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Sec. 403. (a) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this Act including such amounts as may be required to make payments to the Commodity Credit Corporation, to the extent the Commodity Credit Corporation is not reimbursed under section 104(j) and 105, for its actual cost incurred or to be incurred. In presenting his budget, the President shall classify expenditures under this Act as expenditures for international affairs and finance rather than for agriculture and agricultural resources.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in determining the reimbursement due the Commodity Credit Corporation for all costs incurred under this Act, commodities from the Commodity Credit Corporation inventory, which were acquired under a domestic price support program, shall be valued at the export market price therefor, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture, as of the time the commodity is made available under this Act.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act or any other Act, if the President determines it to be necessary for the purposes of this Act, he may direct that not to exceed 15 percent of the funds available in any fiscal year for carrying out any title of this Act be used to carry out any other title of this Act.

Sec. 406.44 (a) In order to further assist friendly developing countries to become self-sufficient in food production, the President is authorized, notwithstanding any other provision of law,

(1) 45 To establish and administer a program of farmer-tofarmer assistance between the United States and such countries to help farmers in such countries in the practical aspects of increasing food production and distribution and improving the effectiveness of their farming operations;

(2) To enter into contracts or other cooperative agreements with, or make grants to, land-grant colleges and universities and other institutions of higher learning in the United States to recruit persons who by reason of training, education, or practical experience are knowledgeable in the practical arts and sciences of agriculture and home economics, and to train such persons in the practical techniques of transmitting to farmers in such countries improved practices in agriculture, and to participate in carrying out the program in such countries including, where desirable,

additional courses for training or retraining in such countries; • Added by the Act of September 21, 1959, Public Law 86–341, 73 Stat. 610.

37 U.S.C. 1733. Amended on numerous occasions, most recently by the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1980, Public Law 96-533, section 407,

-, which added snbsection (c). 7 U.S.C. 1736. Act of November 11, 1966, Public Law 89–808. section 2(E), 80 Stat. 1536. substituted food production assistance provisions for provision respecting applicahility of other laws.

• The Act of September 20, 1975, Public Law 94-161, section 214, 89 Stat. 855, substituted "the President" for "the Secretary of Agriculture and strnck the words *through existing agencies of the Department of Agriculture" following the words "establish and administer".

- Stat.

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(3) To consult and cooperate with private non-profit farm organizations in the exchange of farm youth and farm leaders with developing countries and in the training of farmers of such developing countries within the United States or abroad;

(4) To conduct research in tropical and subtropical agriculture for the improvement and development of tropical and subtropical food products for dissemination and cultivation in friendly countries;

(5) * To coordinate the program authorized in this section with other foreign assistance activities of the United States;

(6) To establish by such rules and regulations as he deems necessary the conditions for eligibility and retention in and dismissal from the program established in this section, together with the terms, length and nature of service, compensation, employee status, oaths of office, and security clearances, and such persons shall be entitled to the benefits and subject to the responsibilities applicable to persons serving in the Peace Corps pursuant to the provisions of section 612, volume 75 of the Statutes at Large, as amended; and

(7) To the maximum extent practicable, to pay the costs of such program through the use of foreign currencies accruing from the sale of agricultural commodities under this Act, as provided

in section 104(i). (b) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated not to exceed $33,000,000 during any fiscal year for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section.

SEC. 409.“ No agreement to finance sales under title I and no programs of assistance under title II shall be entered into after December 31, 1981. New spending authority provided for title I of this Act by the amendment to this section made by the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts.

4 Amended by the Act of December 20, 1975, Public Law 94-161, 39 Stat. 855. 67 7 U.S.C. 1736c. Added by Public Law 89-808, section 2(E), 80 Stat. 1537.

FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1961 Act of September 4, 1961, Public Law 87–195, 75 Stat. 426, 22 U.S.C.

2151 et seq.

AN ACT To promote the foreign policy, security, and general welfare of the

United States by assisting peoples of the world in their efforts toward economic development and internal and external security, and for other purposes Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

Sec. 103. AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, AND NUTRITION.(a)(1) In recognition of the fact that the great majority of the people of developing countries live in rural areas and are dependent on agriculture and agricultural-related pursuits for their livelihood, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for agriculture, rural development, and nutrition

(A) to alleviate starvation, hunger, and malnutrition;

(B) to expand significantly the provision of basic services to rural poor people to enhance their capacity for self-help; and

(C) to help create productive farm and off-farm employment in rural areas to provide a more viable economic base and enhance opportunities for improved incomes, living standards, and contributions by rural poor people to the economic and social development of their countries. (2) There are authorized to be appropriated to the President for purposes of this section, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, $659,000,000 for the fiscal year 1980. Amounts appropriated under this section are authorized to remain available until expended.

