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I at the same time beg leave, at the outset, to state my opinion, that the establishment of a Normal School, for training masters in the most perfect methods of communicating literary and industrial, as well as moral and religious instruction, is the most pressing and important of these objects, both in itself and as being a necessary step to the attainment of the rest; and also the strong conviction which I entertain that it should be a positive condition of such an establishment, that it should be so regulated and provided with sufficient means to enable the teachers, who are trained there, to acquire and to give such religious instructions as may be required at all ordinary schools, in the principles of the Church of England, without any exclusion of those who may be connected with such other religious persuasions as are known to prevail amongst a considerable portion of the population of the country, who may be desirous of and should be enabled to receive similar instruction from their own ministers, subject to the control and superintendence of the authority under which the school will be placed.
That such a regulation should be distinctly promulgated and understood, appears to me indispensable for its success, in diffusing widely those benefits which all are alike entitled to receive, and combining with the most approved methods of education the most solid foundation on which it can be placed.
I bave, &c.
(Signed) LANSDOWNE. The Lord John Russell, &c.
Whitehall, Feb. 9, 1839. My LORD,
I have had the honor to lay before the Queen your Lordship's letter to me of the 6th instant, and I am commanded to inform you that her Majesty is pleased to approve of the course your Lordship proposes to pursue.
I have, &c.
(Signed) J. RUSSELL. The President of the Council.
COMMON SCHOOLS IN PENNSYLVANIA.
Of 1033 districts into which the State was divided under the Act of June, 1836, (exclusive of the city and county of Philadelphia,) 840 have within the past year assessed a school tax, and received their portion of the public money. The number of schools in these 840 districts is 5269, male teachers 4758, female teachers 1974, male scholars 127,677, female scholars 106,042. Total scholars,
234,719. Average number of months taught per annum, 2 3-4 ; average salaries of male teachers, $18 95; do female, $11 30. The nuinber of German scholars in 628 districts is 3061. Culored 571. State appropriation for schools in 1839, $308,910. Tax assessed for saine purpose by the 840 accepting districts, $385,788. Total, $600,732.
Schools in MICHIGAN. Amid all these schemes and operations for the general welfare, the great subject of Education has not been neglected. A system for the organization and support of primary schools, has been devised-a plan for a University, with an indefinite number of branches, adopted -and measures taken for the disposition of the university and school lands. The foundation of the whole is laid in the constitution of the State, which contains provisions not to be found in the constitution of any other State of this Union. Of the Michigan school system-the superstructure reared upon this basis-of the suitableness of its several parts, of its proportions, and adaptation to the wants of an infant republic of giant strength, I shall not speak, and the reasons will doubtless be understood and duly appreciated by all who hear me. But of the means of our State for the support of education in all its departments, I can speak with confidence. If the University lands should average $20 per acre, and they bid fair to do that, it would give a permanent fund of $921,600; the interest of which would be annually $64,512. The primary school fund, however, is the most magnificent, and really the most important. It is soon destined, we trust, to carry the means of a good education to every child within the limits of the State. The school lands amount to rising of 1,100,000 acres. Should tbe average be but $5 the acre, it would give us over $5,000,000, the interest of tbis would be $350,000 yearly. These estimates may seein extravagant, but it is believed that the result will exceed, rather than fall short of this computation. Time, the great discoverer of events, will yet develop the resources of Michigan for the promotion of literature and science, and enstamp upon them a value, of which few seeiu to have had any adequate conception. It is true, much depends on good managemeni and wise councils.- Hon. J. D. Pierce.
EDUCATION IN Texas. The Committee on Education in the Senate have made a Report, to wbich is appended a Bill, providing that each county in the Republic shall have three leagues of land surveyed and set apart for the purpose of establishing a primary school, and that twenty leagues of land be set apart for the establishment and endowment of two Colleges or Universities hereafter to be created, one to be established in the Eastern and the other in the Western part of Texas.
REVIEWS AND NOTICES.
AN INAUGURAL Address, delivered at Mercersburg, Pa., at the An
nual Commencement of Marshall College, Sept. 26, 1838. By Albert Smith, Professor of Ancient Languages in the Institution. pp. 28. Published by the Board of Trustees.
This address is written with great skill and ability. The proposi. tion maintained in it is that “ Education separated from Religion, furnishes no security to Morality and Freedom.” Three sources of argument in support of this proposition are suggested, viz.: the scriptures, the nature of man, and the lessons of history. The author of this address has chosen the latter. This choice, we think, was hardly a judicious one. The argument is too large for a single address, and requires a more minute detail and more severe discrim. ination for the fair exhibition of it than can be given in so small compass. While, therefore, we heartily believe the proposition to be true, and that history on every page bears unequivocal testimony to it, we are not satisfied with so narrow and rapid a discussion. It needs more extension. We will add that the impression which the reader will derive from the sketch of the state of morals in Athens and Rome is less favorable than we think it should be ; and that if Rome and Athens were compared when they had reached the same degree of civilization, Athens will be found not so inferior in true virtue as might be inferred from this representation.
