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The total number of professorships at the 10 universities named, is 214, lectureships 59, university officers 115, college officers 404, fellowships 1,013, college scholarships 1,725, members on books 17,196, members of convocation 5,514, colleges 52, value of university and college benefices £242,390, number of university and college prizes 677, value of these prizes £1,510. The total revenue of the colleges and universities is £410,683. The following colleges enjoy the richest revenues — King's college, Cambridge, £22.07); Christ-Church, Oxford £22,010; Trinity, Cambridge, £21,409; New College, Oxford, £18,590; St. John's, Cambridge, £17,420 ; Magdalen, Oxford, £13,610; All Souls and St. John's, Oxford, and Caius, Cambridge, each with an income of about £11,000, etc.
The profits from the printing-offices constitute the principal wealth of Oxford and Cambridge. These establishments, having peculiar privileges of monopoly, in the cases of all Bibles, Testaments and Prayer Books published without notes, and having attained considerable celebrity as classical and mathematical presses, are in the enjoyment of a vast printing trade. The drawback on paper printed at the Cambridge university press, during seven years ending A pril 5, 1815, was £13,087; during the same period at Oxford, the drawback was £18,650. The value of Bibles, Testaments and Prayer Books, printed at Cambridge, during the same period, was £149,050; at Oxford, £212,917; value of other buoks printed at Cambridge, £16,993 ; at Oxford, £24,776. Yearly average value, Cambridge, £23,720 ; Oxford, £33,956. Since 1815, the book-trade of the universities has at least doubled. The profits of the Oxford printing press are now estimated at £10,000 per annum; of the Cambridge, at £5,000.
The revenues of the Scotch universities must have been much augmented since the Parliamentary Report was published. The total income of the ten British universities above named, including tuition money, benefices, etc., may be put down at £800,000 per annum; which is in reality only a small sum, when compared either with the annual revenues of the country, or with the paramount importance of superior education to a great and intelligent nation.
Art. II.—THE HISTORY OF ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL.*
That there was an ancient school attached to to the metropolitan church, is an historical fact of which its records give ample prouf. “It appears, by the charter of Richard, « Bishop of London, in the time of King Henry I. that he “granted to one Hugh, the Schoolmaster of St. Paul's “ church, and his successor, the habitation of Durandus, at " the corner of the turret, or bell-tower, where William, “ Dean of St. Paul's had placed him by the bishop's com" mand, together with the custody of the library belonging “ to the church. In which place Hugh succeeded Henry, a "canon of the same bishop's, who had been educated under " the said Hugh, to whom the bishop, besides the house “ which Hugh enjoyed, granted a meadow at Fulham, to" gether with the tiibes of llings and Madeley: and in far“ther augmentation of its revenues, Richard, surnamed Ni" gel, who sat bishop here in Richard I.'s time, gave unto " this school all the tithes arising in his demesnes at Fulham “and Horsetet,” &c.
The Chancellor of St. Paul's was not only vested with the direction of affairs which concerned teaching at the church, but was absoluie over the few who taught in London. Henry de Blois, Bishop of Winchester, issued his mandate, now among the records of St. Paul's directing that no person should presu ne to teach within London without license from Henry, then Master, except the Masters of St. Mary le Bow and St Martin's le Grand, under pain of excommunication. The appoinements were made by the chancellor, but the dean and chapter only could give the Master possession, who was to be sober, honest, and learned ; in short, a person, the tenor of whose life would be an animating example to his scholars; a Icacher not only of grammar but of virtue; “ Eis non solum grammatices, sed etiam virtutis magister.” Such was the ancient School of St. Paul's, and such the foundation on which the present school was erected.
*Note.-Abstracted from Ackermans's History of the Colleges and Public Schools of England.
Dugdales Hist. of St. Paul's, pp. 9, 10.
This establishment, which has so long fourished, and is still flourishing, and among whose scholars are recorded the names of men eminently distinguished for their learning, their talents, and their virtues, was founded by Dr. John Colet, Dean of St. Paul's, in the year 1512, by the warrant of Henry VIII, responding to the following.
