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Orationis partium Constructione libellus,” which, with cerlain alterations and additions, forms the Syntax in Lily's Grammar, 1530.–4. “ Daily Devotions, or the Christian's Morning and Evening Sacrifice."-5. Monition to a good Life,” 1534, &c.-6. “ Epistolæ ad Erasmum.” Many of them are printed among the Epistles of Erasmus, and some at the end of Knight's Life. There are still remaining in MS. others of his compositions, which are enumerated by his biographer.* He wrote but few sermons, as he preached generally without notes.
The ancient school shared in the conflagration of 1666, and was rebuilt by the active zeal of the Mercers' Company.
The elevation of St. Paul's School is uniform, and, in a more advantageous situation, would attract attention as an example of elegant architecture. The structure is a parallelogram, extending north and south, almost directly facing the chancel of St. Paul's church. The north wing, consisting of large and elegant apartments, is occupied by the High Master ; the south equally commodious, by the Surmaster ; while the Usher occupies a house in the Old Change to the east of the building. The school-room is a spacious apartment, at whose south end is an elevated chair, with Dean Colet's arms, and the crest of the Mercers' Company carved in a wreath of flowers.
And old bust of the Founder, copied and improved by the late Mr Bacon, in statuary marble, is placed above the High Master's seat; and on the left side of it is the bust of the Rev. Mr Thicknesse, who occupied it during twentyon years: the memorial was placed there by the voluntary subscription of his grateful scholars. Over the high seat is inscribed, “ Intendas animum studiis et rebus honestis;“' and over the entrance is the appropriate injunction, “Doce, disce aut discede.”
* A principal object of his writings was to promote the right instruction of his school, which he has affectionatrly expressed to Lily, in his letter to hiin witb the little tract on the Construction of the eight Parts of Sprech. It is dated 1513. “Methinks, my dearest Lillye, I bear the same affection to my new school as a parent does to his only grin, to whom he is not only willing to pass over hs whole estate, but is desirous even to iinpart bis own bowels also); and a-lhe faiher thinks it to little purpose to have be. gotten a son, unless by diligent education he raises him up into a goud and useful man, so to my own inind, it is by no means sufficient that I have raised this school, and have conveyed my whole estate to it (even during my own life and health,) unless I take all possible care to nurture it in good letters and Christian ranners, nod bring it on to some useful naturity and perfection. For this reason I send you," &c. &c.
It is a free school, and confined to tuition alone which is strictly classical, and without any charge, but the payınent of one shilling on the entrance of each boy. The adınission of the scholars is in the Mercers' Company, and the acting trustee is an annual officer delegated by them. They act in the government of the school by the regulations of the statutes, possessing a discretionary power given by the Founder, with a due foresight to the probable events and varying circumstances of succeeding times. The gross average income of the school is between 5 and 6000l. per annum, arising from the revenues of landed estates and the interest of money in the funds.
The salaries of the Masters are in the following degrees: The High Master* 6181.; the Surmaster 3071. ; the Usher 2271; and the Assistant Master 2571. The late High Master Dr. Roberts, who filled that office with great reputation, diligence, and learning for fortyfive years, bas attained a very advanced deriod of life, receives an annual allowance of 1000l. settled on him for the remainder of it.fi
This act of the Mercers' Company must not be passed by without the applausive observation which it so justly claims. St. Paul's School is indebted for its existence to a fortune raised by a most honorable man and highly dignified citizen of London, with which his son, Dean Colet, was enabled to establish a foundation for the promotion of that learning, piety, and virtue, which had rendered his own lise illustrious. He also erected it in the city where the wealth, to which it owes its foundation, was acquired ; and placed it under the direction of that civic guild, or honorable association of citizens, to which he who had created the fortune belonged. The reverend Founder, with a liberality of mind that was not always a feature of the ecclesiastical character in those days, entrusted the care of this institution, the fruit of commercial acquisition, to commercial men; and they have fulfilled their trust in all the branches of their duty. The teachers appointed to the important office of its instruc
* The High Master is allowed the privilege of taking boarders; but that is a private concern.
t Report from the Select Committee of the House of Commons to inquire into the education, &c. passim.
tion, are known to be qualified with talents and learning equal to those of the great collegiate foundations : but St. Paul's School has not had kings for its nursing fathers, nor queens for its nursing mothers, nor mitred churchmen for its founders, nor noble and powerful patrons with the beneficial contingencies of settled or expectant patronage ; and therefore its teachers, though with equal qualifications, have not those rewards in prospect to which the instructors of collegiate establishments direct their hopes and expectations. But here we see the Mercers' Company of London, with a just sense of superior deservings, and a generous wish to recompense them, has conferred on the learned and venerable Dr. Roberts 1000l. per annum, to give repose, comfort, and honor (for reward is the highest honor, when it is well deserved,) to the closing years of a long life, the larger portion of wbich has been passed in the important service of instructing youth; a recompense of which there are very few, if any, examples from the private funds of similar institutions.
Such of ihe scholars as are destined to the University are sent on exhibitions from a benefaction founded by Lord Camden, which is separate from the estate of the school, and on those arising from the school foundation. They are not limited as to number, and are continued for seven years. The first amount to 1001. and the latter to 50l. per annum.
