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Duties of the Officers.
public to provide Institutions for them at the public charge. Whatever is for the good of an individual is for the good of all; and however liberal the measures of government may be in relation to education, any expenditure cannot be too much, provided it be made after mature deliberation, and from judicious motives.'
Such an institution, it is added, 'is alike important to the mechanic, merchant, farmer, mariner and professional man. It would lead men of different vocations to act together in good harmony, and to appreciate, with candor and justice, each others' views and feelings. It is calculated to remove the many causes of jealousy and envy which disturb the quiet of society; and every one would be sufficiently liberalized and refined frcely to exchange kind offices and privileges with his neighbor. Besides, there is no reason why education should be varied under any circumstances, unless such variation has in view a particular profession, which requires particular knowledge unnecessary for all to possess, or some peculiarity of talent which forms an exception to the usual endowments of nature.'
It is proposed to vest the government of the Academy in a Board of Direction to be denominated the Council ;-10 consist of a Chancellor, twelve Counsellors, a Treasurer and a Secretary, to be elected annually, by the Stockholders. The business of Education is to be entrusted to a Board of Instruction, to be composed of a President, two Professors, a Governor of the House, who shall be a Physician, and take rank as a Professor, and such Tutors as may be deemed necessary; to be elected annually by the council. A Board of Visitation, consisting of learned and distinguished men, is also to be appointed.
The following are the duties proposed to be assigned to the Board of Instruction.
It shall be the duty of the President to exercise a general supervision of the details of the Academy, and to cause all laws, rules and regulations to be executed and respected. It shall be his duty, in connection with the professors and tutors to enter into constant and familiar, but dignified intercourse with the pupils ; to perform the duties of teaching with enduring patience and undeviating good temper; to visit the pupils in their dwellings and at their sports and labors; to accompany them in their walks, rides and visits; to advise them in their plans and investigations; to consult their views and feelings, that they may be corrected, if wrong; and to discover a deep and constant interest in their welfare, by attending to their habits, comforts and pleasures.
It shall be the duty of the President, unless performed by one
Governor of the House.
of the professors, to address the pupils on the events of the day at its close, but without mentioning their names; and to ask their attention to such attainments or acts as are worthy to be remembered ; and to notice such faults or omissions as duty requires to be avoided.
It shall be incumbent on the professors and tutors, to reside in the houses provided for the pupils, to preside at the tables, and to teach the boys such lessons of etiquette, as convenience and propriety demand; to enlist them in conversation while eating, that they may not eat with too much haste; and to be their companions in the reading and conversation rooms. It is not our intention to prescribe, in this place, the various duties of the teacher, as we may resume the subject at some future time, or place it in abler and more experienced hands. But we would add, in the language of another, that a teacher should be of great industry, of quick sympathies, pure of morals, gentle by nature and by breeding, full of kindly affections, and inspired by a warm and large benevolence—a man, in one word, of a lofty and noble character.'
It shall be the duty of the Governor of the house constantly to guard the health of the pupils, and to provide for their physical welfare; to attend to the cleanliness of their persons and apparel, and to the regularity of their meals ; to provide, liberally, food of the best quality-allowing each pupil to ask for what quantity he pleases, unless he has previously shown that he is incapable of governing his own appetite; to adminster medicine when necessary; and to call in such medical aid as extraordinary cases of sickness may require. In cases of serious illness, he shall notify the parents of the patient; stating the nature of the complaint, the stage of the disease, &c.
It shall also be the duty of the Governor to superintend the ground and buildings belonging to the corporation, and to see that they are kept in the best order—that the buildings are daily aired, and, during the cold season, properly heated ; to provide such tools and materials for the work shops as the council may direct, and to exercise his best judgment in executing their orders, so that the strictest economy may be observed and practised.'
The following may be thought an idle or unmeaning ceremony by some ; and by others it may be regarded as the mere imitation of a custom which has long prevailed in some parts of the old world. Be this as it may, we think it one of the brightest and most promising features of the whole plan. The reasons for such a belief, our readers will find elsewhere stated in the pages of this work.
Keeping a Daily Journal.
• It shall be the duty of the Governer to examine every candidate presented for admission into the academy, and to fill up the following blank certificate, directed to the president. Master A. B., born at
A. D. Names of his parents.
Has he any hereditary disease ? Their present place of residence.
Has he any incidental diseases ? Their past health.
Has he ever received any local injuries ? Their vocation.
Has he any natural defects ? The candidate's constitution.
What has been his mode of living ? His past health.
Has he been obedient? His past habits.
Has he been guilty of any vices ?
Has he ever been whipped or struck, and
For what vocation is he intended ?
Has he expressed any choice? His height.
Is he furnished with the necessary clothColor of his hair.
ing and bedding, &c.? Size of his head.
Provision is to be made for the admission of 150 pupils to the establishment. They must be at least nine, and not over seventeen years of age. The tuition is to be $100 a year, exclusive of board.'
