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$ 17. PREFACE TO JOHN'S GOSPEL.

JOHN I.1–18. 1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the 2, 3 Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things

were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was 4, 5 made. In him was life; and the life was the light of men. And the light

shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not. 6,7 There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. The same

came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men through him 8 might believe. He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that 9 Light. That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh 10 into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and 11 the world knew him not. He came unto his own, and his own received 12 him not. But as many as received him, to them gave he power to be13 come the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name: which were

born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of 14 God. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we be

held his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace

and truth. 15 John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This was he of whom I spake, 16 He that cometh after me is preferred before me: for he was before me. And 17 of his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace. For the law was 18 given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. No man hath

seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. § 18. TESTIMONY OF JOIN THE BAPTIST TO JESUS.-Bethabara beyond Jordan.

JOHN I. 19-34. 19 And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites 20 from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou? And he confessed, and denied 21 not; but confessed, I am not the Christ. And they asked him, What

then? Art thou Elias? And he saith, I am not. Art thou that prophet?? 22 And he answered, No. Then said they unto him, Who art thou? that we 23 may give an answer to them that sent us. What sayest thou of thyself? He

said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way 24 of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias. And they which were sent 25 were of the Pharisees. And they asked him, and said unto him, Why bap

tizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, nor Elias, neither that prophet? 26 John answered them, saying, I baptize with water : but there standeth one 27 among you, whom ye know not; he it is, who coming after me is preferred 28 before me, whose shoe's latchet I am not worthy to unloose. These things

were done in Bethabara“ beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing. 29 The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the 30 Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world! This is he of

whom I said, Áfter me cometh a man which is preferred before me: for he 31 was before me. And I knew him not:5 but that he should be made manifest

1 Here John declares that he was not Elias, Relandi Palæst. p. 632. meaning that he was not Elias risen from the 6 Here the Baptist says he knew not Jesus; yet dead : in Matt. 17. 12, Christ declares that "Elias in Matt. 3. 14, ($ 15,) he appears to have known is come already,” meaning that John had come “in who he was. The discrepancy is thus removed : the spirit and power of Elias,” Luke 1. 17. John did not know Jesus personally before he 2 Deut. 18. 15, 18.

3 Isa. 40. 3. came to be baptized, when a sign was given to 4 Bethabara (or as the best texts read, Beth- point him out as the Messiah; but he must have any) was a place on the eastern bank of the Jor- been acquainted with the events of his own childdan, and taking its name (place of passage) hood and that of Jesus, and had now appeared from a ford of the river at that spot. It is pro- | preaching and baptizing as his forerunner, ver. bably the same as Bethbarah in Judges 7. 24. 26-30.

JOHN I.

32 to Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water. And John bare record,

saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode 33 upon him. And I knew him not : but he that sent me to baptize with

water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit de

scending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the 34 Holy Ghost. And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God.

§ 19. JESUS GAINS DISCIPLES.— The Jordan. Galilee !

JOHN I. 35_51. 35, 36 Again the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples; and 37 looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God! And 38 the two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus. Then Jesus

turned, and saw them following, and saith unto them, What seek ye? They

said unto him, Rabbi, (which is to say, being interpreted, Master,) where 39 dwellest thou? He saith unto them, Come and see. They came and saw

where he dwelt, and abode with him that day: for it was about the tenth hour. 40 One of the two which heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, 41 Simon Peter's brother. He first findeth his own brother Simon, and

saith unto him, We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, 42 the Christ. And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him,

he said, Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas,

which is by interpretation, a stone. 43 The day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and findeth Philip, 44 and saith unto him, Follow me. Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of 45 Andrew and Peter. Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have

found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of 46 Nazareth, the son of Joseph. And Nathanael said unto him, Can there any

good thing come out of Nazareth ? Philip saith unto him, Come and see. 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and saith of him, Behold an Israelite 48 indeed,' in whom is no guile! Nathanael saith unto him, Whence knowest

thou me? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before that Philip called 49 thee, when thou wast under the fig tree, I saw thee. Nathanael answered

and saith unto him, Rabbi, thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of 50 Israel. Jesus answered and said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw

thee under the fig tree, believest thou? thou shalt see greater things than 51 these. And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Hereafter ye

shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man.”