(b)(1) Assistance provided under this section shall be used primarily for activities which are specifically designed to increase the productivity and income of the rural poor, through such means as creation and strengthening of local institutions linked to the regional and national levels; organization of a system of financial institutions which provide both savings and credit services to the poor; stimulation of small, labor-intensive enterprises in rural towns; improvement of marketing facilities and systems; expansion of rural infrastructure and utilities such as farm-to-market roads, water management systems, land improvement, energy, and storage facilities; establishment of more equitable and more secure land tenure arrangements; and creation and strengthening of systems to provide other services and supplies needed by farmers, such as extension, research, training, fertilizer, water, forestry, soil conservation, and improved seed, in ways which assure access to them by small farmers.

1 22 U.R.C. 2151a. Amended in its entirety by the Act of October 6, 1978, Public Law 95_424, 92 Stat. 948.

(2) In circumstances where development of major infrastructure is necessary to achieve the objectives set forth in this section, assistance for that purpose should be furnished under this chapter in association with significant contributions from other countries working together in a multilateral framework. Infrastructure projects so assisted should be complemented by other measures to ensure that the benefits of the infrastructure reach the poor.

(3) The Congress recognizes that the accelerating loss of forests and tree cover in developing countries undermines and offsets efforts to improve agricultural production and nutrition and otherwise to meet the basic human needs of the poor. Deforestation results in increased flooding, reduction in water supply for agricultural capacity, loss of firewood and needed wood products, and loss of valuable plants and animals. In order to maintain and increase forest resources, the President is authorized to provide assistance under this section for forestry projects which are essential to fulfill the fundamental purposes of this

ection. Emphasis shall be given to community woodlots, agroforestry, reforestation, protection of watershed forests, and more effective forest management.

(c) The Congress finds that the greatest potential for significantly expanding availability of food for people in rural areas and augmenting world food production at relatively low cost lies in increasing the productivity of small farmers who constitute a majority of the agri. cultural producers in developing countries. Increasing the emphasis on rural development and expanded food production in the poorest nations of the developing world is a matter of social justice and a principal element contributing to broadly based economic growth, as well as an important factor in alleviating inflation in the industrialized countries. In the allocation of funds under this section, special attention shall be given to increasing agricultural production in countries which have been designated as “least developed by the United Nations General Assembly.

(d) Assistance provided under this section shall also be used in coordination with programs carried out under section 104 to help improve nutrition of the people of developing countries through encouragement of increased production of crops with greater nutritional value; improvement of planning, research, and education with respect to nutrition, particularly with reference to improvement and expanded use of indigenously produced foodstuffs; and the undertaking of pilot or demonstration programs explicitly addressing the problem of malnutrition of poor and vulnerable people. In particular, the President is encouraged

(1) to devise and carry out in partnership with developing countries a strategy for programs of nutrition and health improvement for mothers and children, including breast feeding; and

(2) to provide technical, financial, and material support to individuals or groups at the local level for such programs. (e) Local currency proceeds from sales of commodities provided under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 which are owned by foreign governments shall be used whenever practicable to carry out the provisions of this section.

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Added by the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979, Public Law 96–53,

93 Stat. 359.

(f): The Congress finds that the efforts of developing countries to enhance their national food security deserves encouragement as a matter of United States development assistance policy. Measures complementary to assistance for expanding food production in developing countries are needed to help assure that food becomes increasingly available on a regular basis to the poor in such countries. Therefore, United States bilateral assistance under this Act and the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, and United States participation in multilateral institutions, shall emphasize policies and programs which assist developing countries to increase their national food security by improving their food policies and management and by strengthening national food reserves, with particular concern for the needs of the poor, through measures encouraging domestic production, building national food reserves, expanding available storage facilities, reducing postharvest food losses, and improving food distribution.

Sec. 103A.AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH.—Agricultural research carried out under this Act shall (1) take account of the special needs of small farmers in the determination of research priorities, (2) include research on the interrelationships among technology, institutions, and economic, social, environmental, and cultural factors affecting smallfarm agriculture, and (3) make extensive use of field testing to adapt basic research to local conditions. Special emphasis shall be placed on disseminating research results to the farms on which they can be put to use, and especially on institutional and other arrangements needed to assure that small farmers have effective access to both new and existing improved technology.

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TITLE XII-FAMINE PREVENTION AND FREEDOM

FROM HUNGER 6

Sec. 296.? GENERAL PROVISIONS.—(a) The Congress declares that, in order to prevent famine and establish freedom from hunger, the United States should strengthen the capacities of the United States landgrant and other eligible universities in program-related agricultural institutional development and research, consistent with sections 103 and 103A, should improve their participation in the United States Government's international efforts to apply more effective agricultural sciences to the goal of increasing world food production, and in general should provide increased and longer term support to the application of science to solving food and nutrition problems of the developing countries. The Congress so declares because it finds

(1) that the establishment, endowment, and continuing support of land-grant universities in the United States by Federal, State, and county governments has led to agricultural progress in this

country; See note 2. * 22 U.S.C. 21518-1. Added by the Act of December 20, 1975, Public Law 94–161, Title IIT, rection 303, 89 Stat. 857.

5 Amended by the Act of October 6, 1978, Public Law 95-424, 92 Stat. 945, to include research on environmental factors.

• Title XII added by Public Law 94–161, section 312, 89 Stat. 849. 722 U.S.C. 2220a.

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