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majority which supported it in the Chambers | mounts the tribune among friends and enewas weakened and broken up; in the interior mies, not a sound is heard to distract attendissentions arose between two men equally tion, or break the universal silence. eminent. Guizot retired, and only entered The political versatility of Guizot has into hostility with the administration, when often been spoken of; his abrupt changes, Molé became minister. The politics he dis- his former opposition, his present servility; approves of are severely judged; he describes but from his words, his actions, his writings them thus :-"A political system without a in all epochs, there remains the conviction principle or insignia, all expedients and ap- that, except in some few trifling instances, pearances, which wavering, always leans to his general distinguishing character, as a wards all sides, but never advances towards statesman, is

tenacity and

persererance. In any real object; which foments and aggra- a word, as Guizot showed himself in the mivates this uncertainty of minds, this effemi- nistry under Decazes, or in the opposition nacy of hearts, this want of faith, consis. during the Villèle administration, such he tency, perseverance, energy; which are the appears to-day. disease of the nation and the weakness of There has been, and always shall be, a power!"-and to strengthen power, Gui- struggle between two opposed principles, zot threw himself into the coalition. Many power and liberty. In presence of these two thought that he failed in his object; it is cer- hostile elements, which the highest intellects tain that for a moment his cause was put in of all ages have tried to conciliate, no man danger.

remains perfectly cold-perfectly impartial; Since the 12th May, Guizot has been political truths act on the heart as well as neither in the ministry nor in the opposition. The head, and no one can avoid an involunHe has been himself

, that is to say, receiv- tary movement towards either, according to ing favourably all that agrees with his poli- his nature or disposition; some are ardent tics, and repelling all that is not in harmony for liberty, others attracted by power; the with them.

tribune is for one, the place of minister for Guizot may be considered under four as- the other; the sentiment of independence pects--as a private individual, as a writer, belongs to the first, the instinct of authority as an historian, as an orator and politi- to the latter. Now Guizot is essentially one cian.

of the last; inclined towards reform, but auHis virtue as a private person has never thoritative by nature, and governmental by been questioned. One of his most violent conviction, he looks at France of to-day, political enemies says :—“From the high founded on two great victories of the princimorality of his sentiments and his life, M. ple of liberty, as drawn on to abuse its triGuizot is worthy of the esteem of all good umph ; and of the two elements equally nemen."

cessary to social life, the weaker is power. Guizot's style may be known among a Taking this for granted, Guizot seeks to rethousand. The pen in his hand, he takes a establish equilibrium between the two points firm and decided tone, goes straight to his of support of the editice, giving to one what object, and is not exempt from a sort of the other has in too large proportion, and stiffness and affectation of abstract termino- combining this partition of forces in certain logy; the form in which he clothes his limits with his own political measures. thought is sometimes obscure; but the If we read attentively the political pamthought itself is always clear and bril- phlets of Guizot, under the restoration, we liant.

discover readily, through his attacks against As an historian, Guizot has rendered emi- the agents of power, a real sympathy for nent service; every one knows that he, to- power itself. The revolution of July pergether with Thierry, Sismondi, and De Ba- plexed him for a moment, but did not disrante, is a chief of the modern historical courage him. After the 29th, when that school, which has taught us not to measure principle, the object of his solicitude, was the men and actions of past times by the thrown down by the popular weight, you see standards and ideas of to-day.

him anxious to raise it little by little, to put In oratory Guizot uses a quiet but noble it on its feet, to reanimate it by degrees, and gesticulation. Small and slight in stature, then to push it boldly in the direction he his appearance is dignified and proud; his wished to give it before its fall. voice is imposing and clear; his language, In fine, what is Guizot ? He is, above calm or vehement, is always pure and cor- all, a partizan of power and government; rect, it has more energy than grace, it moves but at the same time the most independent less than it persuades; in fine, when he of men, bearing the yoke of the principles

ON SEEING A CERTAIN BUILDING BY MOONLIGHT.

81

which he has laid on himself, and raising his the perseverance and force of will which conhead proudly in personal questions. A poli- stitute a statesman; a mortal enemy of tician of great worth, and esteeming himself everything like disorder, and capable, if afas he deserves ; acting more from conviction fairs were brought to the worst, of throwing than enthusiasın, more proud of the appro- himself without hesitation into despotism, bation of his conscience than of the homage of which he does not approve, rather than into the crowd; gifted in a supreme degree with anarchy, which he abhors.

ON SEEING A CERTAIN BUILDING BY MOONLIGHT.

