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far into man's workings with Nature, into man's Art and Artifice ; Shakspeare knew (kenned, which in those days still partially meant can-ned) innumerable things; what men are, and what the world is, and how and what men aim at there, from the Dame Quickly of modern Eastcheap, to the Cæsar of ancient Rome, over many countries, over many centuries: of all this he had the clearest understanding and constructive comprehension ; all this was his learning and Insight ; what now is thine ? Insight into none of those things; perhaps, strictly considered, into no thing whatever : solely into thy own sheepskin diplomas, fat academic honors, into vocables and alphabetic letters, and but a little way into these!—The grand result of schooling is a mind with just vision to discern, with free force to do: the grand schoolmaster is Practice.
And now, when kenning and can-ning have become two altogether different words; and this, the first principle of human culture, the foundation-stone of all but false imaginary culture, that men must, before every other thing, be trained to do somewhat, has been, for some generations, laid quietly on the shelf, with such result as we see,-consider what advantage those same uneducated Working classes have over the educated Unworking classes, in one particular; herein, namely that they must work. To work! What incalculable sources of cultivation lie in that process, in that attempt ; how it lays hold of the whole man, not of a small theoretical calculating fraction of him, but of the whole practical, doing and daring and enduring man; thereby to awaken dormant faculties, root out old errors, at every step! He that has done nothing has known nothing. Vain is it to sit scheming and plausibly discoursing : up and be doing! If thy knowledge be real, put it forth from thee: grapple with real Nature ; try thy theories there, and see how they hold out. Du one thing, for the first time in thy life do a thing ; a new light will rise to thee on the doing of all things whatsoever. Truly, a boundless significance lies in work : whereby the humblest craftsman comes to attain much, which is of indispensable use, but which he who is of no craft, were he never so high, runs the risk of missing. Once turn to Practice, Error and Truth will no longer consort together : the result of Error involves you in the square-root of a negative quantity; try to extract it, or any earthly substance or sustenance from it, if you will! . The honorable Member can discov. er that 'there is a re-action,' and believe it, and wearisomely reason on it, in spite of all men, while he so pleases, for still his wine and his oil will not fail bim : but the sooty Brazier, who discovered that brass was green-cheese, has to act on his discovery ; finds therefore, that, singular as it may seem, brass cannot be masticated for dinner, green-cheese will not beat into fireproof dishes : that such discovery, therefore, has no legs to stand on, and must even be let fall. Now, take this principle of difference through the entire lives of two men, and calculate what it will amount to! Necessity, moreover, which we here see the mother of Accuracy, is well known as the mother of Invention. He who wants every thing, must know many things, do many things, to procure even a few: different enough with hin, whose indispensable knowledge is this only, that a finger will pull the bell!
For the Annals of Education. Art. V.-ANTHON'S GREEK GRAMMAR.
A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE, for the use of Schools
and Colleges. By Charles Anthon, LL. D., Jay Professor of the Greek and Latin Languages in Columbia College, New York, and Rector of the Grammar School. New York: Harper & Brothers, 82 Cliff Street, 1838.
This volume is one of a series of College and School Classics now in course of publication by Professor Anthon. The series thus far, consists of Horace, Cæsar's Commentaries, Select Orations of Cicero, Sallust, a Greek Grammar, Greek First Lessons, and Latin First Lessons. These editions are marked by great excellencies and defects, exhibiting extensive learning, some ostentation of it, and in some respects a singular want of judicious adaptation to the classes of students into whose hands they are likely to fall. We hope to be able to present to our readers, before long, a more complete criticism of these works.
The Greek Grammar which belongs to the series, has been in our hands a twelvemonth, more or less. We gave it a rather careful examination some time ago, and finding it to be crude and imperfect, laid it aside, not as worthless, but as being by no means what a Greek Grammar for our days ought to be. Our attention has been called to this book again, by reading commendatory notices of it, in works which ought to speak deliberately as they speak with authority,* in which it is affirmed to be not only in advance of any other
• See the New York Review, Knickerbocker, Democratic Magazine, &c. similar work, but so excellent that the march of improvement ought to stop with it. Our own impression was otherwise. We have re-examined the book, and our own impression is still otherwise.
to meet the wants of beginners, such a work should be clear, simple, and precise, and brief. The advanced student needs a more full exposition of principles, a more copious illustration by examples, and a minute statement of exceptions, and idiotisms, both of form and structure. The attainment of either end, and much more of both at once, would require, accurate and extensive research, made with express reference to this object-a careful reading of Greek authors in express reference to it,-a thorough study and digesting of what has been published by the best writers of Greek Grammars-and a method of statement and explanation that shall be throughout consistent with itself. On thesc points we conceive Professor Anthon has failed. That whatever researches the author may have made, and whatever reading of Greek authors, have not been with reference to the preparation of this work, a brief inspection will show, to any scholar. The principles of formation and structure bear no marks of careful study, or of independent thought. The statements are mostly old ones, and the examples hardly new. We could also point out many instances of inaccurate, at least of unguarded statements, and important omissions, e. g. page 83, paragraph 5; page 91, par. 5; page 100, the only sentence; page 102, par. 7, near the close.
