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ike, and the quadrivials, (although the latter, I mean arithmetike, musike, geometrie, and astronomie, and with them all skill in the perspectives are smallie regarded in either of them) the Universities themselves do allow competent stipends to such as reade the same, whereby they are suflicientlie provided for, touching the maintainance of their estates, and no lesse incoraged to be diligent in their functions.
These professors in like sorte have all the rule of disputations and other schoole exercises, which are dailie used in common schooles, severallie assigned to ech of them, and such of their hearers, as by their skill showed in the said disputations, are thought to have attained to anie convenient ripenesse of knowledge, according to the custom of other Universities, although not in like order, are permitted solemnlie to take their deserved degrees of schoole in the same science and facultie in which they have spent their travell. From that time forward also, they use such difference in apparell as becometh their callings, tendeth unto gravitie, and maketh them knowne to be called unto some countenance.
The first degree is that of the generall sophisters, from whence when they have learned more susficientlie the rules of logike, rhetorike, and obtained thereto competent skill in philosophie, and in the mathematicals, they ascend higher unto the estate of batchelers of art, after foure yeares of their entrance into their sophistrie. From thence also giving their minds to more perfect knowledge in some or all the other liberall sciences, and the toongs, they rise at the last (to wit, after other three or four years) to be called masters of art, ech of them being at that time reputed for a doctor in his facultie, if he professe but one of the said sciences (besides philosophie) or for his generall skill, if he be exercised in them all. After this they are permitted to choose what other of the higher studies they liketh to follow, whether it be divinitie, lawe or physike; so that being once masters of art, the next degree, if they follow physike, is the doctorship belonging to that profession ; and likewise in the studie of the lawe, if they bend their minds to the knowledge of the same. But if they mean to go forward with divinitie this is the order used in that proposition. First after they have necessarilie proceeded masters of art, they preach one sermon to the people in English, and another to the Universitie in Latine. They answer all commers also in their own persons unto two severall questions of divinitie in the open schooles, at one time for the space of two hours; and afterward replie twice against some other man upon a like number, and on two severall daies in the same place; which being done with commendation, he receiveth the fourth degree, that is, batcheler of divinitie, but not before he hath been master of an art by the space of seven yeares, according to their statutes.
The next and last degree of all is the doctorship after other three yeares, for the which he must once againe performe all such exercises and acts as are afore remembered, and then is he reputed able to governe and teach others, and likewise taken for a doctor.
Thus we see, that from our entrance into the universitie unto the last degree received, is commonlie eighteene or peradventure twentie yeares, in which time if a student hath not obtained sufficient learning, thereby to serve his own turne and benefit his commonwealth, let him never looke by tarieing anie longer to come by anie more. For alter this time and fortie yeares of age, the most part of students do commonlie give over their wonted diligence, and live like drone bees, on the fat of colleges, withholding better wits from the possession of their places and yet doing little good in their own vocation and calling. I could rehearse a number (if I listed) of this sort, as well in the one Universitie as in the other. But this shall suffice in sted of a larger report, that long continuance in those places is either a signe of lacke of friends, or of learning, or of good and upright life, as bishop Fox sometime noted, who thought it sacrilege for a man to tarrie longer at Oxford than he had a desire to profit.
A man may (if he will) begin his study with the lawe, or physike, (of which this giveth wealth, the other honour,) so soone as he commeth to the Universitie, if his knowledge in the toongs and ripeness of judgment serve therefore, which if he do, then his first degree is bacheler of lawe, or physike and for the same he must perform such acts in his own science, as the batchelers or doctors of divinitie do for their parts, the onlie sermons except, which belong not to his calling. Finallie, this will I saie, that the professors of either of those faculties come to such perfection in both Universities, as the best students beyond the sea do in their owne or elsewhere.
There is moreover in everie house a master or provost, who hath under him a president, and certaine censors or deanes, appointed to look to the behavior and mauners of the students there, whom they punish verie severelie if they make anie default, according to the quantitie and qualitie of their trespasses. And these are the usual names of the governors in Cambridge. Howbeit in Oxford the heads of houses are now and then called presidents in respect of such bishops as are their visiters and founders. In ech of these also they have one or more thresurers whom they call Bursarios or Bursers, beside other officers, whose charge is to see unto the welfare and maintenance of these houses. Over ech Universitie there is also a severall chancellor, whose offices are perpetual, howbeit their substitutes, whom we call vice chancellors, are changed everie yeare, as are also the proctors taskers, maisters of the streets, and other officers, for the better maintenance of their policie and estate.
