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(2) 25 Greatest emphasis shall be placed on the use of such proceeds to carry out programs of agricultural development, rural development, nutrition, and population planning, and to carry out the program described in section 406(a)(1) of this Act, in those countries which are undertaking self-help measures to increase agricultural production, improve storage, transportation, and distribution of commodities, and reduce population growth in accordance with section 109 of this Act, and which programs are directed at and likely to achieve the policy objectives of sections 103 and 104 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and are consistent with the policy objectives of this Act, pursuant to agreements between the United States and foreign governments under which uses of such proceeds shall be made for such purposes. 16

(3) In entering into agreements for the sale of agricultural commodities for dollars on credit terms under this title, priority shall be given to countries which agree to use the proceeds from the sale of the commodities in accordance with the country's agricultural development plan which

(A) is designed to increase the access of the poor in the recipient country to an adequate, nutritious, and stable food supply; (B) provides for such objectives as

(i) making farm production equipment and facilities available to farmers,

(ii) credit on reasonable terms and conditions for small farmers, and

(iii) farm extension and technical information services designed to improve the marketing, storage, transportation, and distribution system for agricultural commodities and to develop the physical and institutional infrastructure supporting

the small farmer; (C) provides for participation by the poor, insofar as possible, in the foregoing at the regional and local levels; and

(D) is designed to reach the largest practicable number of farmers in the recipient country. Sec. 107." (a) It is also the policy of the Congress to stimulate and maximize the sale of United States agricultural commodities for dollars through the private trade and to further the use of private enterprise to the maximum, thereby strengthening the development and expansion of foreign commercial markets for United States agricultural commodities. In furtherance of this policy, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized, notwithstanding any other provision of law, to enter into agreements with foreign and United States private trade for financing the sale of agricultural commodities for export over such periods of time and on such credit terms as the Secretary determines will accomplish the objectives of this section. Any agreement entered into under this section shall provide for the development and execution of projects which will result in the establishment of facilities designed to improve the storage or marketing of agricultural commodities, or which will otherwise stimulate and expand private economic enterprise in any friendly country. Any agreement entered into under this section shall also provide for the furnishing of such security as the Secretary determines necessary to provide reasonable and adequate assurance of payment of the purchase price in dollars with interest at a rate which will as nearly as practicable be equivalent to the average cost of funds to the United States Treasury, as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States having maturities comparable to maturities of credits extended under this section. In no event shall the rate of interest be less than the minimum rate, or the delivery period, deferral of first payment, or term of credit be longer than the maximum term, authorized in section 106. In carrying out this Act, the authority provided in this section for making dollar sales shall be used to the maximum extent practicable.

13 Paragraphs (2) and (3) were added by section 205 (3) of Public Law 94-161, 89 Stat. 1 Section 211(b)(2) of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1977, 91 Stat. 551. struck out the final two sentences of section 106(b)(2).

17 7 U.S.C. 1707. Amended and restated by Public Law 89–808, 80 Stat. 1532.

852.

(b) In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Secretary shall take reasonable precautions to safeguard usual marketings of the United States and to avoid displacing any sales of the United States agricultural commodities which the Secretary finds and determines would otherwise be made for cash dollars.

(c) The Secretary shall obtain commitments from purchasers that will prevent resale or transshipment to other countries, or use for other than domestic purposes, of agricultural commodities purchased under this section.

(d) In carrying out this Act, the provisions of sections 102, 103(a), 103(d), 103(e), 103(f), 103(j) 103(k), 110, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 407, 408, and 409 shall be applicable to sales under this section.

Sec. 108.18 The Commodity Credit Corporation may finance ocean freight charges incurred pursuant to agreements for sales for foreign currencies (other than those providing for conversion to dollars as described in section 103(b) of this Act) entered into hereunder only to the extent that such charges are higher (than would otherwise be the case) by reason of a requirement that the commodities be transported in United States-flag vessels. Such agreements shall require the balance of such charges for transportation in United States vessels to be paid in dollars by the nations or organizations with whom such agreements are entered into.