It is beautiful still !--but its glory is gone,
Like the day's brilliant orb when it sinks to the west;
Like the eye where once genius and intellect shone,
Now clouded by grief, or by sickness oppressed.

It is beautiful still, but the feelings which now
It awakens, are not such as once it awoke ;
When pride joined to pleasure was wreathed round the brow-
When Grattan, Flood, Curran, Burgh, Yelverton, spoke.

The pleasure, alas! that its beauty calls forth,
Is blended no longer with pride, but with shame,
And with sorrow to think that such talent and worth
Could not save to the Senate-house even its name.

With shame and with sorrow that one could be found
Amongst Erin's own sons with a conscience so seared,
As to barter for riches the consecrate ground,
Where the fane of their country's young freedom was reared.

When the shrine of Jehovah of old was debased
By the servants of Mammon, reproaches and blows
Of the Godhead incarnate his temple released
From the presence and sordid pursuits of its foes.

Oh! if it be not a presumptuous thought ;
Oh! if such a wish be not counted profane,
Would thus, had some pure-hearted patriot taught,
That not unavenged should a stigma remain,

On the shrine of that freedom his country had won,
By a victory bloodless, and guiltless, and pure
As the heart of her noble and generous son,
Who vainly believed that enfranchisement sure.

And yet, even yet, may some patriot rise,
And teach his poor country once more to desire
That liberty's sun may illumine her skies,
That to noble achievements her sons may aspire.

It is beautiful still—but it seems as tho'shame
For its fallen estate, could the fabric pervade,
For 'tis only when seen by the moon's modest flame,
That its beauty and majesty both are displayed.

CATHAL.

Grattan.

THE BOY ENTHUSIAST.

Strange were his childhood's hours, for they had | To contemplation's home, and lose the soul passed

In that strange state--so still, and yet so rife Heedless of boyhood's sports, its laughs or smiles ; With life and thought, and power intense to feel The sweets of young companionship's bright days The vast profound of nature's mystic lore. To him were all unknown. Oft would he lean

I saw him kneeling by an old oak tree, Under an aged tree, with book in hand,

His hands were clasped, and from his noble brow, And nourish his young soul with ancient tales,

Kissed by the evening wind, his hair waved back And rare old poetry. Stern lofty deeds,

In beautiful disorder, and the rays, And knightly valour-fair and high-born dames,

The last, and loveliest of day, had thrown Brave jousts and tournaments, and feudal halls,

A hue of roses o'er his cheek so paleWere pictured in his soul with graceful hues,

And as he knelt, so young and all alone, Which chast'ning Time to ancient things aye And gave his wild outpourings thus to night, lends.

I felt a growing sadness, for I thought In his bold look clate, and kindling eye, And glowing cheek, you might have read full well And lucre loving men, and slurs and taunts,

On hard, ungenial souls, on earthy-bound How his soul linger'd o'er the martial tale,

And all the thousand things which daily steal Avd dreamed of glorious action: then a change

The sweets from youthful hearts : O'er the bright face would grow, the book would fall

“ Alas, I cried ! Unheeded on the turf-the sparkling eye

And shall a flower like this, so sweet, so wild, Would soften into sadness-and the gaze,

Bloom midst our artist plants, its worth unknown? Fixed on the lovely scene which lay around, Shall bright creations of the noble mind Would give to view lligence most rare. Which rise upon the soul like byegone friends, Young dreaming Boy!

Give place to forms, the skeleton remains What wondrous visions o'er thy spirit passed

Of those which once were beauty? Shall the mind,

Piercing with superhuman light and fond amaze What haunting melody came on thine ears

The sun-tinged mists which lightly wreathe around What beauties to the common herd unknown,

Those lovely homes where Poetry doth dwell, To thee were then unfolded; there thou passed

'Midst rosy hues, and flowers, and rippling streams, Away from boyish thought, and though a child

Become the blear-eyed gaze which loves to look A tender boy in years—thy mind then knew

On earthly dullness, and the sterile lands The depth and music of the soul mature.

Where feeling withers, and the heart grows cold ? “Spirit of Nature ! beautiful and wild !

And can there be a time when he shall feel Sweet mystic influence which gently draws The full remembrances of byegone hours A music from the soul; at thy light touch

Yield not a pleasing sadness, but a shock The magic chord of sympathy gives forth

Of pain intense, contrasting what he was A melody thine own. To thee I call!

With that which Time hath made him, and the Thou art the Beautiful! In softest rays.

world, I view thee in the rainbow, like a dream

And burd'ning usage, and the chilling sneer? Of fleeting visions, beautiful and light !

