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jealous eye upon the establishments formed by the pious munificence of his royal predecessor, and in whose objects the latter had manifested and expressed such a fond and zealous interest. Thus it appears, that Edward, counselled as he might originally have been by the Earl of Warwick, not only, in the first instance, curtailed the estates ef Henry's foundations of King's College, Cambridge, and Eton, but plundered them also of moveables of great value.
On the union of the houses of York and Lancaster under Henry VII, the sovereign power appeared to regard this college with a more favorable aspect; as by an act of Parliament in the fourth year of his reign, the king confirmed this foundation in its charters and privileges. He also restored some of the estates of which it had been despoiled, and granted licences to divers persons, to enable them to give or bequeath their lands to the college, notwithstanding the act of mortmain.
After all the depredations which Eton College had suffered, the following return is made to its survey in the thirtyseventh year of Henry VIII.:-" The College of Eton, founded by King Henry VI. Robert Aldridge, Bishop of Carlisle, Provost there. The said college is a parish church : it is of the yearly value of 10661. 16s. 91d.” In Tanner's Notitia it was valued, in spirituals and temporals, in the thirtyfourth year of Henry VIII. at 11011. 133. 7d.; but clear, after all deductions, at no more than 8861. 12s.
The collegiate edifice of Eton consists of two quadrangles. The first occupies a considerable space, and presents an imposing appearance, with a central statue of the Founder in bronze, the grateful gift, among others, of Dr Godolphin, who was elected Fellow in 1677, and elevated to the dignity of Provost in 1695. This square, or the school yard, as it is more generally denominated, is inclosed by the chapel, schools, dormitories, Master's chambers, and the eastern line of buildings, which contains part of the Provost's lodge, with other apartments, and a tower in the centre, whose gateway forms the principal entrance to the cloisters. The lesser quadrangle consists of the cloisters containing the residences of the Provost and Fellows, and the library, beneath which is a flight of steps, forming the ascent to the hall, and leading to the principal college offices connected with it. Beyond the cloisters are the college gardens and the playing fields, containing a large open space for active recreation, with shady walks, whose academic scenery is heightened by the Thames, which flows beside them, and the brow of Windsor, with its splendid castle, rising in the more distant prospect.
The Chapel occupies the south side of the larger quadrangle; and though in no point of view can it be assumed to rival the sacred edifice of the sister foundation at Cambridge, which, in its style of architecture, is of unparalleled beauty, it is, nevertheless, a stately structure. The building of it commenced July 3, 1441. In the year 1700 this chapel underwent considerable repairs, towards the expense of which Dr Godolphin was an ample contributor. The alterations were conducted under the direction of that great architect Sir Christopher Wren, who, as he did in other places, as well as Inigo Jones before him, thought proper to introduce the unappropriate designs of Grecian architecture, though upon what principle of propriety, taste, or local effect, cannot well be conceived. His altar-piece, which is in that style, and beautifully composed, covers the ancient one of Gothic character, with its niches and other characteristic decorations.
The Upper School was erected at the expense of 15001. by Dr Alstree, Provost of the college. It forms the western face of the larger quadrangle, and is supported by an arcade with double columns of the Doric order, the whole structure presenting an elevation worthy of Sir Christopher Wren, who designed it. The school room is spacious, and of fine proportions, but fitted up in a plain manner with wainscot, having a handsome elevated seat for the Head Master at the north end, and others for the Assistants, with forms for the Scholars, in uniform arrangement. At the south end is a large stair case, which ascends both to the chapel and the school. At the other end is the school library, communicating with the chambers of the Upper Master, for whose attendants there are adjoining rooms below, with a school for writing and its accompaniments.
The Lower School is in the building on the north side of this quadrangle, and beneath a part of the principal dormitory, or long chamber, as it is generally denominated. It is a room of considerable length, but not of proportionate height, with a range of ancient oak arches on either side, and the seats of the Scholars behind them. There is a tradition, that it has been the splendid college stable of former times; but the better account is, that Sir Henry Wotton fitted it up with pillars, on which might be painted pictures of Greek and Roman authors, for the instruction of the boys. A lower dormitory, with the chambers of the Under Master, &c. complete this feature of the college.
The Hall, where the Scholars on the foundation take their meals, is on the south side of the cloisters. This refectory is of large dimensions, but without those ornaments which have been sometimes lavished on rooms of this description. Two large ancient pieces of tapestry are indeed occasionally hung at the upper end of it. Hugget mentions, that, at some former period, the following memorial was rudely engraved on the wainscot of the hall, on the north side, near the west end :-Queen Elizabeth ad nos gave, October 10, two loaves in a mess, 1596." At that time the Queen paid a visit to Eton, and was complimented with a profusion of verses, as appears from those of Dr Rawlison in the Museum, entitled, Scholæ Eton. Annal. Poctic. R. Eliz, decorated with the arms of England, and dated 1596. It was written in a very fair hand, consists of 2:38 pages, and contains no less than four thousand hexameter verses.