§ 20. THE MARRIAGE AT CANA OF GALILEE.--Capernaum.

JOHN II. 1-12. 1 And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the 2 mother of Jesus was there : and both Jesus was called, and his disciples, 3 to the marriage. And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith 4 unto him, They have no wine. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I 5 to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come. His mother saith unto the 6 servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it. And there were set there six

waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews,* containi Psa. 73. 1; Rom. 2. 28.

miles. Cana, now Kana el-Jelil, was situated 2 Comp. Gen. 28. 12; Heb. 1. 14.

about seven miles north of Nazareth, and about 3 /The third day refers back to Jolin 1. 43. The three miles N. by E. of Sepphoris : see Bibl. Res. journey in returning to Galilee did not require in Palest. III. p. 204. more than two days; the distance being, in any + Comp. Mark 7. 3. position of Bethabara, not beyond about fifty

JOHN II.

7 ing two or three firkins 1 apiece. Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots 8 with water. And they filled them up to the brim. And he saith unto

them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And they 9 bare it. When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made

wine, and knew not whence it was: (but the servants which drew the water 10 knew ;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom, and saith unto him,

Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine ; and when men have

well drunk, then that which is worse : but thou last kept the good wine 11 until now. This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and

manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him. 12 After this he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, and his bre

thren, and his disciples : and they continued there not many days.

PART III.

OUR LORD'S FIRST PASSOVER, AND THE SUBSEQUENT

TRANSACTIONS UNTIL THE SECOND.

TIME: One year.

§ 21. AT THE PASSOVER JESUS DRIVES THE TRADERS OUT OF THE TEMPLE.

Jerusalem.

JOHN II. 13-25. 13 AND the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem, 14 and found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and 15 the changers of money sitting: and when he had made a scourge of small

cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; 16 and poured out the changers' money, and 'overthrew the tables ; and said

| Firkins (uerpntas): one of these is generally Jerusalem; likewise Matt. 5. 13, in the sermon reckoned equal to seven and a half gallons. The on the mount, with Mark 9. 50, and Luke 14. 34, large quantity made the miracle more striking 35, spoken elsewhere; and also the different exand serviceable, since the feast probably lasted amples of the Lord's prayer, Matt. 6. 9–13; Luke seven days, (see Judges 14. 12,) and many guests 11. 2–4. Such examples indeed may he multiwere present.

plied almost indefinitely, as the pages of the Har2 This our Lord's first passover, during his mony every where show. Now if this is true in public ministry, is mentioned only by John; respect to the discourses of Christ, why might he though the language of the other evangelists im- not just as well have repeated, after an interval of plies, that he had been again in Judea; Matt. 4. two or three years, and before different persons, 12; Mark 1. 14. John connects with this first this public symbolical act, so significant in itself, passover the cleansing of the temple and the cast- and so expressive of his character and authority ing out of the traders; while the other evangelists as the Messiah? The Jews, it seems, did not describe a like transaction at his last passover, question his right to perform such an act, proMatt. 21. 12, sq.; Mark 11. 15, sq.; Luke 19. 45, vided he was a true prophet. They only demanded sq. The question is raised, whether these were some sign of his authority ; John 2. 18. This different transactions. That our Lord was accus- Jesus gave, and had already given in his mighty tomed to repeat the substance of his discourses, works, wrought at the same passover, ver. 23; or at least the more striking parts of them, at dif- works which drew from Nicodemus, a Pharisee ferent times and before different persons, is suf- and member of the Sanhedrim, the admission, ficiently obvious. Compare Luke 11. 37-54, ut- that he was “a teacher come from God," John 3. 2. tered in Galilee, with Matt. 23. 1-39, delivered at

JOHN II.

unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence; make not my Father's 17 house an house of merchandise. And his disciples remembered that it was

written,' The zeal of thine house bath eaten me up. 18 Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign showest thou unto 19 us, seeing that thou doest these things? Jesus answered and said unto 20 them, Destroy this temple, and in three days ? I will raise it up. Then said

the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou 21, 22 rear it up in three days ? But he spake of the temple of his body. When

therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; and they believed the Scripture, and the word which

Jesus had said. 23 Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, in the feast day, many 24 believed in his name, when they saw the miracles which he did. But Jesus 25 did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men, and needed

not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man.3

§ 22. OUR LORD'S DISCOURSE WITH NICODEMUS.-Jerusalem.