Ah! sad whene'er the heart becomes the tomb The moonbeam is thy smile, and in the sun Of mem'ries of the past ; and when we'd call Most joyous is thy laugh; thou'rt all abroad ! Some image from the gone, which should have life The flowers thy breath exhale, and in the hush And lineaments resembling that we knew, And stillness of the night at times a sigh,

How startling then to see come slowly forth Swells from the waving branches, and the calm A spectre from the Dead! whose shadowy form And wide outspreading bay, and purling stream;

Chills all the soul! and makes us shun again And all is most entrancing. 'Tis thy sigh, The conjuration which hath power to bring As thou art sinking to thy evening rest,

The vague, the dim, from out the viewless world." Oh, let me be thy worshipper and child !".

I ceased—just then I heard a rustling sound Such was the burst that from that young one came Proceeding from the spot where he had knelt, One evening as he deemed himself alone.

And turning then my gaze, he passed me by, The sun was sinking in the sadd’ning west; That strange, and gentle youth, and in the light And softly murmuring thro' the shaking leaves, So chast ning of the moon, he seemed to be The night winds sighing crept; the weeping dews So like some spirit from a better world, Were shedding sweetness o'er the asking flowers, That inwardly I offered up my prayer And gracing all with freshness, to be shown For his sweet sake, to Him who rules on high, When on the morrow, with awakening life, And with a love intense for erring man, The sun's bright rays should kiss those tears away. Hears with a cheering smile his offered prayer. It was an hour to let the spirit stray

L.G. W.

INDIA-HER OWN-AND ANOTHER'S.

CHAPTER XII.

THE FIRST MAHRATTA WAR.

« TAE CONFUSION NOW PREVAILING AMONG THE MAHRATTA POWERS CANNOT TERMINATE UNFAVOURABLY TO THE

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COMPANY; THE CONJUNCTURE APPEARS TO PRESENT THE MOST ADVANTAGEOIS OPPORTUNITY THAT HAS EVER CURREV, OF IMPROVING THE BRITISH INTERESTS IN THAT QUARTER OF INDIA."*-MARQUIS WELLESLEY.

Before the middle of the 17th century possession of its power for themselves; and the Mahrattas were unknown as a military a new system of domestic rule, not altogepower in India. They had previously ex- ther destitute of points of resemblance to isted as predatory tribes, destitute, like the that of Germany in the middle ages, graduArabs, of any seitled place of abode. But ally arose out of the ruins of Mahometan the intolerance of Aurungzebe had spread dominion. disaffection among all classes of his Hindu The great offices of state were made hesubjects; and the Mahrattas, who were fol- reditary, and to each of the chieftain families lowers of Brahma, were but feebly resisted, to whom they were given, was conceded the when they first ventured to disturb the peace peculiar possession of a section of the once of the empire. Each malcontent rajah was undivided heritage of Delhi. To Scindiah, glad to purchase their ready aid, in his quar- as one of the greatest of these functionaries, rels with neighbouring chieftains, or in re- the most extensive portion fell; and by desisting the oppressions of the court of Delhi. grees his successors came to be regarded as The religious sympathy of the people par- the head of the federate state. The fruitful doned their excesses, and garrulously spread plains of Malwa were assigned to Holkar ; their fame. Having been driven into arms | Berar was occupid by the family of Bhoonby oppression, they were tempted to conti- slah; the chief, ivhose title was that of Guicknue in the exercise of their new avocation war, had an equally independent though less by the weakness of their oppressors. They extensive aranage ; and the Paishwah ruled attacked the government, not the people; over a number of provinces only inferior in they appropriated the revenues of each pro- extent and opulence to those of Scindiab. vince they overran, but they did not lay But the habits and ideas of the Mahrattas waste the country that had yielded it. + were essentially inadequate to the sustain

Sevajee, their principal leader, declared ing of a settled form of government. Perhimsell' independent in 1646, and their pro- sonal daring is of infinite value in times of gress to ascendancy was thenceforthum- revolution ; but it is rather a dangerous interrupted, for more than a hundred and quality, when prevalent among the military twenty years. Long before the English in- aristocracy of a permanent state. Restlesstruders had gained a territorial footing in the ness, and the want of attachment to the arts south, the Mahrattas had established them- of peace, are similar in their consequences ; selves in the north and centre of Hindustan. and the Mahratta chieftains, when they The lineal heirs of Tamerlane were still had no longer a common enemy to contend permitted to wear the crest and robe of em- with, soon began to discover hereditary pire ; but, politically, they had ceased to be. causes of quarrel among themselves. The Their residence at Delhi, where men had desolating conflicts which ensued, gave exduring so many ages been accustomed to ercise and vent to the passions which they believe that sovereignty had its fountain inherited from the founders of their empire; head, was insisted upon; for the policy of but they were dignified by no popular merit, the Mahrattas was directed not to the des- and accomplished no further purpose

than truction of the empire, but to the obtaining the temporary aggrandizement of one pro

vince at the cost of another. Madhajee * Despatches, vol. 3.

