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MATT. XXVII.

MARK XV.

JOHN XIX. when they had platted crown of thorns, and a crown of thorns, they put it about his head, put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, say- 18

and began to 3

and said, ing, Hail, King of the salute him, Hail, King Hail, King of the 30 Jews! And they spit 19 of the Jews! And they Jews! and they smote

upon him, and took smote him on the head him with their hands.
the reed, and smote with a reed, and did
him on the head."

spit upon him, and
bowing their knees
worshipped him.

$ 150. PILATE, AFTER AGAIN SEEKING TO RELEASE JESUS, DELIVERS HIM TO BE

CRUCIFIED.-Jerusalem.

Sixth Day of the Week.

JOHN XIX. 4-16. 4 Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring 5 him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him. Then

came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And 6 Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man! When the chief priests therefore

and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him.

Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him : for I find no fault 7 in him. The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought 8 to die, because he made himself the Son of God. When Pilate therefore 9 heard that saying, he was the more afraid; and went again into the judg

ment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou ? But Jesus gave him no 10 answer. Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest

thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee? 11 Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it

were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath 12 the greater sin. And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but

the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Cæsar's 13 friend : whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Cæsar. When

Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down

in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the He14 brew, Gabbatha.3 And it was the preparation of the passover,* and about 1 Comp. Mic. 5. 1.

9 Isa. 53. 7. Mark, and Luke, that the darkness commenced 3 Gabbatha, (i. e. literally the back,) or the at the sixth hour, after Jesus had already for some pavement, was a space between the castle of An- time hung upon the cross ; see $ 155, init. The tonia and the western corner of the temple, where reading, sixth (EKTn), in John is therefore probably the ridge of the rock or hill was paved with an early error of transcription for third, tpitn (s smooth stones (Josephus, Bell. Jud. 5.5,8). Here, for '). Indeed, this last reading is found in two of in full view of the temple and before the Jewish the best manuscripts (Cod. Bezæ and Cod. Reg. multitudes, Pilate took his place on the judgment 62), as well as several other authorities ; so that its seat, to deliver to death Jesus, though he held external weight is marked by Griesbach as nearly him to be innocent.

or quite equal to that of the common reading; 4 On the phrase, preparation of the passover, while the internal evidence in its favour is cerver. 14, see the Introductory Note, p. 146.-In tainly far greater; see Griesbach and Wetstein the same verse the expression, about the sixth in loc.—The suggestion of Greswell and many hour, does not accord with the third hour of Mark other commentators, that John here computes the 15. 25; see in § 153. But the third hour of Mark, sixth hour from midnight, is, however, worthy as the hour of the crucifixion, is sustained by the of regard, as Wieseler in particular has shown whole course of the transactions and circum- (Chron. Synopsis, pp. 410-414). stances; as also by the fact stated by Matthew,

JOHN XIX.

15 the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King! But they

cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto

them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have 16 no king but Cæsar. Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be

crucified.

§ 151. JUDAS REPENTS AND HANGS HIMSELF.-Jerusalem.

Sixth Day of the Week.

MATT. XXVII. 3-10. 3 Then Judas," which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself

, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to 4 the chief priests and elders, saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed

the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that. 5 And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed,

ACTS I. 18, 19. and went and hanged himself. 18 Now this man purchased a field 6 And the chief priests took the silver with the reward of iniquity; and

pieces, and said, It is not lawful for falling headlong, he burst asunder

to put them into the treasury, be- in the midst, and all his bowels 7 cause it is the price of blood. And 19 gushed out. And it was known

they took counsel, and bought with unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem;

them the potter's field, to bury insomuch as that field is called in 8 strangers in. Wherefore that field their proper tongue, Aceldama, that

was called, The field of blood, unto is to say, The field of blood. 9 this day. Then was fulfilled that

which was spoken by Jeremy, the
prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the

price of him that was valued, whom they of the children of 10 Israel did value; and gave them for the potter's field, as the

Lord appointed me.

§ 152. JESUS IS LED AWAY TO BE CRUCIFIED. 3–Jerusalem.

Sixth Day of the Week.

MATT. XXVII. 31-34.
MARK XV. 20-23.

