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JOHN XIX.

27 to his mother, Woman, behold thy son! Then saith he to the disciple, Be

hold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home.

$ 155. DARKNESS PREVALLS.

CHRIST EXPIRES ON THE CROSS.-Jerusalem.

Sixth Day of the Week.

MATT. XXVII. 45–50.

MARK XV. 33–37.

LUKE XXIII. 44–46. 45 Now from the sixth 33 And when the sixth 44 And it was about

hour there was dark- hour was come, there the sixth hour, and ness over all the land was darkness over the there was a darkness

unto the ninth hour. whole land until the over all the earth until 46 And about the ninth 34 ninth hour. And at 45 the ninth hour. And

hour Jesus cried with the ninth hour Jesus the sun was darkena loud voice, saying, cried with a loud voice;

ed.Eli, Eli, lama sabach- saying, Eloi, Eloi, thani? that is to say,

lama sabachthani ? My God, my God, why which is, being inter

JOHN XIX. 28–30. hast thou forsaken preted, My God, my 28 After this, Jesus knowme??

God, why hast thou ing that all things were 47

Some of them 35 forsaken me? And nowaccomplished, that that stood there, when some of them that the Scripture might they heard that, said, stood by, when they be fulfilled, saith, I

This man calleth for heard it, said, Behold, 29 thirst. Now there was 48 Elias. And straight- 36 he calleth Elias. And set a vessel full of viway one of them ran, one ran and filled a

negar:- and they filled and took a spunge, and spunge full of vine

a spunge with vinegar, filled it with vinegar, gar,* and put it on a and put it upon hysand put it on a reed, reed, and gave him sop, and put it to his

and gave him to drink. to drink, saying, Let mouth. 49 The rest said, Let be, alone; let us see whesee whether

ther Elias will come Elias will come to save to take him down. him. MATT. XXVII. MARK Xv.

JOHN XIX. 50 Jesus, when he 37 And Jesus cri- 46 And when Je- 30 When Jesus had cried again

ed with a loud sus had cried therefore had with loud voice, and gave

with

loud received the vivoice, yielded up the ghost. voice, he said, negar, he said, up the ghost.

Father, into thy It is finished: hands I com- and he bowed mend my spirit; his head, and and having said gave up

the thus, he gave

ghost. up the ghost.

let us

LUKE XXIII.

a

a

| In Matt. 27. 46, Eli is the Hebrew for my hyssop is to be understood; the cross not being God; and in Mark 15. 34, Eloi is the correspond- of any great height. The particular plant deing Aramæan word for the same.

signated by the hyssop of the Hebrews, has not 2 Psa. 22. 1.

3 Comp. Psa. 69. 21. yet been fully ascertained by botanists. It • The vinegar, in Matt. 27. 48, and the parallel probably included not only the

modern hyssop of verses, is here the posca or common drink of the the shops, but also other aromatic plants, as mint, Roman soldiers, namely, cheap acid wine min- wild marjoram, &c. See Celsius, Hierobot. I. p. gled with water. In Matthew and Mark the 407, sq. Rosenm. Bibl. Archæol. IV. 1. p. 108. sponge is said to be put upon a reed ; in John, Kitto's Biblical Cyclopædia, art. Hyssop. upon hyssop. Here, probably, a stalk or stem of

$ 156. THE VEIL OF THE TEMPLE RENT, AND GRAVES OPENED. JUDGMENT OF

THE CENTURION, THE WOMEN AT THE CROS8.-Jerusalem.

Sixth Day of the Week.

MATT. XXVII. 51-56.

MARK XV. 38-41.

LUKE XXIII. 45, 47–49. 51 And, behold, the veil 38 And the veil of the 15 - And the veil of the of the temple was rent temple was rent in

temple was rent in the in twain from the top twain from the top to midst. 1 to the bottom ;' and the bottom.' the earth did quake,

and the rocks rent; 52 and the graves were opened ;

and many bodies of the saints 53 which slept arose, and

came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy

city, and appeared un54 to many. Now when 39

And when 47 Now when the centuthe centurion, and they the centurion, which rion saw what was that were with him, stood over against him, done, he glorified God, watching, Jesus, saw saw that he so cried saying, Certainly this the earthquake, and out, and gave up the was a righteous man. those things that were ghost, he said, Truly done, they feared

this man was the Son greatly, saying, Truly of God.

this was the Son of 55 God. And many wo- 40

There were 48 And all the people were there be- also women? looking that came together to holding afar off, which on afar off: among that sight, beholding followed Jesus from whom was Mary Mag- the things which were

Galilee, ministering dalene, and Mary the done, smote their 56 unto him : 3

among mother of James the breasts, and returned. which was Mary Mag- less and of Joses, and 49 And all his acquaintdalene, and Mary the 41 Salome ; (who also, ance, and the women mother of James and when he was in Gali- that followed him from Joses, and the mother lee, followed him, and Galilee, stood afar off, of Zebedee's children. ministered unto him ;)3 beholding these things.

and many other wo-
men which came up
with him unto Jeru-
salem.

men

2

2

§ 157. THE TAKING DOWN FROM THE CROSS.

