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literature, who can be justly deemed his superior. We speak of Dr Channing as an essayist, not to depreciate his powers in other respects, but because his finest efforts have been made in this style, and posterity will forget him as a theologian, while he shall continue to be admired as an elegant and eloquent writer.
All his writings are characterised by eminent purity and choiceness of language, and by a nervous simplicity of diction, which yet is easy, flowing, and free from affectation. Sometimes they have a certain air of nice elaboration—the art not wholly concealed—but oftener while we read, we forget the style, or rather are persuaded by it to remember only that we are in communion with a mind of rare powers, freely disclosing to us the truth it has attained, and uttering to us without hindrance or suppression, its noble thoughts and aspirations. The individuality charms us. It is not the mind only that we see, but the whole man. We could forgive gross neglect of rhetoric, of which Dr Channing is never guilty, to the writer who can so control us.
The philosophical character of Dr Channing's writings has been both censured, and commended, we think with little discrimination. We have not now room to examine this topic. We can only say, that, if to be the originator of a system, is the mark of a philosopher, that is not his merit, as we believe it is not his claim. If to have made discoveries, strictly so called, of facts, or principles, or relations, is necessary to complete the title, we shall hardly be disposed to give him that rank. But if to find realities in what are to most men mere words,--to have penetrated to the heart of things, while the most grasp only at the shadow and are content with the form,-if in morals to discern between the precious and the vile, by meditation and inward experience to apprehend the nature and to appreciate the worth of the great familiar principles of duty, and of moral action, which like the air and light we well know, but think not of, if to have found life in virtue and being in truthif to look through the material elements which enshroud our daily life, and to find its spiritual uses and relations, and to have seized upon the great purposes of our being, vainly it may be and imperfectly, yet with manly earnestness,-if any or all of these make the philosopher, Dr Channing merits no low rank in that illustrious society.
We more highly respect the humble individual whose life has been devoted to increasing the happiness and strengthening the virtues of his narrow circle of acquaintances, than him who brings report of newly discovered islands. And in like manner, we judge that he who has wrought out a new problem, or ascertained a new species, has rendered a less excellent service to humanity, than he has done who has tasked himself to persuade men, and who has taught with the eloquence of deep conviction, the supremacy of duty over .pleasure, of conscience over worldly interest and fear, of virtue and the moral life over wealth and fame and learning.
We shall again and again recur to the subject of self-culture, and endeavor to set forth its end, and principles and method, and may hereafter more fully review the positions taken by Dr Channing in this lecture. At present we can only say that we are glad to find him bringing his contributions to this noble science, and though we may not assent to all his statements, and may find occasion to suggest material deficiences and omissions, we shall delight to labor in the same field, with the same love of truth and kindliness of spirit.
After some preliminary remarks, which in some quarters will be thought to savor of radicalism, but which fairly interpreted contain no more than the principles universally recognised among us, the lecturer proceeds, I, to unfold the idea of self-culture, which is considered in its several relations, as moral, religious, social, intellectual, and practical ; and more fully considers it in two branches, the perception of beauty, and the power of utterance. II. He discusses the means of self-culture ; to choose it as an end, to control the animal appetites, to seek intercourse with superior minds, to free ourselves from the power of human opinion and example, and the occasions furnished by every man's occupation and by our peculiar institutions. The recommendations of general measures for the support of education, as by appropriating the proceeds of the sales of the public lands, and some answers to objections to the practicableness of universal culture conclude the lecture. We should be glad to quote many of the beautiful and exhilarating passages with which the lecture abounds. In our present number we have room for only two.
“ One thing above all is needful, and that is, the Disinterestedness which is the very soul of virtue. To gain truth, which is the great object of the understanding, I must seek it disinterestedly. Here is the first and grand condition of intellectual progress. I must choose to receive the truth, no matter how it bears on myself. I must follow it, no matter where it leads, what interests it opposes, to what persecution or loss it lays me open, from what party it severs me, or to what party it allies. Without this fairness of mind, which is only another phrase for disinterested love of truth, great native powers of understanding are perverted and lead astray; genius runs wild; the light within us becomes darkness." The subtlest reasoners, for want of this, cheat themselves as well as others, and become entangled in the web of their own sophistry. It is a fact well known in the history of science and philosophy, that men gifted by nature with singular intelligence, have broached the grossest errors, and even sought to undermine the grand primitive truths on which human virtue, dignity and hope depend. And on the other hand, I have known instances of men of naturally moderate powers of inind, who by a disinterested love of truth and their fellow creatures, have gradually risen to po small force and enlargement of thought. Some of the most useful teachers in the pulpit and in schools, have owed their power of enlightening others, not so much to any natural superiority, as to the simplicity, impartiality and disinterestedness of their minds, to their readiness to live and die for the truth. A man, who rises above himself, looks from an eminence on nature and providence, on society and life. Thought expands as by a natural elasticity, when the pressure of selfishness is removed." The moral and religious principles of the soul, generously cultivated, fertilize the intellect. Duty, faithfully performed, opens the mind to Truth, both being of one family, alike immutable, universal and everlasting.” p. 19-20.
