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LUKE XXIV.

22 since these things were done. Yea, and certain women also of our com23 pany made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre; and when

they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision 24 of angels, which said that he was alive. And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre,

and und even so as the women 25 had said : but him they saw not. Then he said unto them, O fools, and 26 slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken : ought not 27 Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? And

beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all 28 the Scriptures the things concerning himself. And they drew nigh unto the

village, whither they went: and he made as though he would have gone 29 further. But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us : for it is toward

evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in to tarry with them, 30 And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and 31 blessed it, and brake, and gave to them. And their eyes were opened; 32 and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight. And they said

one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us 33 by the way, and while he opened to us the Scriptures? And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the elevengathered

together, and them that were with

34 them, saying, The Lord is risen in13 And they went and told it unto deed, and hath appeared to Simon.:

the residue : neither believed they 35 And they told what things were them.

done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread,

MARK XVI.

$ 167. JÈSUS APPEARS IN THE MIDST OF THE APOSTLES," THOMAS BEING ABSENT.

Jerusalem.

Evening following the First Day of the Week, or the Lord's Day.

MARK XVI. 14-18.

I COR. XV. 5.

JOHN XX. 19-23. 14 Afterward he ap- -5 -Then of the twelve. 19 Then the same day peared unto the eleven

at evening, being the as they sat at meat,

LUKE XXIV. 36-49. first day of the week, and upbraided them 36 And as they thus when the doors were with their unbelief spake, Jesus himself shut where the disciand hardness of heart, stood in the midst of ples were assembled because they believed them, and saith unto for fear of the Jews, not them which had them, Peace be unto came Jesus and stood

11 Pet. 1. 11.

ject of the nature of our Lord's resurrection-body, 2 The eleven. From John 20. 24, it appears see a full discussion by Dr. Robinson in the Bibthat Thomas was absent on the occasion, so that liotheca Sacra for May, 1845, p. 292, sq. only ten of the apostles were really present. But Then follows our Lord's charge and commission there is no contradiction in the two accounts; for to the eleven apostles, delivered to them here in Luke uses the eleven as expressing the apostles as private by themselves; and distinct from the a class, without implying that every member was public and more general commission recorded in present, just as Paul, in 1 Cor. 15. 5, uses the Matt. 28. 19, 20.-As a symbol of this commission twelve as a designation for the apostolic band, to them in particular, and of the power which though the company, present at the time there they should shortly receive through the Spirit imreferred to, consisted in fact of only ten.

parted from on high," he breathed on them, and 3 1 Cor. 15. 5.

said, Receive ye the Holy Ghost," John 20. 22. 4 When the disciples beheld their risen Lord, There was in this emblem a recognition and rethey thought they saw a spirit. Jesus reassures

iteration of the gracious promise of the Spirit bethem; and presents to them indubitable evidence,

fore made; which was to be abundantly fulfilled that the same body of flesh and bones which had on the day of Pentecost. See John 14, 26; 16. 7, been crucified and laid in the sepulchre, was now

sq.; Acts 2. 1, sq. risen and alive before them. On the general sub

MARK XVI.

JOHN XX.

JOHN XX.

LUKE XXIV. seen him after he was 37 you. But they were in the midst, and saith risen.

terrified and affright- unto them, Peace be ed, and supposed that

unto you. 38 they had seen a spirit. And he

said unto them, Why are ye trou

bled? and why do thoughts arise in 39 your hearts ? Behold my hands and

my feet, that it is I myself: handle me,

and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. 40 And when he had thus spoken, he 20 And when he had so said, he showed

showed them his hands and his feet. unto them his hands and his side, 41 And while they yet believed not for Then were the disciples glad, when

joy, and wondered, he said unto they saw the Lord. 42 them, Have ye here any meat? And

they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb. 43, 44 And he took it, and did eat before them. And he said unto

them. These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written

in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, 45 concerning me. Then opened he their understanding, that they 46 might understand the Scriptures, and said unto them, Thus it is

written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the 47 dead the third day: and that repentance and remission of sins

should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at 48 Jerusalem. And ye are witnesses of these things.? MARK XVI.

JOHN XX. 15 And he said unto 49 And, behold, I send 21 Then said Jesus to

them, Go ye into all the promise of my them again, Peace be the world, and preach Father upon you: but unto you: as my Fathe gospel to every tarry ye in the city of

ther hath sent me, 16 creature. He that be- Jerusalem,8 until ye even so send I you. lieveth and is baptized

be endued with power shall be saved; but from on high.

he that believeth not 17 shall be damned. And these signs shall follow them that believe;

In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new 18 tongues ;9. they shall take up serpents ;10 and if they drink any

deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick,1i and they shall recover. [See § 172.]

LUKE XXIV.

JOHN XX.