This is not the place for a discussion of the proposition, yet we will say, that although intellectual culture alone will not hold a nation in the practice of virtue, all the tendencies of sound learning are coincident with the nobler instincts and virtuous sentiments of men, that wisdom and severe discipline and truth are of the nature of virtue, though of a power too feeble always to stay the overmastering passion. Were it possible to disjoin religion and knowledge, the assertion were hardly paradoxical that religion separated from education furnishes no (adequate) security to morality and freedom.
Prof. Smith would do good service to the cause of education and of religion, and of our country, if pursuing the historical argument he has sketched, he would establish his proposition on clear and precise statements of facts and thorough and accurate historical induction. We cannot doubt his ability to do this work well.
STRICTURES ON THE New School Laws or OHIO AND MICHIGAN;
with some general observations on the systems of other States, By 0. S. Leavitt, Cincinnati, 1839.
This is the work of a disappointed candidate for the office of Superintendent of schools in Michigan, and is of course rather warlike in its character, and not always courteous. How far his statements may be affected by his position, we know not. Doubtless those systems are not perfect.
We quote some passages in which the author speaks of the means of forming a teacher's profession, which subject deserves to be considered.
“ Teachers will be respected and paid, by the people, when a profession of Education is created, rccognized and protected by law. For then young men of education and talents, and members of the other professions will come in and prove themselves worthy of honor and substantial reward."
“ How can this be done? I answer, hy putting it exactly on the foundation of other professions. Make it an independent, self-governing profession-subject to the wholesome restraint of some general law. We can trust the lawyers and doctors to examine their own candidates and manage their own concerns in their own way, provided they do not interfere with the right of others. Experience shows that a profession in our country will elevate its character and the qualifications of its own inembers, without any foreign aid, if protected by law. Now why not trust our teachers ? Have not qualified teachers as much learning, and wisdom, and patriotism as physicians and lawyers? If they have not, they should have, and can soon have by enjoying the ordinary legal recognition and protection granted to other professions.
How shall this be commenced ? This course is simple, plain, and feasible. Some persons must be first named by the Legislature, or some other authority, designated by law, of unquestionable talent and learning, who are in the practice of this profession-say three in each county--who form the teachers' profession. They meet monthly or quarterly to examine candidates for admission, discuss education questions, and transact any business that they may deem necessary, for advancing the interests of their cause. They are Jawfully constituted to take care of the interests of education, and they will do it,-certainly as well as those have done, who have never made the science of education their study. Their own interests will require it, and the advancement of the cause will lie near their hearts. On the new arena thus afforded, they are to gain not only respectability but fame. By our laws we have shown them that they are worth respecting and trusting : men of the right stamp will hasten to their ranks, as well from the other three, now overflowing, professions, as from our colleges and other seminaries of learning."
“ It may be asked here, ' how do the laws make teaching disreputable ? I will illustrate.
Suppose we abolish the present plan of the Medical professionhave a certain number engaged in each township, each to practise in his own district. Being so very important to have good physicians for all the people, and that the poor can be furnished gratis with
doctoring' (as sickness will come and is not their fault) the State take the matter in hand and provide a fund and authorise a further tax to pay these pbysicians. Now, as it is very important the people be not imposed upon by quacks-have three persons appointed either by the people or the court,' to examine these physicians every year ; and to prevent dangerous combinations whereby plans might be laid for 'striking for higher wages,' or some other measure to advance their own interests at the expense of the liberties of the people, have the laws so framed that they must be discharged every year, and make new engagements where they may, and also fix their wages so that they cannot receive more than a certain price. With a fixed maximum of wages; and examinations by blacksmiths, lawyers and laborers ; with their annual discharge from employment; their subjection to men of other avocations and without the privilege of determining the qualifications of their own members, por being trusted with arranging their own concerns and the peculiar interests of their own cause, I say, with all these instructions, would the practice of the niedical profession, under the law, be anything but debasing, disreputable ? Common sense answers--no! Could men of talents be induced to devote their time and money to fit for a profession like this, when justice and humanity would require absolute celibacy, to practise it with any success? If then the practice of physic under these circunstances would be disreputable, the business of teaching is now and must be debasing under the existing laws. Teachers are now situated even worse than physicians would be under the supposed law. Private schools are encouraged, taught by persons beyond the control of law and who are supposed to be so well qualified as not to require even an examination. They are frequently situated permanently, and their emoluments depend upon the reputation they have as teachers, and (professionally speaking) the success of their practice. These, however, do not constitute a profession ; but the best are thus engaged, and the others being under the denomination of Tom, Dick, and Harry,' are placed in a rather upenviable situation.”
THE INAUGURAL ADDRESS at the Anniversary of the Granville Lit
erary and Theological Institution, Aug. 8, 1838. By Jonathan Going, D. D. President and Professor of Theology. Columbus, Ohio, 1839.
The theme of this discourse is “the reciprocal influence of Learning and Religion.” We were somewhat startleil on opening it to find the first sentences such as these, “ The doctrine of innate ideas is now universally exploded. Man is, at any given stage of his being, exclusively the creature of education.” Has not our author heard of Kant, and Cousin, and Coleridge? We quote a paragraph, which tells thc plan and character of the Institution.