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of the Polish Schools, Latin became the classical language, and the scholars were taught Grammar, Rhetoric, Philosophy, and Divinity. The same course of instruction was also adopted in the Spiritual Academy of Moscow, and continued till the end of the sixteenth century. The state of these schools was much improved by Peter I., and a degree of learning introduced into them unknown in the preceding ages. His successors also have paid considerable attention to the education of the priesthood—an object of the very first importance for promoting the civilization and happiness of their subjects; and hence, since his time, various improvements have been made in these seminaries. Thus, in 1788, the two seminaries of Novogorod and Alexandroff were united, and students of talent were ordered to be sent hither from the other clerical schools, to be prepared for the office of teachers. In 1797, the spiritual seminaries of Alexandroff and Kazan were denominated Academies; and together with the former two of Kief and Moscow, were furnished with teachers answerable to their designation, as the first spiritual schools of the empire. The following year the same course of liberal education which had been adopted in the Academy of Alexandroff was introduced into the other three academies, and into all the seminaries. It was also ordered, that these four academies should be particularly appropriated for training up the most hopeful young men to the office of teachers in the spiritual schools. The course of instruction in these schools was again extended; and, by a ukaz in 1802, a medical class was ordered to be instituted at each of the academies and diocesan seminaries of the clergy. This latter arrangement, however, was not of long continuance, and was afterwards abolished. In the four academies, and in some of the seminaries, the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and German languages are taught, together with Natural and Moral Philosophy, Mathematics, History, Rhetoric, Divinity, &c. &c.

Of these schools, four are academies, as above specified; and thirtysix are seminaries, one in every diocese, under the special superintendency of the bishop. There are also a number of district and parochial schools for the children of the clergy, in which they are prepared for the above seminaries. The children are usually sent to them when about

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eight or ten years of age. They begin with the Latin and Slavonic tongues ; and according to their progress in these, are advanced into the higher classes. The students in the academies and seminaries are taught by means of public lectures, delivered by the preceptors, now styled Professors. Formerly these teachers were all monks and priests; but this is not now required ; so that many professors and teach ers are laymen. The four academies confer the degrees of M. A. and D. D. The district schools for elementary instruction in all the dioceses amount to 360, and the parochial to 1080 ; and the number of scholars in these four degrees of spiritual schools, established exclusively for the sons of the clergy, is upwards of 30,000.”

“All the public schools of every description, yet established for the laity throughout the empire, are under the inspection of the six universities of Moscow, Petersburg, Dorpat, Vilna, Kazan, and Harkoff. When, however, we turn from the promising aspect of instruction and learning that is seen among the Russian clergy, to take a view of the small provision hitherto made for the instruction of the other classes of the inhabitants, the contrast is so striking, that the disproportion will hardly be credited : yet every year is gradually adding to the number both of schools and scholars, and the Government seems anxious to extend the blessings of edu- , cation, especially to the middle ranks.

Each of the universities has the provincial gymnasiums, and the district and other smaller schools, under its superintendence. About a hundred students at each university are supported by the crown: they are prepared for becoming professors and teachers in the gyınnasiums, in which also a certain number of the scholars are educated at the cost of the Government. From these seminaries are obtained young men to fill the various laborious offices under Government, and also the different departments of medicine. The number of seminaries and inferior schools under the seven universities, at the present day, is probably not more than 2,500, in which there may be about 125,000 scholars.

Few of the children of the nobles attend these schools : they are generally educated at home, by foreigners; or in private boarding-schools, also kept by foreigners. Few of them choose the study of letters : hence a fashionable edu

cation suits their taste better than a classical one. The civil and military services are those which they invariably prosecute; and the learned professions, like the church, are supplied principally from the lower orders of the people. Nevertheless, these universities are placed under a Curator, who is generally a nobleman by birth : and the Presidencies of the academies of arts and sciencies, and of benevolent and other institutions, are also occupied by men of rank and fortune. The professors and teachers of the universities and seminaries also obtain rank, and rise according to merit or seniority; and when no longer fit for active service, they receive a small pension. But even their regular salaries are altogether inadequate to support their rank and station in society. A professor has only about 80l. per annum, and his assistant 321. ; a professor of languages 241.; and each of the students supported by the crown about 81. per annum. Under the universities there are also a few establishments for the education of the sons of the nobility. Those of Moscow and Tzarskoi-Selo are the most distinguished. In the former, the number of boarders is about 300, for whom the parents pay; and the rest attend only as day scholars, but are obliged to dine at the table of the institution. The first class pay 321. per annum; and the second class 241.