The social, moral and religious duties of the pupils are to be secured by various measures which we have not now room to describe. We understand, however, verbally, from the friends of the school, that religious duties, such as shall be acceptable to the parents of pupils of all denominations of christians, are contemplated ; and the written scheme from which we have been permitted to make the foregoing extracts, presents the form and plan of a daily journal, in which it is to be the duty of every pupil to note his experience, whether it be favorable or not; and a false statement by a pupil, is to be regarded as a flagrant offence, and to subject him to loss of reputation in the school, if repeated.
We should like to extend our remarks, and add to our extracts; for if the plan which is contemplated, can be carried out, with some trifling modifications, such as circumstances may suggest in the progress of its execution, we believe it will have great influence in hastening the happy day, when every family—at least in New England—will be a New England Academy; nay, more, a college, or university : and when all which is truly valuable of a collegiate course, and all that is desirable or attainable in regard to physical and moral cultivation and perfection, will be within the reach of every individual who attains to what are commonly called years of maturity.
Erperiments of Mr Owen and Mrs Fry.
INSTRUCTION IN FACTORIES.
In travelling, some time ago, in a stage coach, we fell into conversation with a gentleman, on the importance of devising special means for improving the minds and morals of the inmates of our factories, especially where many of them are ignorant, as at Lowell. We were met by the assertion that such people usually had no desire for information or improvement, and that all effort would be so much lost labor. We asked if there was ever a human being, not an idiot, who was wholly destitute of a desire to know; and if this curiosity, so universal, was not sufficient to induce most persons to attend gratuitous lectures on common things, in a style adapted to their comprehension. The only reply we could obtain was, that most of the operatives had not the least desire whatever for knowledge ; and that they who thought otherwise were only to be pitied for their own ignorance.
This did not satisfy us, however. We believed, and still continue to believe, that there is not an individual on the earth, possessed of a tolerable share of common sense, who does not feel a degree of pleasure in the acquisition of knowledge of some sort; and wherever this curiosity to know exists, the subject of it is susceptible of improvement. There is not a single person-we venture to affirm it-to be found in all the factories at Lowell, whose curiosity cannot be awakened, excited, and increased, by a judicious oral instructer or lecturer.
Nor is this opinion the result of mere theory. There are so many facts on record in relation to this subject, that we cannot doubt on the subject, if we would. A great number of experiments have been tried on both continents; and no one which has been tried perseveringly has ever failed. We safely challenge the world to produce a single instance of the kind.
An experiment made at Lanark in Scotland, by Mr David Dale, more than 50 years ago, on a group of 500 children, procured chiefly from work houses, and charities in Edinburgh, and carried out and in a measure perfected by his son in law, Mr Owen, is a living record of the truth of our opinion. So also is an experiment made by the benevolent Mrs Fry, about twenty years ago, on the worst female prisoners in the Newgate prison, in London. We might also mention the efforts made a few years since, in the manufactories of Leeds, England; and in several places on the continent.
The first important experiment of the kind, made in our own country, was at Humphreysville, about ten miles north-westward
Other Experiments. of New Haven in Connecticut, nearly 30 years ago. Probably no experiment of the kind was ever made under circumstances more unfavorable than this. The laborers were ignorant, and many of them vicious; and they were of many various nations ; American, English, Scotch, Irish, French, &c. From a document published in New Haven, in January 1812, and signed by seventeen gentlemen of respectability living near the works, we derive the following interesting facts.
• The younger of the laborers, not only the apprentices but many of the rest, were instructed daily in spelling, reading, writing and arithmetic, and made a very commendable proficiency. Premiums ia books and other articles were often awarded to the more successful members of the classes, and appeared to supersede, almost entirely, the necessity of punishment. Great attention was paid to their physical condition and management. The consequences were a striking improvement, not only in their intellectual, but in their moral condition. Negligence and idleness in a great measure disappeared, and habits of order, industry and cheerfulness took their place.'
Experiments have been made, also, at the Dyottville glass works, near Philadelphia ; at a manufactory in South Boston; and in several other places ; and with uniform good success. The most ignorant and stupid become gradually interested by coming in contact with others already awakened ; a spirit of improvement becomes predominant in the public sentiment of the prison or factory, where instruction has been commenced and the whole face of things is soon altered and amended.
What then becomes of the cold insinuation, that the operatives in our factories are so degraded, as to render it useless to attempt to instruct them? Can we place the least reliance on them? And, if we except those instances where such statements are the mere echo of the statements of others, what are they but an apology for that selfishness which seeks to enrich or aggrandize itself
, by keeping in the most abject ignorance the immortal spirits, whose bodies are, for reasons best known to their eternal Father, entrusted for a few months or years to their care or direction?
And after all, it is a most mistaken selfishness which leads to such base treatment of the human soul. It is not for the pecuniary benefit of those who employ laborers in factories or elsewhere, to keep thein in ignorance. At least it cannot be for their benefit in the end. No man can enrich himself and his posterity after bim, by grinding the faces of the poor in this manner. The very ordinances of Jehovah, in the constitution of civic society, forbid it. The punishment of such misdeeds can