"It is chiefly through books that we enjoy intercourse with superior minds, and these invaluable means of communication are in the reach of all. In the best books, great men talk to us, give us their most precious thoughts, and pour their souls into ours. God be thanked for books. They are the voices of the distant and the dead, and make us heirs of the spiritual life of past ages. Books are the true levellers. They give to all, who will faithfully use them, the society, the spiritual presence of the best and greatest of our race. No matter how poor I am. No matter though the prosperous of my own time will not enter my obscure dwelling. If the Sacred Writers will enter and take up their abode under my roof, if Milton will cross my threshold to sing to me of Paradise, and Shakspeare to open to me the worlds of imagination and the working of the human heart, and Franklin to enrich me with his practical wisdom, I shall not pine for want of intellectual companionship, and I may become a cultivated man though excluded from what is called the best society in the place where I live.” p. 40.
MISCELL A NY.
HARVARD UNIVERSITY. The number of students in the University, is 396; in the Divinity School 19; in the Law School 78; in the Medical College, 82; Undergraduates, 217; Seniors, 73; Juniors, 44; Sophomores, 54; Freshmen, 55; Resident Graduates, 2; and University student, 1.
The following regulations have been adopted by the Corporation and sanctioned by the Board of Overseers.
I. In Rclation to the Mathematical Department.
1. Every Student, who has completed, during the Freshman year, the studies of Geometry, Algebra, Plane Trigonometry, with its application to Heights and Distances, to Navigation, and to Surveying and that of Spherical Trigonometry,- and who has passed a satisfactory Examination in each to the acceptance of the Mathematical Department and a Committee of the Overseers,— may discontinue the study of Mathematics at the end of the Freshman year, at the written request of his parent'or guardian, (if under age,) made with a full knowledge of his standing as a scholar, of the future studies in the department, and of those to be substituted for them.
2. Those students who continue in the study of Mathematics after the commencement of the Sophomore year, may choose either of the following courses.
The first Course, designed for those, who wish to become better acquainted with Practical Mathematics, will include Mensuration, Dialling, the Construction of Charts, the general principles of Civil Engineering, Nautical Astronomy, the Use of the Globes, of Instruments of Surveying, and of the Quadrant.
The second Course, designed for those, who wish to become qualified to instruct in high schools or academies, will include Conic Sections, Fluxions, the Mathematical Theory of Mechanics, and a most careful review of Arithmetic, Geometry, and Algebra.
The third Course is designed for those, who wish to become accomplished Mathematicians, and to qualify themselves to instruct in all the higher branches of Mathematics taught in colleges and the highest seminaries of learning.
Those who choose either the first or the second of these courses, will finish the study of Mathematics at the end of the Sophomore year.
Those who choose the third course, will be required to continue in the study during the remainder of their College life.
3. Those Students, who discontinue the study of Mathematics, shall choose as a substitute one or more of the following branches; Natural History, Civil History, Chemistry, a course in Geography and the use of the Globes, or studies in Greek or Latin additional to the prescribed course. The times and order of these studies will depend on the convenience of the instructers, and the decision of the Faculty.* The number of the recitations or lectures in them, during the Sopbomore year, is to be at least equal to the number of those prescribed in the Mathematical branch.
4. Sophomores, who choose to continue the study of Mathematics, and also members of the Junior and Senior Classes, may pursue any of the above mentioned studies as a voluntary exercise. In such cases, they are to attend with members of the Sophomore Class, and to be subject to like rules and regulations. But no Student shall take more than one such voluntary study without a special vote of the Faculty.
Those Students, who have not, at the commencement of the Sophomore year, completed the Mathematical studies required in the Freshman year, will be allowed the same choice with the others as to their regular studies. But, in addition to their regular studies, and in place of a voluntary study, which they will not in this case be allowed, they shall, unless excused by a special vote of the Faculty, continue their Mathematical studies until they have completed those required in the Freshman year.
I]. In relation to the Greek and Latin Departmen's,
1. The studies of Greek and Latin will be pur:ued during the Sophomore and Junior years in the following mřu per: Regular portions of text-books will be assigned for private study; at the hour prescribed for recitation, the whole Class will appear, and the time heretofore occupied in examining the Student as to his knowledge of the lesson, will be partly occupied in such examination, and partly in lectures or oral instruction, given by the Professor, on the
*In the early part of the coming Academical year, it may not be possible to provide instruction in Natural History, Civil History, and Chemistry. Until the arrangements are completed therefore, students may be compelled to continue for a short time in the Mathematical Department, or to accept one of the three last mentioned substitutes.