Sec. 109.19 (a) Before entering into agreements with developing countries for the sale of United States agricultural commodities on whatever terms, the President shall consider the extent to which the recipient country is undertaking wherever practicable self-help measures to increase per capita production and improve the means for storage and distribution of agricultural commodities, including:

(1) devoting land resources to the production of needed food rather than to the production of nonfood crops—especially nonfood crops in world surplus;

(2) development of the agricultural chemical, farm machinery and equipment, transportation and other necessary industries through private enterprise ;

(3) training and instructing farmers in agricultural methods and techniques; 18 7 U.S.C. 1708. See note 17. 19 7 U.S.C. 1709. Section 2(b) of Public Law 90_436, 82 Stat. 450 added clause 10,

(4) constructing adequate storage facilities;
(5) improving marketing and distribution systems;

(6) creating a favorable environment for private enterprise and investment, both domestic and foreign, and utilizing available technical know-how;

(7) establishing and maintaining Government policies to insure adequate incentives to producers;

(8) establishing and expanding institutions for adaptive agricultural research;

(9) allocating for these purposes sufficient national budgetary and foreign exchange resources (including those supplied by bilateral, multilateral and consortium aid programs) and local currency resources (resulting from loans or grants to recipient governments of the proceeds of local currency sales);

(10) carrying out voluntary programs to control population growth. In taking these self-help measures into consideration the President shall take into particular account the extent to which they are being carried out in ways designed to contribute directly to development progress in poor rural areas and to enable the poor to participate actively in increasing agricultural production through small farm agriculture.20

(b) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Act, in agreements with nations not engaged in armed conflict against Communist forces or against nations with which the United States has no diplomatic relations, not less than 20 per centum of the foreign currencies set aside for purposes other than those in sections 104(a), (b), (e), and (j) shall be allocated for the self-help measures set forth in this sertion.

(c) Each agreement entered into under this title shall describe the program which the recipient country is undertaking to improve its production, storage, and distribution of agricultural commodities; and shall provide for termination of such agreement whenever the President finds that such program is not being adequately developed.

Sec. 110.21 Agreements shall not be entered into under this title during any calendar year which will call for an appropriation to reimburse the Commodity Credit Corporation in an amount in excess of $1,900,000,000, plus any amount by which agreements entered into under this title in prior years have called or will call for appropriations to reimburse the Commodity Credit Corporation in amounts less than authorized for such prior years.

Sec. 111.22 Not more than 25 per centum of the food aid commodities provided under this title in each fiscal year shall be allocated and agreed to be delivered to countries other than those which meet the poverty criterion established for International Development Association financing and which are affected by inability to secure sufficient food for their immediate requirements through their own production or commercial purchase from abroad, unless the President certifies to the Congress that (1) the use of such food assistance is required for humanitarian food purposes, or (2) the quantity of commodities which would be required to be allocated under this section to countries which meet the International Development Association poverty criterion could not be used effectively to carry out the humanitarian or development purposes of this title. A reduction below 75 per centum in the proportion of food aid allocated and agreed to be delivered to countries which meet the International Development Association poverty criterion and which are affected by inability to secure sufficient food for their immediate requirements through their own production or commercial purchase from abroad which results from significantly changed circumstances occurring after the initial allocation shall not constitute a violation of the requirements of this section. Any reallocation of food aid shall be in accordance with this section so far as practicable. The President shall report promptly any such reduction, and the reasons therefor, to the Congress.

* The paragraph commencing with "In taking these self-help measures ...' by section 206 of Public Law 94-161, 89 Stat. 853.

