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INTRODUCTORY NOTE. The further sequence of events, consisting chiefly of our Lord's appearances, presents comparatively few difficulties. The various manifestations which the Saviour made of himself to his disciples and others, as recorded by the evangelists and Paul, may accordingly be arranged and enumerated as follows: 1. To the women returning from the sepulchre. Reported only by Matthew. See

§ 162. 2. To Mary Magdalene, at the sepulchre. By John and Mark. $ 164. 3. To Peter, perhaps early in the afternoon. By Luke and Paul. § 166. 4. To the two disciples going to Emmaus, towards evening. By Luke and Mark, $ 166. 5. To the apostles (except Thomas) assembled at evening. By Mark, Luke, John,

and Paul. § 167.
N. B. These five appearances all took place at or near Jerusalem, upon the first

day of the week, or the Lord's day, the same day on which the Lord arose. 6. To the apostles, Thomas being present, eight days afterwards at Jerusalem, i. e.

again on the Lord's day. Only by John. § 168. 7. To seven of the apostles on the shore of the Lake of Tiberias. Only by John. § 169. 8. To the eleven apostles, and to five hundred other brethren, on a mountain in Ga

lilee. By Matthew and Paul. § 170. 9. TO James, probably at Jerusalem. Only by Paul. § 171. 10. To the eleven at Jerusalem, immediately before the ascension, By Luke in Acts,

and by Paul. § 171. Then follows the ascension. § 172.

$ 159. MORNING OF THE RESURRECTION.–Jerusalem.

First Day of the Week.

MARK XVI. 1.

1 AND when the sabbath was past," Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother

of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.

MATT. XXVIII. 2-4.

2 And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord de

scended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, 3 and sat upon it. His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment 4 white as snow : and for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as

dead men.

| The women had rested on the seventh day, Our Lord therefore had arisen from the tomb according to Luke 23. 56; and the sabbath being at or before early dawn. See Note to § 160 in the past, Mark relates (ver. 1) that they brought spices Appendix. - Verses 2-4 of Matthew are here to anoint the body. This purchase would seem transposed into their natural order. As they to have been made in the evening after the sab- stand in Matthew, the verbs must be read as in bath; since Mark proceeds in ver. 2 to narrate the pluperfect, had been” and “had rolled what they did early the next morning. In that away." See Note on $ 145. case Luke (23. 56) speaks of the spices by way of

The body of our Lord was laid in the sepulchre anticipation.—Or we may, with Wieseler (Chron. before sunset on Friday; and he rose early on the Synopsis, p. 417), obviate every difficulty by sup- morning of Sunday. He therefore rose on the posing, that the preparation of the spices com- third day; having lain in the tomb during one menced indeed at the time given by Luke, but whole day, and a part of two others; in all not was not completed till after the sabbath, according far from thirty-six hours. On the expressions, to Mark.

the third day and after threc days, ses Note on The angel had descended and the earthquake $ 49. had taken place, before the arrival of the women.

came

$ 160. VISIT OF THE WOMEN TO THE SEPULCHRE. MARY MAGDALENE RBTURNA.

Jerusalem,

First Day of the Week. MATT. XXVIII. 1. MARK XVI. 2-4. LUKE XXIV. 1-3. JOHN XX. 1, 2. 1 In the end of 2 And very ear

1 Now upon the 1 The first day the sabbath, as ly in the morn- first day of the of the week it began to dawn ing the first day week,very early cometh Mary toward the first of the week, in the morning, Magdalene earday of the week, they came unto they came unto ly, when it was

Mary the sepulchre at the sepulchre, yet dark, unto Magdalene and the rising of bringing the the sepulchre,the other Mary 3 the sun. And spices which to see the se- they said among they had prepulchre.

themselves, pared, and cer-
Who shall roll tain others with
us away

the them.
stone from the
door of the se-

sepulchre ?
MARK XVI.
LUKE XXIV.

JOHN XX. 4 And when they look- 2 And they found the and seeth the stone

ed, they saw that the stone rolled away from taken away from the stone was rolled away: 3 the sepulchre. And 2 sepulchre. Then she for it was very great. they entered in, and runneth, and cometh

found not the body of to Simon Peter, and the Lord Jesus.

to the other disciple,

whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.

$ 161. VISION OF ANGELS IN THE SEPULCHRE.-Jerusalem.

First Day of the Week.

MATT. XXVIII. 5-7.

MARK XVI. 5-7.

LUKE XXIV. 48. 5 And entering into 4

And it came to pass, the sepulchre, they saw as they were much a young man sitting perplexed thereabout, on the right side, cloth- behold, two men stood ed in a long white gar- by them in shining

ment; and they were 5 garments: and as they 5 And the angel an- 6 affrighted.

