar matters in times past and present. Roses—to the annals of the Tower—to Mary

It is unnecessary, perhaps, to adduce his- of Scotland—to the Cromwellian Englishtory in proof of the covert meaning of our men in Ireland, though here we might rest Irish Machiavelli. Still we cannot resist, in

We will not call Sheridan and direct support of the above passage, remind- Burke to give evidence concerning the deeds ing our readers that Dugdale says,—These done in India. We will pass over these courses were pursued designedly to drive the things, and content ourselves with pointing to Irish into rebellion, in order that an excuse Monmouth's rebellion, and the extreme cruelmight be procured for completely extermin- ties practised on his adherents, not in the ating the aborigines, the original possessors heat of battle when the blood is

but of the island. Does not this passage of Dug- “ When the hurly-burly's done; dale disclose also a line of conduct, similar to When the battle's lost and won.' that pursued by those who immure a man in —to the burning alive of women for being full possession of his faculties, and by perse- gentle, compassionate, and true to their beaucution drive him mad, in order to seize upon tiful natures,*—to Jeffries, Feversham, and his possessions ? And if so, were we not Kirk, and the barbarities and the perjuries right in calling it a case in point ?

which, ramifying from the judge through We have not yet done with H. D. R.; witnesses and jurors, pervaded the whole this gentleman concludes his lecture with, land.

never for an instant permit any 'animal' “Aha!” cries some Orange or Tory reader to make too free with you ;” and then sums —such people do read “ the Citizen”-“I up generally, thus : Recollect the old have you on the hip, my fine fellow. These copy-book adage, familiarity breeds con- things are not to be laid to the charge of tempt'-and recollect that if a young lion or Protestant England; the Popery of James tiger so far forgets himself as to despise your authority, you will stand a fair chance of Lady Lisle and Mrs. Grant.--Vide Dalrymple.

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was the moving cause. ."* Stop a bit-Was it some Indians | whose prisoners the unfor“Popery” that caused the equally sanguinary, tunate men were. Let any man compare aye, and equally cold-blooded policy pur- these sums, and there can be little doubt on sued towards the Scottish adherents of the which side the balance would be. Stuarts ? Was it “ Popery” that caused the At length we have arrived at the last disatanic faithlessness, and the long-planned vision of our subject, which is, that the naand deliberate butchery of Glencoe ?+ Was tural turbulence of Irishmen is clearly shewn it “Popery” that caused the Lord Chief Jus- in their lawless associations of Whiteboy tice Scroggs “to rant for the plot, and hew ism, Peep-o'-day boys, Ribbonism, and down Popery, as Scanderbeg hewed the Terry-Altism. Turk ?" Besides, we are writing of Eng- To attribute these things to the turbuland and the English collectively, whether lence of Irishmen, is rivalling the TenterProtestants, Catholics, or Dissenters. We den-steeple and Goodwin-sands' principle are comparing Irishmen with Englishinen, of cause and effect. Many a goodly ship not Catholicism with Protestantism.

has gone down at sea in the midst of a Let any man, having first considered the calm; many a gallant-looking one lags becauses of Irish rebellion, and the persecutions hind, and cannot bear a press of sail—if all which drove the people mad, and after allow- her canvass is given to the wind, be the ing for these things, cast up into one sum gale ever so steady, destruction is often the the amount of guilt chargeable on these men, result. · Many more, through the violence and then let him compare this with the sum of tempests, and the various perils of the of the atrocities of English rebellions from great deep, are made unmanageable hullsWilliam's invasion of their crimes in Ire- mere wrecks upon the waters. Would any land, in Scotland, in America, in India— man in these cases blame the captain and and in Canada || the other day, where, his crew, and attribute these disasters to among many other things by no means ho- them ?. No. In the one case the construcnourable to the victors, four prisoners were tion of the vessel, her original putting toshot without even the form of a trial, by gether, amateur interference, or yacht-club order of a militia colonel, in spite of the re- intermeddling with her building, are the monstrance of a clergyman who happened causes. In the other, man's skill and darto be present, and the indignant rebuke of ing are frequently powerless ; circumstances

are irresistible. In both, the captain and * It is certain that when Lord Keeper North his crew are blameless. made complaints of what Jeffries was doing, James gave orders to stop him—-(Dalrymple, vol. 1, Book

In Ireland, the existence of Whiteboyism, II. page 82).

Terry-Altion, &c., are proofs, not of turbu| By an odd coincidence, Glencoe signifies in lence being natural to the people, but of opthe Celtic, “the Valley of Tears."

pression, poverty, and want of employment, I North's Examen.