Scindiah, the ablest of his race, saw with † Malcolm's Political History of Central India, grief the internal causes of national decay ; vol. I, chap. iii.

and though not perhaps without selfish aims,

VOL. III. NO. XVI.

G

he was capable of looking beyond the personal | and there is a royalty which is against nainterests of the day, and of scanning the ture; there is a homage which is worthy of wants and dangers of the time to come. He being paid by man unto his fellow man; strove to wean his troops from their Cossack and there is a homage which is a degradamode of warfare; and he was one of the first tion-infamy to both the giver and receiver. princes of the East, who, perceiving the im- And this is the difference, that the true is mense superiority of European discipline, yielded of its own free will, and cannot be attempted the organization of a force on si. extorted by any force or power; the false milar principles, as the best means of secu- is given from sordid fear, or yet more sordid rity against foreign invasion. He employed hope; and, without the power to enforce its a French officer, De Boigne, to command a concession, it cannot be had at all. The regular corps of infantry and artillery. His rule of the spirit of man over men of unequal efforts were equally directed to protect the spirit, comes not by observation, and can no cultivators of the soil, against the violence more be transferred to another, than the and exactions of their rajpoot superiors. identity wherein it deeply mirrors the whole He endeavoured to restore notions of the might and mystery of things around it and sanctity of property among the many, and above it, can be changed. The usurpation to lessen the power and importance of the of mere authority to bid and to compel, by turbulent chieftains. With the foresight of one clod over its fellow-clods, may be transa statesman, he perceived, what to others ferred through ages lineally from clod to seemed an idle dream of fear, the danger clod, until the last is broken. The one is of with which all Indian governments were the earth, fragile, temporary, sensual, unreal menaced by the encroaching spirit of the in its claim of rule ; the other is an unexEnglish; and he knew that nothing but an tinguished ray of that immortal nature, man iinproved system of internal government, to- had, and forfeited, but shall have again. gether with the revival of a strong national Seldom falleth such a ray on one who ocfeeling throughout the Mahratta league, cupies, by inheritance, a throne; much more could stem the tide of aggression. Ideas of frequently it falls upon the lowly places of a common origin still lurked in the minds of this misruled world, as if to remind us how all classes of the community, and it required far have we strayed from the path of right but the cultivation of these emotions in time, and real rule. But sometimes too the born to raise up an impregnable barrier to con- monarch will rise superior to the ill fate that quest and denationalization.

did its best to stifle him, with all that flattery But Madhajee was cut off ere his noble and false worship that rocks the cradle of schemes for the regeneration of his country legitimacy; and, despite of all, the dwarf were matured,-probably before their value majesty of accident will shoot up to the staor necessity were comprehended by those ture of manhood, of genius, and of soularound him. Such is too frequently the rule. fate of a truly great man.

He cannot make Such a man was Madhajee Scindiah ; he others see with his eyes, even while they are was the man to save his country from the glancing with the living light of intuitive spoiler, for he saw its peril, and knew what and divining genius; much less when that men and nations are. But when he was light is quenched in the faithless and un- called untimely from the helm, none saw or real grave. Fortunate is the spirit-ruler, if, knew anything but what was palpably before while time and sense are left him, he can by thei—nothing but what could be clutched any means win such confidence in the force, or sold. Dowlut Rao Scindiah succeeded and wisdom, and selflessness of his nature, in due course to his father's sceptre ; but his that ordinary men will take counsel from divining-rod was missing, and from his death him, and work with him for their own good never could be found.* A few of his pre---walking by faith, and not by sight; for cepts were indeed remembered, and the faith is the substance of things hoped for the French corps were still kept up at Gualior,+ evidence of the things that are unseen. And and the other states of the confederacy were this is true empire—the just and the heaven- prevailed upon to resort to similar precauintended right divine; in everything the ve- tions. But mutual jealousies, and the riest opposite, and the keenest satire upon all mean hopes of present gain, resumed their the various counterfeits thereof, which are but clay kneaded with blood and tears, and burned into outer hardness in the oven of

Malcolm, vol. 1, chap. v.

† Scindiah's capital. oppression, wherein there is no life nor life

Gurwood's Despatches of the Duke of Wel. giving power. There is a royalty in nature, lington, vol. 1, p. 86, 87,

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