To these two also we may in like sort add the third, which is at London, (serving onlie for such as studie the lawes of the realme) where there are sundrie famous houses, of which three are called by the name of Inns of the court, the rest of the chancerie, and all builded before time for the furtherance and commoditie of such as applie their minds to our common lawes. Out of these also come manie scholars of great fame, whereof the most part have heretofore been brought up in one of the aforesaid Universities, and prove such as commonlie in process of time, rise up (onlie through their profound skill) to great honor in the commonwealth of England. They have also degrees of learning among themselves, and rules of discipline, under which they live most civilie in their houses, albeit that the younger of them abroad in the streets are scarse able to be bridled by anie good order at all. Besides these Universities, also there are great numbers of grammar schooles throughout the realme, and these verie liberallie endowed, for the better relief of poore scholers, so that there are not manie corporate towns now under the queenes dominion, that have not one grammar schoole at the least with a sufficient living for a maister and usher appointed to the same.
There are in like manner divers collegiate churches, as Windsor, Wincester, Eaton, Westminster, in which I was some time an unprofitable grammarian under the reverend
father master Nowell, now deane of Paulis) and in those a great number of poore scholers dailie maintained by the liberalitie of the founders, with meat, bookes and apparell, from whence after they have been well entered in the knowledge of the Greek and Latine toongs, and rules of versifieing, (the trial whereof is made by certaine apposers yearlie appointed to examine them) they are sent to certaine especiall houses in ech Universitie, where they are received and trained up, in the points of higher knowledge in their private halls, till they be adjudged meet to show their faces in the schooles, as I have said alreadie. And this much have I thought good to note of our Universities, and likewise of colleges in the same, whose names I will also set down here with those of their founders, to the end the zeal which they bare unto learning may appenre, and their remembrance never perish from among the wise and learned.
Of the Colleges in Cambridge with their Founders.
Founders. 1546 1 Trinitie College.
King llenry VIII. 1441 2 The King's College King llenrie VI. Edward IV. Henrie
VIl. and Henrie VIII. 1511 3 St. John's
Ladie Margaret Grandmother to
Heurie VIII. 1503 4. Christ's College, King Henrie Vl. and the Ladie Mar
garet aforesaid. 1446 5 The Queenes College, Ladie Margaret wife to King Henrie
VI. 1496 6 Jesus College,
John Alcocke bishop of Elie. 1342 7 Bennet College, The brethren of a popish guild called
Corporis Christi. 1343 8 Pembroke Hall,
Maria de Valentia Countess of Pem
broke. 1256 9 Peter College,
Flugh Balshain bishop of Ely. 1348 10 Gundevill and Caius Coll' Edward Gundeville parson of Tiv.
ington and John Caius doctor of
Physike. 1354 11 Trinitie Hall,
William Bateman bishop of Norwich. 1326 12 Clare Hall,
Richard Badow Chancellor of Cam
bridge. 1459 13 Catharine Hall,
Robert Woodlarke doctor of divinitie. 1519 14 Magdalen College, Edward Duke of Buckingham and
Thomas Lord Awdlie. 1585 15 Emanuel College, Sir Walter Mildnaie, &c.
Of Colleges in Oxford.
Colleges. 1539 1 Christes Church,
Founders, 1459 2 Magdalen College,
William Wainflet first fellow of Merton
college, then scholer at Winchester
and afterward bishop there. 1375 3 New College,
William Wickham bishop of Winches
ter. 1276 4 Merton College, Walter Merton bisliop of Rochester. 1437 5 All Soules College, Henrie Chichelie archbishop of Can
terburie. 1516 6 Corpus Christie College, Richard Fox bishop of Winchester. 1430 7 Lincoln College,
Richard Fleming bishop of Lincolne. 1323 8 Auriel College,
Adam Browne almoner to Edward Il. 1340 9 The Queenes College, R. Eglesfield chaplaine to Philippa
queene of England wife to Ed
ward III. 1263 10 Balioll College,
John Baliull king of Scotland. 1537 11 S. Johns,
Sir Thomas White, knight. 1556 12 Trinitie College,
Sir Thomas Pope, knigh:. 1316 13 Excester College, Walter Stapleton bishop of Excester. 1513 13 Brazen Nose,
William Smith bishop of Lincolne. 873 15 Universitie College, William archdeacon of Duresme. 16 Glocester College,
John Gifford who made it a cell for
thirteen monks. 17 S. Marie College, Hugh ap Rice doctor of the civil
lawe. 18 Jesus College now in hand.
There are also in Oxford certaine hostels or halls, which may right well be called by the name of colleges, if it were not that there is more libertie in them, than is to be seene in the other. In mine opinion the livers in these are verie like to those that are of Inns in the chancerie, their names also are these so farre as I now remember. Brodegates.
S. Marie Hall.
The students also that remaine in them, are called hostelers or halliers. Hereof it came of late to passe, that the right reverend Father in God, Thomas late archbishop of Canterburie, being brought up in such an house at Cambridge, was of the ignorant sorte of Londoners called an hosteler, supposing that he had served with some indholder in the stable, and therefore in despite diverse hanged up bottels of hair at his gate, whereas he began to preach the gospell, whereas indeed he was a gentleman borne of an ancient house, and in the end a faithful witnesse of Jesus Christ.