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EDITED BY WILLIAM A. ALCOTT,
AND EDITOR OF THE LIBRARY OF HEALTH.'
NEW YORK:- CHARLES S. FRANCIS.
PHILADELPHIA - CAREY & HART.
CONTENTS. THREE HUNDRED AND SIXTY QUESTIONS ON COMMON SCHOOLS AND COMMON EDUCATIOx.
Duties of School Visitors-Character and Duties of Teachers-Duties of Parents and othersStructure and Character of School Houses-Sports and Health of Children- Intellectual Education-Instruction in Different Branches—Methods of 'Teaching-Beginning at Home to TeachStudy of Natural Science—Moral Management-Motives to Study,
193 DR JULIUS ON THE SCHOOLS OF PRUSSIA. Education in Prussia-Prussian Schoolmasters
Alis Character and Rank-Effects of Instruction- Punishments and Penalties-Religious Instruction-Religious Faith of the 'Teacher-Course of Instruction in the Schools,
206 EDUCATION IN THE BACKWOODS. Speech of Mr Johnston-His Description of Western Schools, 214 COMMON SCHOOL SYSTEM OF TENNESSEE. Duties of a School Superintendent-Duties of School Commissioners-Duties of the District Clerk,
216 COMMON School Law of Oul. Ohio School Fund—Various Duties of School Officers, 219 PARENTAL AUTHORITY EARLY ESTABLISHED. Begin early, with Children-How to preserve our Authority-Commanding Children—not begging of them,
221 How to SECURE UNIVERSAL EDUCATION, A Beautiful Theory,
224 New SYSTEM OF COMMON EDUCATION. Present Condition of our Schools—Nature of the Proposed Improvements—The Public Mind awaking,
225 SOMMER District Schools. Physical Education-No Provision for it-New Division of the School Day-Action indispensable to Childhood,
228 SUPERVISION OF TEACHERS AND SCHOOLS. A “ Word to the Wise."
232 MISCELLANY. The American Lyceuni—'The Boston Lyceum-Female Improvement Society-Physical Eduration–The Ten Thousand Dollars-Schools in Providence-School Houses- Efforts in behalf of Children in Boston-Prof. Stowe's Report-School Committees—Addresses on Education-Schools in Portland-Movements in Scotland - Ireland-Switzerland-Algiers- Island of Cuba --Report on School Houses-Experience of a Teacher at the West-School Convention at Cleveland Premium offered,
TO OUR READDRS. It may not be uninteresting to some of our readers to see a brief statement of the views we entertain, and the principles we are laboring to inculcale in this work—to know, in tew words, what it is which we desire, by our efforts, to accomplish.
OBJECT OF EDUCATION. This we believe should be to develope and form character - physical, social, intellectual, moral and religious — in short, to make man what he should be. We take the bible, huinan nature, and human experience as our basis or text books.
INSTRUMENTS OF EDUCATION. The parents, especially the mother. Other associates. The general temper of those around us. Physical and moral habits — stories — precepts. The objects we see, hear, taste, &c. Pictures. Books. The Family School in general. The Infant School. The Coinmon or District School. The High School. The College or University. The Sabbath School. The Bible Class. The Church. The Library. The Lyceum, &c.
In order to bring these instruments to bear most favorably on the cause of Education and accomplish its objects, we are in favor of the following measures ;
1. LEGISLATIVE Action. Enough of this to give an impulse. Each State should bave a small fund which should be available to every School district, on condition of contributing or taxing themselves to a certain extent or amount. Thus it should serve as a mere condiment, and not as a principal article of food. Legislatures should also appoint and pay a Superintendent of Schools, or else establish 'Boards of Education.
2. Social Action. We noed intelligent School Committees, who should be paid for their services; Teachers' Seminaries ; Teachers' Meetings or Associations, and Interchanges of Visits among Teachers.