THE BURIAL.–Jerusalem.

Sixth Day of the Week.

JOHN XIX. 31-42. 31 The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should

not remain upon the cross * on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath days was 1 Comp. Heb. 10. 19-22.

3 Luke 8. 3. ? Matt. 27. 55, 56 and the parallel places refer • Comp. Deut. 21. 22, 23. to a later point of time than John 19. 25, sq. 6 On the phrase that sabbath day was a high Mary and the other women had now retired to a day, John 19. 31, see Introductory Note, p. 149. distance from the scene of suffering.

50–56.

a

cause

JOHN XIX.

sellor;

JOHN XIX, an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they 32 might be taken away. Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the 33 first, and of the other which was crucified with him. But when they came to 34 Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs : but one

of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came thereout 35 blood and water. And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true : 36 and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe. For these things

were done, that the Scripture should be fulfilled," A bone of him shall not be 37 broken. And again another Scripture saith, They shall look on him whom

they pierced.
MATT. XXVII.
MARK XV. 42-47.

LUKE XXIII.
57-61.
57 When the 42 And

now 54

And that day even was come,

when the even was the preparthere came

was come, be- ation, and the rich man of A

it
was

sabbath drew rimathea, nam- the preparation, 50 on.3—And, be- 38 And after this ed Joseph, who that is, the day hold, there was Joseph of Arialso himself was before the sab- a man named mathea, being Jesus' disciple: 43 bath, Joseph Joseph, a coun- a disciple of of Arimathea,

and he Jesus, but sean honourable

was a good man, cretly for fear
counsellor, 51 and a just: (the of the Jews,
which also wait- same had not
ed for the king-

consented to
dom of God, the counsel and
came, and went
deed of them;)

besought Pilate 58 he went to Pi- in boldly unto he was of Ari- that he might

late,and begged Pilate,and crav- mathea, a city take away the the body of Je- ed the body of of the Jews : body of Jesus : Then Pi- 44 Jesus. And Pi- wh also him

and Pilate gave late command- late marvelled self waited for him leave. He ed the body to if he were al- the kingdom of came therefore, be delivered. ready dead: and 52 God. This man and took the calling unto him went unto Pi

body of Jesus. the centurion, late, and begged 39 And there came he asked him the body of also Nicodewhether he had Jesus,

mus, which at been any while

the first came to 45 dead. Andwhen

Jesus by night, he knew it of

and brought a the centurion,

mixture of 59 And when Jo- he gave the bo

myrrh and as seph had taken dy to Joseph.

loes, about an the body, he 46 And he bought

hundred pound

sus.

| Ex. 12. 46; Psa. 34. 20.

should be taken down and buried before sunset. ? Zech. 12. 10. Comp. Psa. 22. 16, 17.

Thus Joseph. B. J. 4. 5. 2. So great care did 3 The sabbath drew on (oáßßatov ÉTÉ Pwoke, the Jews take respecting sepulture, that even the lit. the sabbath was dawning). The word été- bodies of those condemned to be crucified they Paoke, which properly belongs to the natural day, took down and buried before sunset." is here figuratively and poetically applied to the * Pilate marvelled, $c. The tortures of crucivil day, which among the Jews began at sunset. cifixion did not cause a speedy death. The narThis interpretation is here the necessary one; rative strikingly teaches us, that our Lord's death see, when the even was come (yvias yevouévns) was hastened on by a mysterious cause, which of Matthew and Mark, and that day was the pre- was even the withdrawal of the Father's presence paration (ómépa nv napaokevú) of Luke himself. from him, when he laid on him the iniquities of

It was according to custom among the Jews, us all, and made his soul an offering for sin (Isa. that the bodies of persons publicly executed 53. 6, 10). See also 2 Cor. 5. 21.

MATT. XXVII.

MARK XV.

new

LUKE XXIII.