JOHN III. 1-21.

1 There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews: 2 the same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that

thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles 4 that 3 thou doest, except God be with him. Jesus answered and said unto him,

Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see 4 the kingdom of God. Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born

when he is old ? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and 5 be born? Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man

be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of 6 God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of 7 the Spirit is spirit. Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born 8 again. The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound

thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth :. so is

every one that is born of the Spirit. 9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be? 10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest 11 not these things? Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do 12 know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness. If

I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if 13 I tell you of heavenly things? And no man hath ascended up to heaven,

but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven. 14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness,' even so must the 15 Son of man be lifted up: that whosoever believeth in him should not perish,

but have eternal life. 16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that

whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. 17 For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but 18 that the world through him might be saved. He that believeth on him

is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, be

cause he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God, 19 And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men 20 loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. For every

one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his 1 Psa. 69. 9.

3 Comp. John 4. 17–19; 16. 19; Matt. 9. 4; 2 On the three days here, see Note to Matt. 12. 25; Mark 12. 15; Luke 6.8; 9. 47. 12. 40, in § 49.

4 John 2. 23.

5 Comp. Num. 21. 8, sq. For John 18 For John had said unto above all, that he shut

JOHN III.

21 deeds should be reproved. But he that doeth truth cometh to the light,

that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.

§ 23. JESUS LEAVES JERUSALEM, BUT REMAINS IN JUDEA AND BAPTIZES.'

FURTHER TESTIMONY OF THE BAPTIST.-Ænon.

JOHN III. 22-36.

22

After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judea; 23 and there he tarried with them, and baptized. And John also was baptizing

in Ænon near to Salim,2 because there was much water there: and they 24 came, and were baptized. For John was not yet cast into prison.3 25 Then there arose a question between some of John's disciples and the 26 Jews about purifying. And they came unto John, and said unto him, Rabbi,

he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou barest witness, be27 hold, the same baptizeth, and all men come to him. John answered' and 28 said, A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven. Ye

yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am 29 sent before him. He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend

of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly be30 cause of the bridegroom's voice : this my joy therefore is fulfilled. He must 31 increase, but I must decrease. He that cometh from above is above all : he

that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth: he that cometh 32 from heaven is above all. And what he hath seen and heard, that he testi33 fieth; and no man receiveth his testimony. He that hath received his testi34 mony hath set to his seal that God is true. For he whom God hath sent

speaketh the words of God : for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto 35 him. The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand. 36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth

not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.

§ 24. JESUS DEPARTS INTO GALILEE AFTER JOHN'S IMPRISONMENT.

sus

MATT. IV. 12.
MARK I. 14.

LUKE IV. 14. 12 Now when Jesus had 14 Now after that John 14 And Jesus returned

heard that John was was put in prison, Je- in the power of the cast into prison, he de

came into Gali- Spirit into Galilee :parted into Galilee.

lee,-
MATT. XIV. 3-5.
MARK VI. 17--20.

LUKE III. 19, 20. 3 For Herod had laid 17 For Herod himself 19 But Herod the tehold

on John, and had sent forth and laid trarch, being reproved bound him, and put hold upon John, and by him for Herodias him in prison for Hero- bound him in prison

his brother Philip's dias' sake, his brother for Herodias' sake, his wife, and for all the Philip's wife.

brother Philip's wife: evils which Herod had

for he had married her. 20 done, added yet this 4

| The order of this section and the following is Scythopolis, the ancient Bethshean. Relandi determined by comparing John 3. 24 with Matt. Palæstina, p. 480. 4. 12; Mark 1. 14. Jesus goes out with his dis- 3 This is the only mention made of the Baptist's ciples from Jerusalem into the country of Judea ; imprisonment in this Gospel, and its brief and where he remains until after John was cast into incidental character may be regarded as one proof prison. See the Note on John 4. 35, in $ 25. in support of the common opinion, that John in

? Ænon and Salim appear, according to Euse- tended his Gospel to follow the others as a supbius and Jerome, to have been both situated on plement: see § 24. the Jordan, about eight miles to the south of

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