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receive five piastres, the second ten, and the third, fifteen piastres, a month extra.

Besides these schools, which compose the regular system of public instruction, there are regimental schools for the soldiers, and schools attached to the mosques, which last amount, at least, from 4,000 to 5,000 more in Cairo ; and the total number of scholars at the inosques, also throughout all the provinces, amount to 15,000 more. Besides all these schools under the administration of His Highness, there have been formed private establishments, directed by Europeans, for the purpose of disseminating education among the population, without reference to religion or nation.



(On the 27th December, 1837.) In Egypt, as in other parts of the East, all the Sciences were buried under the ruins of the empire of the Caliphs ; hardly have some disfigured and badly understood manuscripts, transmitted to us a dim reflection of an “epoque” of glory and intelligence. Medicine was given up to the achievements of empiricism, and surgery passed into the hands of the barbers--pharmacy to the shop of the merchant; but when the political relations between christianized Europe and Turkey became more friendly, and communication more easy and more frequent, the east was overrun with physicians, who easily established their superiority over these empirics. Since that time the orientals have attributed to all Europeans a decided medical talent, and even in our day, the public credulity is but too often practised upon, by men whose foreign extraction is the only scientific title they possses.

In commencing the great course of reformation that he determined upon, Mahomed Ali made offers to European officers of every rank and department; a general military organization took place, and then as a matter of course, a medical service was created for the preservation of the Egyptian forces.

Clot Bey, engaged as physician and surgeon-in-chief to the new army, arrived in Egypt, followed by a number of medical officers, who were immediately appointed to the ditferent regiments and hospitals then forming. Thus began a regular service.

The surgeon, the physician, and the apothecary constituted the general council of health, placed under the immediate authority of the minister of war, and having under its surveillance secondary councils for the land forces, and those established upon all the possessions of His Highness. The medical service was actually, at its beginning, almost exclusively directed according to the spirit of the French regulations.

The foreign physicians and apothecaries employed in the state and military hospitals belonging to the different nations of Europe, appear on the medical lists in the following proportions : Italians,

105 French,

32 English,

6 Germans,

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154 The salary given to the different ranks was fixed as follows:

Francs. Inspector General of the land forces and the marine,

and President of the Council General of Health, 30,000 Inspector and member of the Council General of Health,

10,000 Inspector of the Army,

8,500 Principals,

5,000 Majors,

3,400 Assistant Majors,

2,200 Under Assistants,

1,500 The title of Doctor of Medicine from one of the faculties of Europe, is required to obtain the rank of major.

The general council of health, at present, is composed as follows:

MM. Clot Bey, Inspector General, President.

Giatani Bey, Private physician to His Highness, honorary member.

Delsignore Bey, Inspector Physician, incumbent member. Detouches Bey, Inspector Apothecary, incumbent member. Formation of the Hospital and medical school at Abouzabel.

The opening of the hospital at Abouzabel is dated from

the year 1829. The camp of instruction, situated in the vicinity of this establishment, and composed of the Infantry of the army, the staff, and the Artillery schools, (in all 25,000 men) provide it on an average with about 1,500, or 2,000 sick.

The dearth of native physicians, and the existence of materials proper for the formation of a school, suggested to Clot Bey the idea of establishing, in the very precincts of the hospital, a medical class, destined to produce surgeons and apothecaries, for the service of the land and sea forces. His views were approved of, and in 1827, young men, chosen from the schools of the mosques, were the first initiated in the science.

The programme of the studies comprised the following subjects :

1. Anatomy and Physiology.
2. Pathology and external Clinique.
3. Pathology and internal Clinique.
4. Materia medica and Therapeutics.
5. Hygiene and Forensic Medicine.
6. Medicine and Chemistry.

7. Botany. Clot Bey was appointed Director of the school, and professor of Pathology, and of External Clinique. This school has produced, since its formation, from 410 to 420 medical officers, incorporated in the army and navy, with

the rank of under-assistants, assistants and majors. · Twelve young Arabians were brought in 1833 to Paris, . by Clot Bey, for the completion of their medical studies, and six of them are employed since their return to Egypt, as assistant professors, in the school of Abouzabel, where they had received, as pupils, instructions in the art they practised. The six others still at Paris, will be forthwith restored to their country, where they will put in practice, like their predecessors, the knowledge they have acquired. Creation of the second schools at Alexandria and Aleppo.