JOHN XIX. 16, 17. 31 And after that they 20 And when they had 16 - And they took Je

had mocked him, they mocked him, they took sus, and led him away. took the robe off from off the purple from 17 And he bearing his

him, and put his own him, and put his own cross1 Judas repented, it would seem, as soon as he in Jeremiah, but in Zech. 11. 12, sq. The readsaw that Jesus was delivered over to be crucified. ing. (Jeremiah) is therefore most probably an Till then he had hoped, perhaps, to enjoy the early error of a transcriber, misled by a remireward of his treachery, without involving him- niscence of Jer. 18. 1, sq. The Syriac version, self in the guilt of his Master's blood.

the earliest of all, as also several other versions According to Matthew (ver. 5), Judas“ stran- and manuscripts, have simply by the prophet, gled,” i. e. hanged, himself (atenggaro). Luke which is apparently the true reading. Other says, in Acts 1. 18, “ falling headlong (apnvins later authorities read Zachariah. yevóuevos) he burst asunder.” These two ac- ? Zech. 11. 12, sq. Comp. Jer. 32. 6, sq. counts are not inconsistent with each other; the 3 Jesus bore his cross at first; but he being rope breaking, the fall might easily be such as to probably faint from exhaustion, Simon was comcause the bursting of the abdomen.

pelled to bear it after him. In Acts 1. 18, purchased (exthoato) is to be The vinegar mingled with gall of Matthew 27. rendered, he gave occasion to purchase, was the 34, is the same with the wine mingled with myrrh occasion of purchasing. For such a usage, see of Mark 15. 23, viz. cheap acid wine mingled Heb. 2. 10; Matt. 27. 60; John 3. 22, coll. 4. 1, with myrrh. Such a drink was given to persons 2; Rom. 14. 15; 1 Cor. 7. 16; 1 Tim. 4. 16, &c. about to be executed, in order to stupify them.

The quotation in Matt. 27. 9, 10, is found, not ! See Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. on Matt. 27. 24.

MATT. XXVII,

MARK XV. raiment on him, and

LUKE XXIII. 26-33. clothes on him, and led him away to cru- led him out to crucify 26 And as they led him 32 cify him. And as they 21 him. And they com

away, they laid hola came out, they found pel one Simon a Cy- upon one Simon, a Cya man of Cyrene, Si- renian, who passed by, renian, coming out of mon by name: him coming out of the the country, and on they compelled to bear

country, the father of him they laid the his cross.

Alexander and Rufus, cross, that he might to bear his cross.

bear it after Jesus.

27 And there followed him a great company of people, and of women, which also bewail28 ed and lamented him. But Jesus turning unto them said, Daugh

ters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and 29 for your children. For, behold, the days are coming, in the which

they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never 30 bare, and the paps which never gave suck.' Then shall they begin

to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us.? 31 For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in 32 the dry? And there were also two other, malefactors, led with him to be put to death.

LUKE XXIII.

JOHN XIX. 33 And when they 22 And they bring 33 And when they 17 —went forth were come unto him unto the

into place a place called place Golgo- the place, which called the place Golgotha,3 that tha,3 which is, is called Cal- of a skull, which is to say,A place being interpret- vary, 3

is called in the 34 of a skull, they ed, The place

Hebrew Golgogave him yine. 23 of'a skull. “And

tha ::gar to drink

they gave him mingled with to drink wine gall: and when mingled with he had tasted myrrh: but he thereof, he would received it not, not drink.

MATT. XXVII.

MARK XV.

were

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$ 153. THE CRUCIFIXION.–Jerusalem.

Sixth Day of the Week.

MATT. XXVII.
MARK XV.

LUKE XXIII.

JOHN XIX. 18-24. 35-38. 24-28.

33, 34, 38. 25

And it was the third hour,

and they cruci38 Then + were 27 fied him.-And 33 –There they 18 – Where they

there two with him they crucified him, crucified him, thieves crucifi- crucify two and the male and two other ed with him, thieves; the one factors, one on

with him, on one on the right on his right the right hand, either side one, hand, and an- hand, and the and the other on and Jesus in the Comp. Isa. 54. 1.

Hos. 10. 8. There is no proof whatever of its being a hill or 3 Golgotha, or Calvary, was the place of public mount. execution, lying outside of Jerusalem (John 19. • Various slight transpositions in the verses 17; Matt. 27. 32), and near the city, on the side are made in this section, in order to present their of some public road (John 19. 20; Matt. 27. 39); parallelism to the eye. but more is not known concerning it at present.

And they

MATT. XXVII.
MARK XV.
LUKE XXIII.