3. INDIVIDUAL Action. We need Authors who will make better School Books. We need parents who will furnish them, and furnish pupils duly prepared for the School, and sustain social and legislative efforts. We need Teachers who will be truly missionaries of education ; who will not only visit each others' schools and labor assiduously to introduce improved meth. ods of instruction, improved school books, apparatus, &c. but who will also educate as well as instruct; men of enlarged minds and warm hearts, who will labor to be moral teachers as well as intellectual ones; and who will not only look to parents and others to co-operate with thein and the pupils, but also look to themselves and the pupils to co-operate with parents ; whose in: tention it will be, in short, to elevate their profession and advance the good of mankind by liv. ing and dying in their service. We need the co-operation of ministers, physicians and other professional men. We greatly need also a host of missionaries of education-men of experi. ence and of enlarged minds and hearts, self-denying men-inen willing to go forth in the true apostolic spirit—without money and without price and labor to awaken parents and teach. ers, and philanthropbists, and legislators, but especially parents, to the nature and importunna
The following list of questions—with a few modifications, was prepared for the Annals of Education seven or eight years ago; but was withheld, partly from the fear that some of the suggestions were so much in advance of the public sentiment, that the article, as a whole, would be deemed visionary. We know not but such may be the conclusion of a few minds, even now; and yet we are unwilling to refrain longer from presenting the subject of Common School Improvement in this form ; because we believe it to be a way which is calculated to arrest attention.
We have arranged our Inquiries in four divisions:-1. General Inquiries ; 2. Physical Education ; 3. Intellectual Education ; 4. Moral Education :—though we do not pledge ourselves to adhere, in every instance, to our landmarks. It is somewhat difficult to separate moral and physical education, if we attempt it; and scarcely less so to separate general from particular inquiries.
I.-GENERAL INQUIRIES. What is the number of district or common schools in the town. ship or society in which you reside?
What number of persons compose your School Committee ? Was it ever less or more than now ?
What were the apparent effects of increasing or diminishing its number?
Is it made the duty of your Committee to visit the schools as well as examine the teachers ?
Duties of School Visitors.
How many of them have themselves been teachers ?
many of them were liberally educated ?
What are the leading features of that constitution ?
Are your instructers required to be unexceptionable in their morals ?
What course do the Committee take in order to ascertain their moral worth?
How is it ascertained whether they possess a real love for teaching?
In what branches are they usually examined ?
Is the examination practical? In other words, are they examined with regard to their ability to communicate what they know?
Are they ever examined more than once, in the same society or town?
Is their health, or cheerfulness, or temper, ever made a subject of inquiry ?
What proportion of your teachers have had a college or university education ?
What proportion an academical one, merely ?
How many of them are acquainted with Anatomy and Physiology, and the laws of health?
Do district committees establish schools and employ teachers, without the concurrence of the proprietors of the schools ?
Is their selection of teachers made solely in reference to cheapness, or is it chiefly in view of more important considerations?
Are the schools visited regularly by the Board of visitors ?
Do they appear to perform their work more faithfully when paid ?
Are the visitors passive at their regular visits to schools, or do they ask questions and give directions ?
Do they ever give the teacher counsel in regard to preserving and improving the health of his pupils ?
Do they ever make suggestions in regard to the conduct of their morals?
Do they ever give directions in regard to the branches which shall be taught?
Character and Duties of Teachers.
Do they ever determine, or help to determine, what class books, apparatus, &c., shall be used?
Do they direct as to modes of instruction?
Do School Committees and Boards of visitors make the business of education a subject of daily study?
What books or periodicals do they have?
Are the instructers entirely devoted to their schools, for the time, or have they other employments?
How many have families, and how many are single?
How many of them intend to pursue the profession of teaching through life? Do they hold meetings for mutual improvement? How often; and how do they usually proceed? How many of them study the subject of education? Do they visit each others' schools, and how often? How many months of the year are your schools usually taught? How many by male instructers? How many by females? How many vacations, and how long are they?
Do these vacations occur in the most pleasant or in the most unpleasant season of the year?
Is any thing done for the improvement of the pupils during the vacations?
What is the usual compensation of male instructers?
How many of your present teachers are natives of the town, and how many are strangers?
Is this proportion usual?
Has the assistant the whole charge of a certain number of pupils or classes, or is she under the general oversight of the principal?
Has she the exclusive charge of their instruction, or of thei morals and manners ; or has she something to do with both?
How long are instructers and assistants usually employed in the same school?
Why are not the same instructers retained longer?
What proportion of the instructer's wages and board are paid from public funds?