In 1837, two secondary medical schools were created, one at Alexandria, the other at Aleppo, for the improvement of the practical instruction of the pupils from the school at Abouzabel; they were instructed in Descriptive Anatomy, Pathology, Internal and External Clinique, Practical Pharmacy.

The instruction devolved upon the Physicians, Surgeons' Apothecaries, (in chief) of the army and navy. Removal of the hospital and medical school from Abouzabel

to Cairo. In consequence of the suppression of the camp, which had given rise to the creation of the hospital, and the school of Abouzabel, the sick-ward had not received more than ten individuals laboring under chronic affections. From that time the two establishments were no longer necessary; their removal to a more convenient place for the sick, and for instruction, became an absolute necessity. The vast edifice of Casser-el-ein, occupied by a preparatory school, was destined to receive the sick, and pupils from Abouzabel, and vice versa: it was an exchange very profitable to the service and to humanity.

The edifice of Casser-el-ein, is situated on the eastern bank of the Hic, and about a quarter of a league from Cairo, and upon the site of the farm called Ibrahim Bey's, where the French, at the time of their conquest, established their military hospitals. It is formed by four ranges of buildings in a square : sixtyfour spacious apartments, of forty beds each, composed of two stories ; a separate building for the apothecary, the chemical laboratory, the museum of physic, and natural history, for the amphitheatre, baths, and kitchens, &c.

Since the creation of the medical school, works on the following subjects have been translated into Arabic :

1. Anatomy; 2. Surgical Pathology; 3. Physiology ; 4. Physic; 5. Chemistry ; 6. Botany ; 7. Materia medica ; 8. Toxicology ; 9. Hygiene; 10. Midwifery and diseases of women and children ; 11. Treatise on General Anatomy; 12. Treatment of Asphyxia ; 13. Guide to Military Surgery ; | 1. Treatise on Bandages ; 15. Diseases of the skin ; 16. Rules of Military Hospitals.

The duration of medical studies is five years. The renewal of the students takes place every five years. The pupils wear a uniform and are furnished according to the military rule, fed, dressed, lodged, at the expense of the government, and receive besides, some pay, which varies according to the class to which they belong. Thus, the pupils of the first year, receive forty piastres a month, (ten francs,) those of the second year fifty piastres, and thus progressing to the fifth year.

The Lectureships are given by concours, or instead, to those whose services have sufficiently deserved the reward.

The salary of the professors is 5,000 francs a year. That of the director of the school 7000 francs.

The personal instruction is composed, and the courses divided in the following manner.

MM. Duvigneau, Director,—Pathology and Internal Clinique.

Scisson,-Pathology and External Clinique.
Sischer,— Anatomy and Physiology.
Person,- Medicine and Chemistry.
Figari,-Botany and Materia medica.
Pacthod,- Pharmacy.
Pruner,—(Chief Physician to the Hospital) Surgery.

Each European professor is assisted by an Arabian professor who understands French.

Formation of the Civil Hospital. The removal of the hospital from Abouzabel to Casserel-ein, caused the suppression of that of Cairo, situated in the " Grand Place de l'Ezbehir.”

At length a civil hospital was established, divided into five departments-hospital for men, hospital for women, a maternity, a lying-in hospital, and a lunatic establishment. It is capable of accommodating 500 sick.

The civil hospital at Cairo is the first created in the ottoman empire since the caliphs, and although they had in the height of their power created some, they never were so complete as the Asylum of Piety, which Mahomed Ali has opened for human sufferings.

Thus, in the regeneration of Egypt, medicine has been, and ought to be, one of the most powerful instruments.

The ascendancy which its ministers exercised throughout the whole of society by their mission of philanthropy, has rendered the union of two people, essentially different, more intimate, created gratitude, encouraged devotedness, and has broken down the barrier that existed between the worshippers of Christ and those of the Prophet—a superstitious but popular hatred.

The devotedness of the European physicians, their heroic struggle against the plague, their praiseworthy and entire disregard of their own lives, have produced invaluable results; but it is especially the formation of the school at

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