JOHN XIX. other on

the other on his 34 the left. Then midst. left.-

28 left. And the said Jesus, Fa

Scripture was ther, forgive
fulfilled, which them; for they
saith,' And he know not what
was numbered

they do.

with the trans35 And they 24 gressors.— And

23 Then the sol. crucified him, when they had

diers, when they and parted his crucified him,

had crucified garments,

they parted his parted his rai- Jesus, took his
garments,
ment,

garments, and

made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now

the coat was without seam, woven from the top 24 throughout. They said therefore among them

selves, Let us

not rend it, but casting lots : casting lots up- 34 -and cast lots. cast lots for it, that it might be on them, what

whose it shali fulfilled which every

that the was spoken by should take.

Scripture might the prophet,

be fulfilled, They parted my

which saith, garments

They parted my mong them, and

raiment among upon my ves

them, and for ture did they

my vesture they 36 cast lots. And

did cast lots. sitting down

These things they watched

therefore the 37 him there; and

soldiers did. set up over his 26 And the su- 38 And a super- 19 -- And Pilate head his accus- perscription of scription also wrote a title,and ation written, his accusation was written over put it on the THIS IS JE

was written him in letters of cross. And the SUS THE over, THE Greek, and La- writing

was, KING OF KING OF tin, and He- JESUS OF THE JEWS.: THE JEWS.3 brew, THIS IS NAZARETH

THE

KING THE KING OF THE OF THE JEWS.:

JEWS.3

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JOHN XIX.

20 This title then read many of the Jews : for the place where Jesus was cru

cified was nigh to the city and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and 21 Latin. Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King 22 of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews. Pilate answered,

What I have written I have written.

1 Isa. 33. 12. 2 Psa. 22. 18.

3 On the difference in the copies of the title on the cross, see Note' on $ 15.

§ 154. THE JEWS MOCK AT JESUS ON THE CROSS. HE COMMENDS HIS MOTHER TO

JOHN.-Jerusalem.

Sixth Day of the Week.

MATT. XXVII. 39-44.

MARK XV. 29–32. LUKE XXIII. 35–37, 39-43. 39 And they that pass- 29

And they that passed by reviled him, ed by railed on him, wagging their heads,

wagging their heads, 40 and saying, Thou that and saying, Ah, thou

destroyest the temple, that destroyest the and buildest it in three temple, and buildest it days, save thyself. If 30 in three days, save thy. thou be the Son of God, self, and come down

come down from the 31 from the cross. Like- 35 And the people stood 41 cross. Likewise also wise also the chief beholding. And the

the chief priests mock- priests mocking said rulers also with them inghim, with the scribes

among

themselves derided him, saying, 42 and elders, said, He with the scribes, He He saved others; let

saved others; himself saved others; himself him save himself, if he he cannot save.

If he 32 he cannot save. Let be Christ, the chosen be the King of Israel, Christ the King of Is- 36 of God. And the sollet him now come down rael descend now from diers also mocked him, from the cross, and we the cross, that we may

coming to him, and of43 will believe him. He see and believe.

fering him vinegar,' trusted in God; let him

37 and saying, If thou be deliver him now, if he

the King of the Jews, will have him :: for he

39 save

thyself. — And said, I am the Son of

one of the malefactors 44 God. The thieves also,

which were hanged whid were crucified

And they railed on him, saying, with him, cast the same

that were

crucified If thou be Christ, save in his teeth.3 with him reviled him.3 40 thyself and us. But

the other answering

rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same con41 demnation? And we indeed justly; for we receive the due

reward of our deeds : but this man hath done nothing a42 miss. And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when 43 thou comest into thy kingdom. And Jesus said unto him,

Verily I say unto thee, To day- thou shalt be with me in paradise.

JOHN XIX. 25-27. 25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, 26 Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus therefore

saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith un

1 On this vinegar, see Note“, $ 155.

Comp. Psa. 22. 7, 8. 3 According to Matthew and Mark, both the malefactors reviled Jesus; while, according to Luke, one was penitent. In the former evangelists, there is here an enallage of number; the plural being put for the singular. This is often done, where the predicate relates strictly to one subject, while yet the writer expresses the idea generally. So Matt. 26. 8, comp. John 12.4; Matt. 2. 20; 9, 8; Mark 7. 17, comp. Matt. 15. 15; Mark 5. 31,

comp. Luke 8. 45; Matt. 24. 1, comp. Mark 13. 1; John 19. 29, comp. Matt. 27. 48, &c.

In John 19.25, the marginal reading of the Eng; lish version is the proper one, viz. Clopas instead of Cleophas. It is strictly a Greek form of a Hebrew name, which is elsewhere represented by Alpheus.—The Cleopas of Luke 24. 18 is a different name, of regular Greek derivation, and belongs to another person.

4 2 Cor. 5. 9.
5 Comp. 2 Cor. 12. 4; Rev. 2. 7.

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