“ It will be a record that must render the being universal throughout the land. Hence British name odious in America to the latest genera

it follows that Englishmen, assuming or pretions. In that record will be found the burning of tending that these things are the manifestathe five towns of Charlestown, near Boston ; of tions of a lawless half-savage people, get up Falmouth, just before winter, where the sick, the penal laws and coercion bills. And this aged, the women and children, were driven to seek shelter where they could hardly find it ; of they do to avoid the enacting of fair, just, Norfolk, in the

midst of winter ; of New London ; and equitable laws; the keeping in the of Fairfield; of Esopus ; besides near a hundred country of four millions that leave it annuand fifty miles of well-settled country laid waste, ally for the use of absentees; and the proevery house and barn burnt, and many hundreds of farmers, with their wives and children, butch- curing the means of employment for the

peoered and scalped.”—(Franklin's description of ple, which, if they admitted the truth, they English Government in America.)

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could not for very shame refuse to do. Il “On Sunday evening (November 11th, 1838) the whole back of the country about Laprairie presented the awful spectacle of one vast sheet of in the rebellious districts, whose houses have been lurid flame, and it is reported that not a single given to the flames, and who have escaped the rebel house has been left standing. God only bullet, the bayonet, or the prison, are doomed to knows what is to become of the surviving Cana- perish in the woods, for in the United States they dians and their wives and families during the ap- can expect no assistance.”—Montreal Herald. proaching winter, as nothing but starvation from * When Colonel Prince, an English attorney, cold and hunger stares them in the face. The ordered those men to be shot, the Indians claimed history of the past proves that nothing but sweep them as their prisoners; on this being refused, ing them from the earth, and laying their habitations they said "we cannot participate in this butchery; level with the dust, will prevent renewed rebel- we are christians, though red-men," and hurried liops south of the St. Lawrence. The Canadians from the shocking scene.


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Whiteboyisın is the parent of the lawless Let us look at an Irishman under the associations of Irishmen. It made its first pressure of two of these causes only,,enorappearance in 1768, and appeared only, or inous rental and absenteeisin-and let us chiefly, in those parts of the country where see whether his turbulence arises from his manufactures were not established ; that is, natural character, or whether it is not the where poverty and want of employment pre- inevitable consequence of the circumstanvailed. In the following year, the Lord Lieu- ces in which he is placed. We speak of tenant, in his speech from the throne, advised the times when the late improvement in as a remedy for the evil, the procuring the the government and in the habits of our means of employment, thereby acknowledg- people was almost unhoped for; for we ing that the want of these means was the are judged, and our capabilities for all cause of it. And the parliament promised that is great and good estimated, not from what ?—to attend to the erection of Protest- what we are, and are fast progressing to, ant schools; as if the men guilty of White- in spite of all obstacles, but from what we boy outrages were children, 10 be breeched have been, under the united influences of and a-b-c'd into submission and unmurmur- systematical oppression in our rulers, our ing endurance of cold and hunger, which absentee landlords, and resident agents,-in tame into obedience the wildest of beasts, the bailiff, the orangeman, the proctor, and but drive to outrage and desperation the rea- the bayonet. The odds were fearful against soning animal man.

our anti-Malthusian and excitable peasantry, What is true of Whiteboyism, is true also "impar congressus Achilli "—the conseof the, various other societies. Religious quences were lamentable, but natural and persecution, political oppression, want of em- inevitable. ployinent, high rent, and absenteeism, have Let us take a man, then, under the influbeen, and are, the causes of them all. ences of the two causes only, which we have

Because there has been, now and then, an mentioned, and behold their workings; for he agrarian disturbance in parts of the kingdom, who would know thoroughly the truth in this the whole people are set down as constitution- respect, should, like Cassius, " look quite ally turbulent and unruly—a gross mis- through the deeds of men,” and examine into statement, utterly at variance with candour the springs of actions. And when he has and plain-dealing, as we hope to shew. The done so, we think he cannot fail to find, that causes which have forced them into such the great mass of Ireland's misery and Irecourses are never hinted at. “Oh! 10, we land's crime--for criminal she has been-is never mention them"-causes, the tithe of fairly attributable to these causes, generated which would be suflicient now, and have been by bad government, bad landlords, and bad found heretofore, more than sufficient lo laws; and that the inhabitants are no more drive the sturdy Englishman and fierce to be blamed for the misery and the crime, Scotchman into open rebellion. We scouted than the strings of the national harp for sendchartism froin our shores, and laugh social- ing forth harsh and unmusical sounds when isın to scorn.

Remove these causes, and the struck fiercely and unskilfully. The soul of effects will cease. This is not mere asser- music is in the strings, and will out when tion; it is capable of direct proof.

struck by the hand of an artist. Owing to In Upper Canada, during the late trou- his large family and his high rent, our peables there, while the gaols were filled with sant's life has been a perpetual struggle from Canadians, Englishmen, Scotchmen, and year to year, to satisfy the agents and keep Americans, there was not a single Irishman his children from starving. Still he despairs to be found in the goodly company. Papists not. A bad season comes (one such is and Protestants were, for once, unanimous ruinous), the crops are unproductive; the in loyalty, in a determination to uphold the rent falls behind-the tithe is unpaid—the laws, and the connection with the mother bailiff is bribed, or bullied; perhaps the cow country. And wherefore ? Because in that is in the pound—(with a species of refineprovince the causes existed not, which at ment in cruelty that does honour even to home have produced such lamentable results. bailiffs, the cow is invariably taken, and the