That Professor Anthon has not thoroughly digested what others have written on Greek Grammar, may perhaps be safely inferred from the fact, that the whole chapter on the « force of the monds," the most important on the verb, is taken verbaiim from Bloomfield's translation of Matihiæ. When we first read Professor Anthon's exposition of that subject, it struck us as strangely familiar, even in the very words; and turning to Matthiæ, we found a marvellous coin. cidence. Strange to tell we found every sentence of Professor Anthon's ten pages, word for word in Matthiæ. We say word for word. Professor Anthon has made a few slight and unimportant changes, e. g. he has sometimes substituted “ perfect" for “ past tenses," and the reverse ; few of more
consequence, changes apparently made in the haste of transcribing, or merely for the sake of change, as the original is usually better than the copy. Not every sentence, however. There are two sentences and two examples in Anthon, which are not in Matthiæ. One sentence is from Buttman, and one example introduces an indicative mood to illustrate al rule for the subjunctive! So also for the “ special rules'' for the formation of the Active tenses, Professor Anthon is most profoundly indebted to Matthiæ. Almost every sentence is taken from him; with this difference, that where Matthiæ doubts, or at most says “ probably," Professor Anthon affirms positively or generally, or omits some important qualification; and this evidently not because his researches had led him to a greater certainty. His haste has led into gross errors too ; e. g. page 113, (c). On these two all important topics not a new distinction or principle is put forth, not an old one more clearly explained, nor an iota added in any way from the resources of the author.
We find fault with no man for availing himself of the labors of preceding inquirers in the same department; but to copy exactly, with no modification of views derived from ones own researches or thoughts, and to blunder only where the original is deviated from, is hardly using them to good purpose. The selections too, thus made, seem to have been made nearly at random. The successive distinctions developed in Matthiæ afford the semblance of continuity, and of a principle of arrangement. The copyist disregarded this fact, and has often retained connective clauses and words, while the passages and principles to which they refer are omitted. We could perhaps pardon the copying even, but did the copyist suppose that no one ever saw Matthiæ but himself ? Would it not have been courteous to that diligent scholar to have soinewhere hinted that he too had studied the “ force of the moods”?
We have not room to pursue this examination further. We do not condemn the book utterly. It has many excellencies, e. g. the doctrine of the accents is ingeniously though briefly stated, and the syntax is in the main perspicuous, and brief. But we do not regard it as an authority on the subject of Greek Grammar, or in any good degree adequate to the wants of advanced scholars, or such a book as Professor An
have win that
thon ought to have written. He is, we believe, a man of great erudition, and in that respect fully capable of making a good treatise on this subject. We as surely believe that this work was hastily “got up," to fill a place in the series, without any suitable preparation for it, or giving time enough to the labor.
preparation for hilla placey believe king
MISCELLANEOUS LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.
PROTESTANT FacuLTY OF THEOLOGY AT MONTAUBAN. The city of Montauban is the capital of the department of Tarnand-Garonne, and contains about 25,000 inhabitants. It is situated in the south of France, in the province of Languedoc, so celebrated in the dark ages for the wars of the Albigenses, the songs of the Troubadours, and in more modern times, for its eagerness to embrace the doctrines of the Reformation.
In the seventeenth century, Montauban had a protestant semina ry which trained pastors for the south of France. But this establishment was destroyed, like many others of the saine kind, by the revocation of the edict of Nantes. But in 1810, when Napoleon bad subdued his enemies and obliged them to sue for peace, the protestants of the Southern provinces of France took advantage of this moment of prosperity to solicit the re-estalilishınent of the Faculty of theology at Montauban. Sometines it has had a hundred and fifty students; at other times it has had but fifty. This last is about the number of students at present.
The faculty of theology possesses six professors, and is divided into sections or classes, the class of philosophy, and the class of theology, properly so called. Two professors belong to the class of pbilosophy ; tbey teach Greek and Latin literature, metaphysical sciences, the elements of mathematics and of the Hebrew language. The four other professors give lectures in the class of theologyThe first, Mr Montel, is charged with ecclesiastical history and sacred criticism. The second, Mr Jalaguier, teaches doctrinal theology. The third, Mr Adolphus Monod, reads with the students the Old Testament in Hebrew, adding to it exegetical lectures. The