And he were afraid, and bowed swered and said unto saith unto them, Be down their faces to the the women, Fear not not affrighted: ye seek earth, they said unto

ye: for I know that ye Jesus of Nazareth, them, Why seek ye the i On the time of the women's visit, see Note of the sepulchre ; in Mark and Luke, on the conto $ 160 in the Appendix.

trary, the conversation takes place in the sepul* Luke speaks of two angels, Matthew and chre. But although Matthew does not speak of Mark of only one; see Note on § 57.-Mark the women as entering the tomb, yet, in ver. 8, says he was sitting; Luke speaks of them ap- he describes them as coming out of it (een doñoai); parently as standing, ver. 4. But εφίστημι, in so that of course his account too implies, that its appropriate and acknowledged usage, is to ap- the interview took place within the tomb, as narpear suddenly, to be suddenly present, without rated by Mark and Luke. reference to its etymology. Comp. Luke 2. 9; In recording the charge sent by the angels to Acts 12. 7.

the apostles, Matthew and Mark dwell more upon In Matthew, the angel addresses the women Galilee, and Luke more upon the Lord's previous apparently while still sitting on the stone outside announcement of his resurrection.

LUKE XXIV.

And go

MATT. XXVIII.

MARK XVI. seek Jesus, which was which was crucified: living among the dead? 6 crucified. He is not he is risen; he is not 6 He is not here, but is

here: for he is risen, here: behold the place risen: remember how as he said. Come, see where they laid him. he spake unto you

the place where the 7 But go your way, tell when he was yet in 7 Lord lay.

his disciples and' Pe 7 Galilee, saying, The quickly, and tell his ter that he goeth be- Son of man must be disciples that he is fore you into Galilee: delivered into the risen from the dead; there shall ye see him, hands of sinful men, and, behold, he goeth as he said unto you.? and be crucified, and before you into Gali

the third day rise alee; there shall ye see

8 gain. And they rehim :: lo, I have told

membered his words. you.

$ 162. THE WOMEN RETURN TO THE CITY.

JESUS MEETS THEM.3-Jerusalem.

First Day of the Week.

MATT. XXVIII. 8-10.

MARK XVI. 8. 8 And they departed quickly from 8 And they went out quickly, and

the sepulchre with fear and great fled from the sepulchre; for they joy; and did run to bring his dis- trembled and were amazed: nei9 ciples word. And as they went to ther said they any thing to any

tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met man ; for they were afraid.

them, saying, All hail. And they 10 came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him. Then

said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid : go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me.

LUKE XXIV. 9–11. 9 And they returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things unto the 10 eleven, and to all the rest. It was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and

Mary the mother of James, and other women that were with them, which told 11 these things unto the apostles. And their words seemed to them as idle

tales, and they believed them not.

$ 163. PETER AND JOHN RUN TO THE SEPULCHRE.-Jerusalem.

First Day of the Week.

JOHN XX. 3-10. 3 Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the 4 sepulchre. So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun i Luke 9. 22.

nor yet with Luke 24. 11. What was it that John 2 Matt. 26. 32 ; Mark 14. 28.

thus believed ? Not the mere report of Mary 3 It is evident that Mary Magdalene was not Magdalene, that the body had been taken away; with the other women when Jesus thus met them for so much he must have known and believed, on their return. Her language to Peter and John when he stooped down and looked into the seforbids the supposition, that she had already seen pulchre. His belief must have been of somethe Lord. See John 20. 2, and Note on § 164. thing more and greater. The grave-clothes lying See too Biblioth. Sacra, Feb. 1845, p. 171. orderly in their place, and the napkin folded to • Comp. Matt. 12. 50.

gether by itself, made it evident that the tomb Mary Magdalene had gone to Peter and John had not been rified, nor the body stolen by vioonly; who would seem to have lodged by them- lent hands; for these garments and the spices selves in a different part of the city. The other would have been of more value to thieves, than women went apparently to the rest of the disci- merely a naked corpse; at least, thieves would ples. When therefore it is here said of John, on not have taken the pains thus to fold the gar. his entering the sepulchre (ver. 8), that " he saw ments together. The same circumstances showed and believed," this is not at variance with ver. 9, also that the body had not been removed by

5

JOHN XX.

Peter, and came first to the sepul5 chre. And he stooping down, and

looking in, saw the linen clothes LUKE XXIV. 12.

6 lying ; yet went he not in. Then 12 Then arose Peter, and ran unto the cometh Simon Peter following him,

sepulchre; and stooping down, he and went into the sepulchre, and beheld the linen clothes laid by 7 seeth the linen clothes lie, and the themselves,

napkin, that was about his head,

not lying with the linen clothes, 8 but wrapped together in a place by itself. Then went in

also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and 9 he saw, and believed. For as yet they knew not the Scrip

ture, that he must rise again from --and departed, wondering in him- 10 the dead. Then the disciples went

self at that which was come to pass. away again unto their own home. § 164. OUR LORD IS SEEN BY MARY MAGDALENE AT THE SEPULCHRE.-Jerusalem.

First Day of the Week.

JOHN XX. 11-18. 11 But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping : and as she wept, she 12 stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre, and seeth two angels in white

sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of 13 Jesus had lain. And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She

saith unto them, Because they have

taken away my Lord, and I know MARK XVI. 9-11.