Give the Irishman at home, as in Canada, wretched family are deprived of their only fair play, a clear stage and no favour, and is comfort, “the sup of milk for the weans"): it too much to say that in his own land, as in the landlord, in another country, is feastthe land of his adoption, he would be cele- ing, drinking, imitating his grooms, gambbrated for his loyalty, for his obedience to ling at Crockford's, waltzing at Almacks, the laws, and for his love of order and good dangling after the Phrynes, the Aspasias government ?

of the day; chasing a fox at MeltonMowbray-grouse-shooting on the Gram- | combination; not for protecting every man pians-squandering immense sums on the in his rights, and securing to him the means Derby-upholding the dictum of ancient of existence, but for engrossing all its advanPistol, with reference to his tradesmen, “base tages to a few favoured individuals, and reis the slave that pays," and cultivating the serving, for the portion of the rest, want, devarious other fashionable acquirements of the pendence, and misery. He looks around age : for those things money must be had. upon his wife and children, he beholds The agent is savage, inflexible, peremptory. naught but wretchedness and rags. He asks Cow, horse, pig, and 'plenishing' are 'canted' himself, why it is that their oppressors go for half their value. The farmer, from fret- clothed in purple and fine linen. He is ful, becomes at length despairing, drunk with startled from his gloomy reverie by the cries passion, then with whiskey. The wife is of his little ones for bread: he rushes from helpless, hopeless, heart-broken. The child their presence : in a fit of rage and desperadren in the ashes, naked and starving, quar- tion he links himself with the lawless bands relling for a potatoe. Time passes ; rent of his country, made up of men circumaccumulates ; the house is in ruins, and the stanced as himself: he becomes a ‘Minion fields are untilled; actual starvation stares of the Moon,'a Blackfoot, or a Terry-Alt. him in the face. He cannot bribe the bailiff From that moment he is an outcast, and any longer, and will not give his ‘dirty dogs' he knows it. The heart of the husband and to the agent;-has perhaps voted against the father becomes the abode of demons. All him at the last election ; he is set down as a the bad passions of humanity are up in arms, worthless vagabond, an incumbrance on the in open rebellion. Reason is dethroned, and estate, and is-ejected. His wife and chil- passion reigns supreme. Famine talks to dren

may either “take to the country and him with an eloquence more convincing than beg," or "die in a ditch and be damned.” ever issued from the lips of mortal man. And the husband, the father, the freeholder, Wrongs deep and lasting speak to bim trumis penniless, houseless, landless. Desolation pet-tongued, and revenge leads him on to around him, revenge within him. House- deeds of darkness and of death. less ! landless ! we said. Oh no! he but Then is he called traitor and murderer, exchanges his thatched covering for the even by the very men who have lashed him canopy of heaven_his earthen floor for the on to this. And lastly, “last scene of all flower-enamelled carpet of his own green isle that ends this strange eventful history," the -his paltry acres for the world ;-yet

, shame law, the gentle law, the law made by the rich upon him! he is not grateful for the change. for the poor, steps in, and the hangman's He is as difficult to be satisfied as the sol- drop closes the scene. dier, who, being about to be fogged, re- As we do not intend to discuss the quesquested his friend, the drummer, to flog him tion of absenteeism, which has been already first high up, then in the middle, then lower handled in the pages of the Citizen—but only down. This the drummer faithfully pro- to show how it and high rent operate in promised, and very faithfully performed. But ducing not a trifling portion of the alleged the poor fellow not feeling comfortable, and lawlessness of the people, we will now leave venturing to complain, was stopped by his it, and proceed to another cause, the inmefriend with, “Damn it, man, there's no satis- diate work of our governors and former masfying you, flog where I will.”

ters ; premising that, according to Burke, So with the peasant, there's no satisfying " Folly in governors operates worse than all him either. Only think of his consummate the wickedness in the world." impudence! He dares to think, the “ dis- This cause requires only to be named, to sentious rogue," that he was hardly treated; show how falsely our people are censured. that time might have been allowed him; Censure and calumny will sting; there is no that assistance to a tenant in distress from moral Styx. The practice to which we allude his landlord would do honour “to him that was the pet of our former governors,—those gives and him that takes ;" would, at least, dashing, but rather unscrupulous heroes, so be more becoming than the exaction of the celebrated in “ The Irish Rogues and Raputtermost farthing. That the severity of the perees,” 'yclept the Tories, * of the olden seasons was not his fault; that, after all, the time,-an elaborated and carefully carried landlord, the agent, and the bailiff, have not out plan of dividing and governing-of raisa whit inore right to the good things of this ing a fraction of the people of Ireland to poearth than he himself.

In the bitterness of his heart, he is induced * Tories.--The name is derived from toruighim' to think society a state of war; an unjust to pursue for the sake of plunder.

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