"SUPPLICATIO AD REGIAM MAIESTATEM " In the moste humble wyse shewith and besechith youre “mooste graciouse highnesse youre contynuall oratour John “ Colet, Deane of the cathedrall churche of Seynt Paule, “ within youre citie of London, That where youre said ora“tour to the pleasur of God and for. and in augmentation "and encrease as well of connying as of vertuouse lyving “within youre realme hathe now of late edifyed within the “cimitory of the saide cathedrall churche à schole-house “ (wherein he purposith that children as well borne and “ to be borne within youre said citie as elsewhere (to the " same repayring shall not oonely in contynuance be sub“stancially taughte and lernyd in Laten tung, but also in“structed and informed in vertuouse condiciouns, which by “Goddes grace shall largely extende and abunde to “ the common weal of the people of this youre realme, “and to the grete coumfort and comodile of youre grace " and to youre heires, to have yong children of youre realme “ both in conyng and vertue graciously brought up in "avoyding many folde vices which these dayes for lake of “suche instruccion in youth been gretly rooted and contyn“ued in yong people, to the grete displeasur of God. And “ for the perpetuall contynuance of the charges of the same, “ for ever to be borne, paied, and susteyned according to "such ordre and direccion as youre said oratour by speciall “ favour and licence of youre highnesse purposith to make " and ordeyne, he intendith to geve and moytyse landes and “ tenements of the clere yerely valew of fifty and three “poundis in the contie of Buk, to some body corporat at his “denomynacion. In consideracion whereof it may please “youre highnesse of youre most habundant grace and good“ nesse, by youre gracious letters patent under youre grete “ seale in due forme to be made, to graunt and licence youre " said oratour to geve and graunt mans londs and tenements “ in the said countie of the clere yerely valew of fifty and
" three poundis above all charges to som body corporate, “and licence to the same body corporat the same landes "and tenements to receyve and take to the intent before“said, eny statute of landes and tenements to mortmayne “not to be putt notwithstanding, and that withoute fyn fee " or other charges therefore to be paide or borne to youre “grace. And youre said oratour shall daiely pray to God “ for the prosperitie of youre moste noble and royall estate “ long to endure.”
1486 and 1495,
number of daughtfitionally believed
John Colet, D. D. the Founder of this school, was born in London in the year 1466. He was the son of Sir Henry Colet, Knight, mercer and citizen of London, who had acquired great wealth with a most unblemished character, and had been twice elected lord mayor, in the years 1486 and 1495. This, the only surviving child of eleven sons and an equal number of daughters, who died in their infancy, received, as it has been traditionally believed, the early part of his education at St. Anthony's school in Threadneedle.street, then the most eminent seminary, for learning in that period, in London, and which has long since fallen into decay. Newcourt, in his Repertorium, represents his removal to the University of Oxford to have taken place in 1483, where he continued during seven years in the ardent pursuit of knowledge, but more particularly attaching himself to the study of logic and philosophy. He then proceeded to his degrees in Arts, and had not only rendered himself familiar with the works of Cicero, but was no stranger to Plato and Plotinus, which he read and compared for their mutual illustration*. He could not, however, have studied them in any other way than through the medium of Latin translations; as neither at school nor at the University was there, at that tiine, any opportunity of learning Greek, a language which the strange prejudices of the age may be said to have encountered with prohibitions to the teaching of it. In mathematics also, he had made a very great proficiency, and having obtained, in the language of Wood, “a most admirable competency in learning at home,” he determined to enlarge it by travel through foreign countries. He went first to France, and then to Italy, and appears to have re
* Wood's Ath. Oxen, edit by Bliss, vol. I. fol. 22.
mained on the Continent from 1493 to 1497. Previous to the commencement of his travels, when he was but nineteen years of age, and only two years standing in the University, he was presented, by Sir William Knyvet, a relation of his mother, to the rectory of St. Mary Denington, in Suffolk, which he held to the close of his life; and by his father, to Thryning, in Huntingdonshire, in which he was instituted in 1493, but resigned it in 1499*.
On his arrival at Paris, he sought the society of the learned, and, among others, became acquainted with Gaguiness, the French historian, who had been ambassador at the court of Henry VII. from that of France, and the celebrated Budæus, who first excited in hiin the desire to become acquainted with Erasmus, whose friendship afterwards contrib. uted so much to the honor and happiness of his life. In Italy he contracted an intimacy with many distinguished persons; especially with his own countrymen, Grocyn, Linacer, Lilly, and Latimer, who were learning the Greek tongue, then but little known in England, under those great masters, Demetrius, Angelus Politianus, Hermolaus Barbnrus, and Pomponius Sabinus. It is not to be supposed that, with his thirst of knowledge, he hesitated to avail himself of this opportunity to make acquisitions in the knowledge of the Greek language : but he more earnestly devoted himself to divinity, and studied while abroad the best of the ancient Fathers, particularly Origen, Cyprian, Ambrose, and Jerome; at the same time, it is said that he rather undervalued St. Augustine: nor did he seem to prefer Aquinas, Don Scotus, and other schoolmen. He also studied the civil and canon law; made himself acquainted with the history and constitution of church and state ; nor did he neglect the best English writers of that period, both in prose and verse, in order to perfect his style and render him an eloquent preacher. Polydore Virgil, one of his contemporaries, mentions, that he was, by an early and natural disposition, inclined to piety and religion; and therefore, as soon as he approached the age of manhood, and was well instructed in all those arts and sciences which are called Humanity, he applied himself to divinity, choosing St. Paul as his particular master, and
* The practice of taking livings while thns under age generally prevailed in the Chu.ch of Rome; and Colet being an Acolythe, which is one of their seven orders, was duly qualified.