17 U.S.C. 1710, Added by Public Law 89–808, 80 Stat. 1534.
27 U.S.C. 1711. Added by section 207 of Public Law 95–161, 89 Stat. 853.

was added

Sec. 112.2: (a) No agreement may be entered into under this title to finance the sale of agricultural commodities to the government of any country which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights, including torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, prolonged detention without charges, or other flagrant denial of the right to life, liberty, and the security of person, unless such agreement will directly benefit the needy people in such country. An agreement will not directly benefit the needy people in the country for purposes of the preceding sentence unless either the commodities themselves or the proceeds from their sale will be used for specific projects or programs which the President determines would directly benefit the needy people of that country. The agreement shall specify how the projects or programs will be used to benefit the needy people and shall require a report to the President on such use within 6 months after the commodities are delivered to the recipient country.

(b) To assist in determining whether the requirements of subsection (a) are being met, the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate or the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives may require the President to submit in writing information demonstrating that an agreement will directly benefit the needy people in a country.

(c) In determining whether or not a government falls within the provisions of subsection (a), consideration shall be given to the extent of cooperation of such government in permitting an unimpeded investigation of alleged violations of internationally recognized human rights by appropriate international organizations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross, or groups or persons acting under the authority of the United Nations or of the Organization of American States.

(d) The President shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President of the Senate, and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate in the annual presentation materials on planned programing of assistance under this Act, a full and complete report regarding the steps he has taken to carry out the provisions of this section.

23 7 U.S.C. 1712. Added by section 203 of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1977, Public Law 95-88, 91 Stat. 545.

Sec. 113.2 In the allocation of funds made available under this title, priority shall be given to financing the sale of food and fiber commodities.

Sec. 114.25 (a) The Congress declares it to be the policy of the United States to assist developing countries in the transition from food assistance recipients to economic self-sufficiency and to assist those nations which have been recipients of high protein, blended, or fortified foods under title II of this Act to continue to combat hunger and malnutrition among the lower income segments of their population, especially children, through the continued provision of these foods under this title.

(b). In implementing the policy declared in subsection (a), the President, in entering into agreements for the sale of high protein, blended, or fortified foods under this title with countries which (1) give assurance that the benefits of any waiver under this section will be passed on to the individual recipients of such foods, and (2) have a reasonable potential for transition to commercial purchasers of such foods, may make provisions for a waiver of repayment of up to that part of the product value which is attributable to the costs of processing, enrichment, or fortification.

(c). In implementing this section, due care shall be taken to minimize its impact on other commercial and concessional sales of whole grains and, where feasible, agreements under this title utilizing the authority contained in the section will provide for sales of such commodities.

Sec. 115.2 (a) No purchases of food commodities shall be financed under this title unless they are made on the basis of an invitation for bid publicly advertised in the United States and on the basis of bid offerings which shall conform to such invitation and shall be received and publicly opened in the United States. All awards in the purchase of commodities financed under this title shall be consistent with open, competitive, and responsive bid procedures, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture. Commissions, fees, or other payments to any selling agent shall—unless waived by the Secretary-be prohibited in any purchase of food commodities financed under this title.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any commission, fee, or other compensation of any kind paid or to be paid by any

supplier of a commodity or ocean transportation financed by the Commodity Credit Corporation under this title, to any agents, brokers, or other representatives of the importer or importing country, including a corporation owned or controlled by the importer or the government of the importing country, shall be reported to the Secretary of Agriculture by the supplier of the commodity or ocean transportation. The report shall identify the person or entity to whom the payment is made and the transaction in connection with which the payment is made. The Secretary shall maintain such information for public inspection, publish a report thereof annually, and forward a copy of the report to the Committee on Agriculture and the Committee on International

247 U.S.C. 1713. Added by section 204 of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1977, Public Law 95–88, 91 Stat. 648.

*7. U.S.C. 1714. Added by section 205 of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1977, Pubilc Law 95–88, 91 Stat. 546.

* 7 U.S.C. 1715. Added by section 1202 of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, Public Law 95–118, 91 Stat. 988.

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