High Masters of St. Paul's School from its Foundation in the Year 1512.-1512, Willam Lily* 10 years.1522, John Ritwyse 10.-1532, Richard Jones 17.-1549, Thomas Freeman 10.–1559, John Cooke 14.–1573, William Malin 8.-1581, John Harrison 15.-1596, Richard Mulcaster 12.--1608, Alexander Gill, sen. 27.--1635, Alexander Gill, jun. D. D. 5.—1640, John Langley 17.1657, Samuel Cromeholme 15.–1672, Thomas Gale, D. D. 15.-1697, John Postlethwayt 16.-1713, Philip As. cough 8.—1721, Benjamin Morland, F. R. S. 12.--1733, Timothy Crumpe 4.–1737, George Charles, D. D. 11.1748, George Thicknesse 21.–1769, Richard Roberts, D. D. 45.–1814 J. Sleath, D. D. F. S. A.
* Dr. Samuel Knight, in his Life of Dean Colet, gives a particular account of this eninent teacher, scholar and gramarian, which is followed by the literary biography of his highly qualified successors in the distinguished office of High Master to the year 1724. The characters of those who have succeeded give an equal occasion for the eulogiums of subsequent writers.
For the Annals of Education. Arr. III.—WHAT MAKES SCHOOLMASTERS RUSTY ? Not all schoolmasters; there are some honorable exceptions. But of those whom I have the honor to know, of a few years' standing, eigbt tenths at least, are abominably rusty. They wear decent coats perhaps, and are well to do in their outer man. But in the furniture of the mind, if you look within, they are sadly old fashioned. The broad brim, and broad flapped waistcoat, look somehow out of place, though they have indeed, a certain antique gravity to recommend them. They, doubtless have studied the “ Clothes Philosophy” to soine purpose and scorn to seem what they are not.
It seems to me that the business of school keeping, except in circumstances of peculiar advantage, has a natural tendency to dissipate and enfeeble the mind. The teacher is, in his profession, confined to a narrow circle of ideas, that is, they only are necessary for the discharye of his daily duties. These ideas are the food of only young minds, and he is required to make ninced meat of them for the use of such. There is here no impulse to improvement, except in the way of simplification. The continual contact with minds of inferior powers drags the teacher heavily down. Literary labor, beyond his daily sphere is not expected of him, and often is looked on with suspicion, as a departure from his appropriate duties. The natural effect of his occupation, is to make him rusty.
He must set himself strongly against this tendency. He can effectually resist it. He must cultivate literature, science, natural history, any thing for which he has a taste, that he may grow. When wearied by the labors of the day, he must not repose in inaction. Spontaneous and strenuous labor is the law and condition of bis growth, as of his pupils. He need no more stop at twentyfive or thirty, than they at twelve or fifteen. Let him study day by day as they do, and his progress shall be more healthful than theirs.
I was going to give specific directions in this matter, when I turned to the excellent chapter on the Moral and Intellectual Habits of Teachers, in Mr Gallaudet's excellent edition of Mr Dunn's Manual. It contains what I would have them know and practice, said much better than I should have said it. So give that to your readers, in lieu of my wisdom. Yours, &c.
* We placed the School Teacher's Manual into the hands of a friend, to be noticed according to its merits. We have received from him the above, which we give without comment, and the chapler referred to, with slight omissions,
MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL HABITS or A TEACHER.
(From the School Teacher's Manual.]
its mothers Devil in the will as of physich
If it be true, that “ mothers and schoolmasters plant the seeds of nearly all the good and evil in the world;" if it be the great, the universal law of morals, as well as of physics, that “ kind shall bring forth after its kind ;" then, since the educator can but reproduce his own image ; since good and evil are continually “ going out of him ;' and by the power of a mysterious assimilation, children become and do, just what he is and does; is scarcely possible, too frequently or earnestly to impress upon his mind, that, while no man ministers at a holier altar, no man stands more in need of an enlarged heart and a purified spirit than himself.
It is not, however, my intention even to enumerate, the various excellences which should adorn the character of the Christian teacher. Three or four general hints, on the cultivation of habits calculated to insure respect and esteem in the world, to facilitate the discharge of school duties, -and to aid in the acquisition of useful knowledge is all that I ask permission to offer.
1. Cultivate diligently the habit of rigid self-control. He can never rule others successfully, who has not first learned to govern himself. But self-government is a virtue of no easy attainment; implying, as it commonly does, much painful discipline, and sometimes a degree of mental endurance, which the strongest motives alone, can enable man to bear. It must extend, not only to the government of the temper and passions, but to the regulation of the whole conduct: it must determine the distribution of time; the expenditure of money ; the choice of studies; and the selection both of companions and of amusements; and all this, as I before said, implies painful discipline. Without self-government, however, you can, as a teacher, literally do nothing. Where this is wanting, it is obviously impossible to carry out any settled plan, either for our own good, or for the benefit of others. Carried about by every wind of passion, the wretched victim of ill temper and caprice rejects to-day, that which but yesterday he judged to be above all things desirable; his own irritated spirit kindles irritation in every other