The Library is an apartment of large dimensions, fitted up in a superior, style of elegance, and furnished with a very extensive and valuable collection of books.
The annual election of Scholars to King's College, Cambridge, takes place about the end of July, or the beginning of August, when twelve of the head boys are put on the roll to succeed at King's when vacancies occur there, which arise from the ecclesiastical preferment, marriage, resignation, or death of its Fellows. These, on the average calculation, from the foundation to the present day, have been about nine in two years. At nineteen years of age, the boys are superannuated, and leave the college.
At an early hour on the afternoon of the Saturday previous to the election week, the Provost of King's College, with the two Posers or Examiners appointed from its Fellows, arrive at Eton, where they are received by the Vice-Provost, Fellows, and Masters. They are then conducted to the vestibule beneath the tower, at the entrance of the cloisters, where they are received in form by the Provost of Eton, and
a Latin speech is delivered by the senior boy on the foundation: they then proceed to chapel. During the following week, an examination takes place as to the proficiency of the Scholars in classical literature, before the Provosts of each college, the Vice-Provost, the Head-Master, and the Posers, when the Scholars are placed in the order of their future succession to King's, and, on vacancies in the latter, they are admitted on that foundation: after the expiration of three years from the day of their admission, they are received as Fellows. Eton also sends two Scholars to Merton College, Oxford, called Portionistæ, or, by singular corruption of the term Postmasters. They were established by the Rev. John Chamber, Fellow of Eton, 1582, and Canon of Windsor. There are also some exbibitions for superannuated Scholars.
The independent Scholars, or Oppidans, as they are universally denominated, are very numerous. They are boarded in private houses in the immediate environs of the college, the presiding mistresses and masters of which enjoy the prescriptive title of Dame and Domine. When Dr Barnard, “ magnum et memorabile nomen,” was Master, the school flourished under his superior administration and eminently judicious discipline, beyond every preceding period. At the election of 1764, which was in the year previous to his resignation of the mastership, he could boast of five hundred and sixteen boys. At present that number is exceeded ; a circumstance peculiarly honorable to the talents and care of its masters : for, when the very prevailing fashion of sending youth for education to confined and limited seminaries is considered, the present character and prosperity of Eton School is evidently, as it is proportionably, enhanced and established.
The Montem, a triennial ceremony peculiar to Eton, and whose origin antiquarian sagacity has not yet discovered, seems to require some general account to be given of it. It consists of a procession of the boys in a kind of military order, to a small tumulus on the southern side of the Bath road, which gives the name of Salt Hill to a place so well known for the spacious inns that distinguish it. Here the collegiate regiment dines; and, after a Latin prayer has been read upon the mount, returns in the same order in which it issued forth. The head boy of the foundation Scholars
takes the lead as the captain of the cohort; the colors, decorated with the arms of the college, and the motto, Pro More et Monte, is borne by another; and the different ranks, in as regular subordination as can be expected, are filled by the respective classes according to the order of the school. Till the predominating good sense of Dr Barnard interposed to correct the customary absurdities of this celebrity, all Monmouth street was unfolded, to clothe, in every variety of splendid dresses, this youthful corps ; but his retrenchments and a better taste have prevailed to give it an appearance more suited to the occasion. Whatever might have been the original motive to this festival, the present object is principally to collect inoney from all the spectators of the show, as it is called, for salt. The two chief collectors or salt-bearers are, an Oppidan and a Colleger, whose activity will enable them to go through the fatigues of the day. The former is generally some young nobleman whose figure and personal connections may advance the interest of the collection. They are arrayed in light and elegant dresses, each bearing a silk bag, with a small quantity of salt in it, to receive the contributions : they are also assisted by others of a similar but less showy appearance. This ceremony is always very numerously attended by Etonians ; the neighboring gentry come from no small distance to attend it, and the relations of the Scholars may be supposed to feel an interest in such a spectacle. It has also been frequently honored by the presence of his Majesty and the dif ferent branches of the royal family. The sum collected on the occasion has been known to exceed eight hundred pounds; and, whatever it may prove, is given to the senior Scholar on the foundation, as the captain of the school and of the day.
Of the Provosts of Eton, the following deserve honorable mention.
William Waynflete, December 21, 1442, Hen. VI. 21. His connections with Eton College have been already detailed in the foregoing pages. It may be thought necessary, however, to resume the subject, just to observe, that, after his elevation to the see of Winchester, he remained a confi. dential and faithful servant to his royal master. As a further proof of his sovereign's regard, he was, in October, 1456, eppointed Lord High Chancellor of England, in the room of