JOHN XIX. wrapped it in fine linen, and 53 And he 40 weight. Then

a clean linen took him down, took it down, took they the 60 cloth, and laid and wrapped and wrapped it body of Jesus, it in his own him in the lin- in linen, and and wound it in tomb, en, and laid

laid it in a se- linen clothes which he had him in a sepul

pulchre

that with the spices, hewn out in the chre which was was hewn in as the manner rock: and he hewn out of a

stone, wherein of the Jews is rolled a great rock, and rolled

never man be- 41 to bury. Now stone to the door a stone unto the fore was laid.- in the place of the sepul- door of the se

where he was chre, and ode- pulchre.

crucified there parted.

was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man 42 yet laid. There laid they Jesus therefore because of the

Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand. MATT. XXVII. 61 And there was Mary 47 And Mary Magdalene 55 And the women also,

Magdalene, and the and Mary the mother which came with him other Mary, sitting of Joses beheld where from Galilee, followed over against the se- he was laid.

after, and beheld the pulchre.

sepulchre, and how his

56 body was laid. And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment.?

MARK XV.

LUKE XXIII.

§ 158. THE WATCH AT THE SEPULCHRE.-Jerusalem.

Seventh Day of the Week, or Sabbath.

MATT. XXVII. 62-66.

62 Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief 63 priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate, saying, Sir, we remember

that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise 64 again. Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third

day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say unto the

people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the 65 first. Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch: go your way, make it as 66 sure as ye can. So they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the

stone, and setting a watch.

1 Isa. 53. 9.

2 Ex. 20. 10.

3. On the expression After three days, see Note on § 49. 4 Matt. 20. 19.

PART IX.

OUR LORD'S RESURRECTION, HIS SUBSEQUENT APPEARANCES,

AND HIS ASCENSION.

TIME: Forty days.

INTRODUCTORY NOTE.

A FULL discussion upon this part of the gospel history, embracing a review of the main difficulties in the way of harmonizing the accounts of the four evangelists, was published by Dr. Robinson in the Bibliotheca Sacra, for Feb. 1845, p. 162, sq. To this the student is referred for a more complete examination of the subject.

It is no doubt true, that more of these apparent difficulties are found in this short portion of the Gospels than in almost all the rest. This has its cause in the circumstance that each writer here follows an eclectic method, and records only what appertained to his own particular purpose or experience. Thus many of the minor and connecting facts have not been preserved ; and the data are therefore wanting to make out a full and complete harmony of all the accounts, without an occasional resort to something of hypothesis. Had we all the facts, we may well rest assured, that this part of the sacred history would at once prove to be as exact, as consistent, and as complete, as any and every other portion of the word of God.

The general results of the investigations upon which we are now entering, may be presented in the following summary view of the events and circumstances connected with our Lord's resurrection and ascension, in the order of their occurrence.

The resurrection took place at or before early dawn on the first day of the week; when there was an earthquake, and an angel descended and rolled away the stone from the sepulchre and sat úpon it; so that the keepers became as dead men from terror. At early dawn, the same morning, the women who had attended on Jesus, namely, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, Joanna, Salome, and others, went out with spices to the sepulchre in order further to embalm the Lord's body. They inquire among themselves, who should remove for them the stone which closed the sepulchre. On their arrival they find the stone already taken away. The Lord had risen. The women, knowing nothing of all that had taken place, were amazed; they enter the tomb, and find not the body of the Lord, and are greatly perplexed. At this time Mary Magdalene, impressed with the idea that the body had been stolen away, leaves the sepulchre and the other women, and runs to the city to tell Peter and John.

The other women remain still in the tomb; and immediately two angels appear, who announce to them that Jesus is risen from the dead, and give them a charge in his name for the apostles. They go out quickly from the sepulchre, and proceed in haste to the city to make this known to the disciples. On the way Jesus meets them, permits them to embrace his feet, and renews the same charge to the apostles. The women relate these things to the disciples; but their words seem to them as idle tales, and they believe them not,

Meantime Peter and John had run to the sepulchre, and entering in had found it empty. But the orderly arrangement of the grave-clothes and of the napkin, convinced John that the body had not been removed either by violence

or by friends; and the germ of a belief sprang up in his mind, that the Lord had risen. The two returned to the city. Mary Magdalene, who had again followed them to the sepulchre, remained standing and weeping before it; and looking in, she saw two angels sitting. Turning round she sees Jesus ; who gives to her also a solemn charge for his disciples.

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