14 not where they have laid him. And 9 Now when Jesus was risen early when she had thus said, she turned

the first day of the week, he ap- herself back, and saw Jesus standpeared first to Mary Magdalene, out ing, and knew not that it was Jesus. of whom he had cast seven devils. 15 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why

weepest thou? whom seekest thou?

She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell 16 me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away. Je

sus saith unto her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith unto JOHN XX. Touch me not; for I am not yet as cended to my Father : but go to my

17 him, Rabboni; which is to say, Master. Jesus saith unto her, friends; for they would not thus have left the $ 162. This arises from the use of the word first, grave clothes behind. All these considerations in Mark 16. 9, which seems to imply that this excited in the mind of John the germ of a belief, appearance to Mary Magdalene was the first of that Jesus was risen from the dead. He believed all: he appeared first to Mary Magdalene. Yet because he saw; “ for as yet they knew not the the whole course of events and circumstances Scripture,” ver. 9. He now began to recall and shows conclusively, that Jesus had previously understand our Lord's repeated declaration, that appeared to the other women. We are therefore he was to rise again on the third day; a declaration compelled, and that in accordance with good and on which the Jews had already acted in setting a ordinary usage, to regard first as put here not watch. See Matt. 16. 21; 17. 23; Luke 9. 22; absolutely, but relatively. That is to say, Mark 24. 6, 7, &c. ; Matt. 27. 63, sq. In this way, the narrates three and only three appearances of our apparent want of connexion (sometimes urged) Lord; of these three that to Mary Magdalene between verses 8 and 9 disappears. See John takes place first, and that to the assembled dis3. 15, 16, sq. ; 10. 26; 19. 35, al. saep.

ciples the same evening occurs last, Mark 16. 14, 1 Psa. 16. 10; Acts 2. 25—31.

where our translators have used the word after9 Mary Magdalene now manifestly sees the ward, which is less correct. Now as the word angels for the first time; and this circumstance for last is here put relatively, and does not exalso goes to show, that she had previously left clude the subsequent appearances of our Lord to the other women at the sepulchre before the an- Thomas and in Galilee; so too first stands here gels appeared to them.

relatively, and does not exclude the previous A main difficulty occurs here in fixing the appearance to the other women. In this way the order of time, between our Lord's appearance to whole difficulty in the case before us vanishes. Mary Magdalene and that to the other women in

brethren, and say unto them, I asMARK XVI.

cend unto my Father, and your Fa10 And she went and told them that ther; and to my God, and your God.

had been with him, as they mourned 18 Mary Magdalene came and told the 11 and wept. And they, when they disciples that she had seen the

had heard that he was alive, and Lord, and that he had spoken these had been seen of her, believed not. things unto her.

$ 165. REPORT OF THE WATCH.-Jerusalem.

First Day of the Week.

MATT. XXVIII. 11--15.

11 Now when they were going, behold, some of the watch came into the city, 12 and showed unto the chief priests all the things that were done. And when

they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large 13 money unto the soldiers, saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and 14 stole him away while we slept. "And if this come to the governor's ears, we 15 will persuade him, and secure you. So they took the money, and did as they

were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day.

$ 166. OUR LORD IS SEEN BY PETER." THEN BY TWO DISCIPLES ON THE WAY TO

EMMAUS.–Jerusalem. Emmaus.

First Day of the Week.

1 COR. XV. 5.

LUKE XXIV. 13-85. 5 –And that he was seen of Cephas.- 13 And, behold, two of them went

that same day to a village_called MARK XVI. 12, 13.

Emmaus, which was from Jerusa12 After that he appeared in another 14 lem about threescore furlongs. And

form unto two of them, as they walk- they talked together of all these ed, and went into the country. 15 things which had happened. And

it came to pass, that, while they communed together and rea

easoned, 16 Jesus himself drew near, and went with them. But their eyes were holden 17 that they should not know him. And he said unto them, What manner of

communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye walk, and are 18 sad ? And the one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answering said unto

him, Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things 19 which are come to pass there in these days? And he said unto them, What

things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which 20 was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people: and

how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to 21 death, and have crucified him. But we trusted that it had been he which

should have redeemed Israel : and beside all this,' to day is the third day 1 This appearance of our Lord to Peter, is men- 2 Reasoned, or rather disputed (oušnteir), i. e. tioned only by Paul and by Luke, ver. 34. It had concerning the Messiahship of Jesus. On this not taken place when the two disciples left Jeru- point they, in their unbelief, felt great perplexity, salem for Emmaus; or at least they had not heard owing to his dying, and that without having ef

It had occurred when they returned ; and fected the political deliverance of Israel, which that long enough before to have been fully re- they thought was sure to be done by the Messiah ported to all the disciples and believed by them. (verse 21). It may perhaps have happened about the time the 3 Acts 1. 6.

4 Luke 9. 22. two disciples set off, or shortly afterwards.

of it.

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