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Rewards, Emulation, Discipline, 8c.
children are required not merely to repeat the words of the translation by role, but to give a good exhibition of the real sentiment in their own language.
Prof. S. Answer similar to Mr Kunze's above.
3. Method of governing schools ---moral influence-rewards of merit-emulation-corporeal punishment ?
Mr W. I use all the purely moral influence I can ; but rewards for the meritorious are highly necessary ; and as to the principle of emulation, I appeal to it more and more the longer I teach. The evils of emulation, such as producing discouragement or exciting envy in the less successful scholars, I avoid by equalizing the classes as much as possible, so that all the scholars of each class, may, as to their capabilities of improvement, be nearly on a level. I know no successful school for young scholars where corporeal punishment is disused. The teacher must retain it as a last resort.
Mr K. The Bible, prayers and singing, are most essential helps to the consistent teacher in governing his scholars; but premiums, emulation, and corporeal punishment, have hitherto been found indispensable auxiliaries. In our schools we have premiums of books, and in the orphan house there is a prize of fifty dollars annually awarded to each of the most meritorious scholars, which is allowed to accumulate in the Savings bank till the pupil comes of age, when it is given to him to aid in establishing him in business. Each teacher keeps a journal, divided under different heads, of all the delinquences of his scholars; and if any one has six in a month, he must suffer corporeal punishment. The instrument of punishment is a cow-skin; but no teacher is allowed to inflict more than four blows at any one time, or for any offence. This kind of punishment is not often needed. Or the 380 boys in the orphan house, not more than two in a month render themselves liable to it. After the scholar enters the gymnasium, he is no longer liable to corporeal punishinent; but in all the schools below this, it is held in reserve as the last resort.
Prof. S. I do not approve of rewards as a means of discipline. Emulation may be appealed to a little ; but much of it is not good, it is so liable to call forth bitter and unholy feeling. The skilful teacher, who gains the confidence and affection of his scholars, can govern without emulation or rewards, and with very little of corporeal punishment. In a school in Heidelberg of 150 children under ten years of age, not two in a year suffer this kind of punishment. In Baden the teacher is not allowed to strike a scholar without obtaining permission of the school inspector, and in this way all hasty and vindictive punishments
Male and Female Teachers.
are prevented. The daily singing of religious hymns is one of the most efficient means of bringing a school under a perfect discipline by moral influence.
4. What is generally the best method of teaching?
Mr W. As much as possible by conversation; as little as may be by mere book recitation. The pupil must always learn from the book.
Mr K. Lively conversation. Very few teachers in Prussia ever use a book in recitation. The pupils study from books, and recite without them.
Prof. S. The living word in preference to the dead letter. 5. Employment of female teachers ?
Mr W. For young children, they do well; and if good semale teachers can be obtained, they might perhaps carry female education through without the help of male teachers.
Mr K. Female teachers have not been much employed in Prussia, they are not generally successful. In a few instances they have done well.
Prof. S. Man is the divinely appointed teacher ; but for small children female teachers do well; and in respect to all that pertains to the heart and the fingers, they are even better than male teachers. It is not good that females should be educated entirely by teachers of their own sex; the female cannot be educated completely without the countenance of man to work upon the heart.
6. Is there any difference in the course of instruction for male and female schools ?
Mr K. None in the primary schools ; but in the higher schools the course of instruction for males is more rigidly scientific than for females; and some branches of study are appropriate to the one class of schools which do not at all come into the other, and vice versa.
7. Public endowments for female schools of a high order ? Mr W. There are no such endowments in Scotland.
Mr K. There are very few in Prussia : only one in Berlin, but that a very good one. Female schools of a high order are mostly sustained by individual effort, under the supervision of the magistrates, but without aid from the Government.
Prof. s. We have none in Baden, nor are they needed for the female. The house is her school; and such are her susceptibilities, and her quickness of apprehension, that she is fitted by Providence to learn from real life ; and she often learns thus, more successfully than boys can be taught in the school.
8. Number of studies to be pursued simultaneously in the different stages of instruction ?
Value of the Pestalozzian System.
Mr W. I begin with reading and writing (on slates) together; and as the scholars advance, increase the number of branches.
Mr K. We begin all together, reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, &c., and so continue throughout.
Prof. S. The younger the fewer, the older the more. 9. Iofant schools?
Mr W. For children who are neglected by their parents, for poor orphans, and such like, they are excellent ; but parents who are able to take care of their own children, ought to do it, and not send them to the infant school.
Mr K. I regard them as highly useful for all classes of children, the rich and the poor, the good and the bad ; but the Prussian Government discourages them, except for the vicious and the neglected. The King admits them only where parental instruction cannot be had.