The first school ever established in the country was founded at Kief, by Vladimir the Great; and was put under the care of the metropolitan. The directions given by the latter to the masters are still preserved, of which the following is not an unfavourable specimen :

Instruct the children,' said the metropolitan, in truth and virtue, in book science, good manners, and charity ; in the fear of the Lord, which is the beginning of wisdom ; and in purity and humility. Instruct them not with anger and severity, but with joy and trembling, and affectionate treatment-with sweet precepts and gentle consolation, that they may neither become weary nor weak. Teach them diligently and frequently; and give them tasks according to their powers, so that they may not faint and droop: but above all things, instruct them assiduously out of the Law of the Lord, for the advantage of both soul and body; and restrain them from foolish and improper language.

In the year 1031, the Grand-duke, Jaroslaff I., son of Vladimir, following the example of his father, established a school at Novogorod for the education of 300 sons of the clergy and nobles; for whom also he ordered several works to be translated from the Greek into the Slavonian. Of some of these translations, the originals are still preserved here, in the Church of St. Sophia.

But from this period, viz. 1017, till the time of Peter the Great, education seems to have made no progress whatever, but to have remained, where it began, among the clergy and a few of the nobles ;—and how very limited still is the knowledge of letters in this country! If we except the clergy, the nobility, and the two first guilds of the merchants, not one in 500 of all the rest of the population of native Russians can yet read.” or

Efforts for EDUCATION in Russia.* The general system is that of Prussia, with such modifications as are necessary to adapt it to that widely extended, and, in some parts, semi-barbarous empire. For example, the whole empire is divided into provinces, each of which has a university—the provinces into academic districts, which are provided with their gymnasia for classical learning, and academies for the higher branches of a business education ; and these academic districts are again subdivided into school districts, each with its elementary school. As the heart of the whole system, there is at St Petersburgh a model school for the education of teachers of every grade, for all parts of the empire. Of the universities, six had already gone into operation in 1835, namely; one at St Petersburgh, one at Moscow, one at Dorpat, in Livonia, one at Charkow, east of the river Dnieper, one at Kasan, on the Wolga, and one at Kiew. At other points lyceums are established, with courses of study more limited than that of the universities; and there is an institution at Moscow, especially for the education of the nobility. Of course, I shall not be understood as recommending for adoption by us whatever I speak of with approbation in reference to foreign lands; for the different circumstances of nations require different systems. It is the part of a wise legislator to examine all the improvements within his reach, and, from the whole, to select those parts only which are adapted to the peculiar circumstances of the people for whom he legislates.

* From a report made by Professor Stowe, to the Legislature of Ohio, December, 1837. It is a report of great value, and has been several times printed. It has been recently 'published in pamphlet form, by Marsh, Capen, Lyon, & Webb, of this city, together with an article by the same author, oo Teacher's seminaries. We print it again, because many of our readers may not have seen it, and because it is an important contribution towards a sketch of the present state of education in the world,

The different institutions in Russia are established as fast as the circumstances of the people admit, and as teachers can be found to supply them. At the date of the last report of the Minister of Public Instruction, the number of elementary and parish schools was about 12,000—of private schools, 430—and of gymnasia, 67.

The government regulations for cherishing in the people a desire for education, and directing them in the attainment of it, are wisely adapted to the purpose. The Minister of Public Instruction publishes a regular periodical journal, in which he gathers up all the facts, information, and arguments, to which his official station gives him access, and circulates them extensively through the nation. To illustrate the good faith, diligence, and liberal mindedness with which he executes this part of his office, I would refer to the number of his journal for August, 1835, in which he notices, with great approbation, the efforts of tract societies for the diffusion of moral and religious sentiments among the people, and mentions by name several publications of the American Tract Society, which have been translated into Russian, as having reached a third edition, and as being happily calculated to enlighten the intellect, and elevate the character of the people among whom they circulate. If the Minister of the Emperor Nicholas shows so much readiness to receive a good thing even from democratic America, we surely will not be so narrow minded as to spurn a good idea because it happened first to develope itself in autocratic Russia. As a further means of promoting education, every school-director and examiner undergoes a rigid scrutiny as to his intellectual and moral fitness for those important trusts; and every candidate for civil office is strictly examined as to his attainments in those branches of learning requisite to the right performance of the official duties to which he aspires. As common schools are new in the Russian empire, and as school houses are to be built in every part of it, the government, knowing the importance of having these houses well

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