Prof. S. Highly useful, and very much increasing in Europe. In Italy, particularly in Lombardy, they are fast gaining ground under the care of truly Christian teachers.
10. The Pestalozzian system?
Mr W. It has many good things, with some quackery. As a whole, it is too formal.
Mr K. In Prussia, not approved as a whole, and in arithmetic entirely disused.
Prof. S. One of the steps by which we arrived at our present stage of advancement; but we have got beyond it now.
11. Number of pupils to one teacher in the different stages of instruction ?
Mr W. In the elementary stages, if the teacher has good monitors,* he may safely take charge of from 100 to 600 pupils ; as they advance, he must diminish the number, but only on account of the difficulty of obtaining good monitors in the higher branches.
Mr K. In Prussia, generally about 40 in the elementary branches, and in the higher branches fewer.
Prof. S. In Baden the maximum is 80, on account of the difficulty, in that populous district, of maintaining a sufficient number of schoolmasters for the whole population. As the scholars advance, the number is diminished.
12. Systematic division of the different branches of instruction in schools ?
Mr K. The schools in Prussia are all divided according to the different branches, and each branch has its own teacher.
• Monitors in Mr Wood's school, occupy the place of assistant teachers, and each class has its monitor.
Character of Teachers.
Prof. S. Not good to attempt a systematic division in the elementary schools, but very useful for the higher schools. Young children need to be brought under the influence of one teacher, and not have their attention and affection divided among many.
13. Mode of instructing those who are preparing themselves to be teachers ?
Mr W. Employ them as monitors under a good teacher, with some theoretical instruction. This is matter of opinion, not of experience; for we have in Scotland no institutions for the preparation of teachers.
Mr K. In the seminaries for teachers, there are lectures on the theory of educntion, mode of teaching, &c.; but the pupils are taught principally by practical exercises in teaching the schol. ars of the model schools attached to these institutions, and they also labor to perfect themselves in the branches they are to teach.
Prof. S. The general principles of method may be communicated in lectures, but schools for actual practical exercise in teaching, are indispensable. They must also become perfectly familiar with the branches they are to teach.
14. Estimation in which the teacher is held, and his income in proportion to that of the other professions ?
Mr W. With us, rising, in both respects; but as yet far below the other professions.
Mr K. In Prussia, the elementary teachers are highly respected and competently maintained; they rank as the better sort of mechanics, and the head teachers rank next to clergymen. The salary low--that of the subordinate teachers, very low.
Prof. S. With us, the worthy teacher holds a respectable rank, and can sit at table with noblemen. The salary has recently been raised, but it is still below that of the clergyman.
15. Subordination among teachers ?
Mr W. Very desirable, but exceedingly difficult to carry it to any extent.
Mr K. As strict subordination among the teachers of the school, as among the officers of the army.
Prof. S. Strict subordination must be maintained.
16. Mode of securing punctual and universal attendance of scholars till the full round of instruction is completed ?
Mr W. By acting on the parents.
17. Control of teachers over their scholars out of school hours ?
How to obtain Teachers.
Mr W. The laws of the school are never to be violated, even out of school hours. Difficult to curry it any further.
Mr K. The teacher has the control, so far as he can get it. Government sustains him in it.
Prof. S. In all that relates to the school, the teacher must have the control out of school hours.
18. How are schools affected by political changes in the administration of the government?
Mr W. We have had fears, but as yet have suffered no actual evil.
Mr K. We have no changes in Prussia.
Prof. S. The school must remain sacred and inviolate, untroubled by political changes.
19. School apparatus and library ?
Mr W. Very desirable, but little done that way, as yet, in Scotland.
Mr K. Most of our schools are provided with them, and we consider them very important.
Prof. S. The teachers must have access to good books; and if they are industrious and skilful, the pupils will not suffer for want of a library.
20. How can accuracy of teaching be secured ?
Prof. S. The teacher must understand his profession, and devote himself to it.
21. Governmental supervision of schools, and mode of securing responsibility in the supervisors ? Mr W. I cannot tell.' In this country it is
In this country it is very inefficient, as it must be, unless the visitors receive pay for their services.
Mr K. In this country the governmental supervision is very strict, and produces a very happy influence. The supervisors are paid for their work, and obliged to attend to it. Responsibility is secured by requiring minute and accurate periodical reports, and by a special visitation as often as once in three years.
Prof. S. The supervisors must be paid ; there must be strict subordination, accurate returns, and special visitations.
22. How are good teachers to be obtained in sufficient numbers ?
Mr W. I cannot tell. It is difficult here.
Mr K. By means of our teachers' seminaries—we have them in abundance.
Prof. S. By teachers' seminaries, and private teaching, we have enough. "In your country it must always be difficult,