22 And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Re

1 Comp. Matt. 14. 26 ; Acts 12. 15.

5 Then opened he, 8c. This place, and the 2 Acts 10. 41.

Comp. Luke 18.31. similar one in verse 27 of this chapter, are very 4 Law of Moses-prophets-psalms. These weighty, as proofs that the apostles had explicit three designations express the three divisions of intimations from the Saviour respecting the inthe Old Testament, according to the Jewish clas-terpretation of the Old Testament; so that we sification. The law of Moses is the same as the ought to regard the sense which they have put Pentateuch. Under the class of the prophets, on certain difficult and doubtful passages, (such were comprised Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and as Psa. 16.; Psa. 110.; Joel 3. ; Gen. 12. 3; Deut, Kings, besides all the prophetical books excepting 18. 15, 18,) as having the direct sanction of our Daniel. The third class comprised Psalms, Pro- Lord's own interpretation, and therefore decisive. verbs, Job, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Eccle

6 Acts 3. 26. siastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chron. ? John 15. 27; Acts 1. 8. icles, and was called the Psalms, either because 8 Acts 1. 4.

9 Acts 2. 4; 1 Cor. 13. 1. that book is the first and chief in it, or because 10 Acts 28. 5.

11 James 5. 14, 15. most of its contents are poetical.

JOHN XX.

23 ceive ye the Holy Ghost: whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted

unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained. $ 168. JESUS APPEARS IN THE MIDST OF THE APOSTLES, THOMAS BEING PRESENT.

Jerusalem.
Evening following the First Day of the Week next after the Resurrection.

JOHN XX. 24-29. 24 But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when 25 Jesus came, The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen

the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print

of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my 26 hand into his side, I will not believe. And after eight days again his dis

ciples were within, and Thomas with them : then came Jesus, the doors being 27 shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you. Then saith he to

Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither

thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing. 28, 29° And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God. Je

sus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.'

§ 169. THE APOSTLES GO AWAY INTO GALILEE. JESUS SHOWS HIMSELF TO NINE

OF THEM AT THE SEA OF TIBERIAS.-Galilee.

MATT. XXVIII. 16.

JOHN XXI. 1-24. 16 Then the eleven disciples went 1 After these things Jesus showed away into Galilee,

himself again to the disciples at the

sea of Tiberias; and on this wise

2 showed he himself. There were to gether. Simon Peter, and Thomas called Didymus, and Nathanael of Cana 3 in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two other of his disciples. Simon

Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing. They say unto him, We also go with

thee. They went forth, and entered into a ship immediately; and that 4 night they caught nothing. But when the morning was now come, Jesus 5 stood on the shore: but the disciples knew not that it was Jesus. Then

Jesus saith unto them, Children, have ye any meat? They answered him, 6 No. And he said unto them, Cast the net on the right side of the ship, and

ye shall find. They cast therefore, and now they were not able to draw it 7 for the multitude of fishes. Therefore that disciple whom Jesus loved saith

unto Peter, It is the Lord. Now when Şimon Peter heard that it was the

Lord, he girt his fisher's coat unto him, (for he was naked,) and did cast himself 8 into the sea. And the other disciples came in a little ship; (for they were

not far from land, but as it were two hundred cubits,) dragging the net 9 with fishes. As soon then as they were come to land, they saw a fire of 10 coals there, and fish laid thereon, and bread. Jesus saith unto them, Bring 11 of the fish which ye have now caught. Simon Peter went up, and drew the

net to land full of great fishes, an hundred and fifty and three: and for all 12 there were so many, yet was not the net broken. Jesus saith unto them,

Come and dine. And none of the disciples durst ask him, Who art thou? 13 knowing that it was the Lord. Jesus then cometh, and taketh bread, and 14 giveth them, and fish likewise. This is now the third time that Jesus showed himself to his disciples, after that he was risen from the dead.

$$ 167, 168,) but the seventh in all. (See Intro9 Phis appearance of our Lord to the seven ductory Note to this part.) They were now disciples at the Lake of Galilee, is shown to have waiting the appointed time, to meet Jesus upen preceded that upon the mountain, by John 21.14. a certain mountain, Matt. 28. 16. It was his third appearance to the apostles, (see

11 Pet. 1. 8.

JOHN XXI.

15 So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, son of Jonas,

lovest thou me more than these?' He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou 16 knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my lambs. He saith

to him again the second time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me? He

saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto 17 him, Feed my sheep. He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of Jo

nas, lovest thou me? Peter was grieved because he said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all

things; thou knowest that I love thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed my 18 sheep: Verily, verily, I say unto thee, When thou wast young, thou girdedst

thyself, and walkedst whither thou wouldest: but when thou shalt be old,

thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and carry 19 thee whither thou wouldest not. This spake he, signifying by what death he

should glorify God. And when he had spoken this, he saith unto him, Follow 20 me. Then Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved follow

ing; which also leaned on his breast at supper, and said, Lord, which is 21 he that betrayeth thee? Peter seeing him saith to Jesus, Lord, and what 22 shall this man do? Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he tarry till I come, 23 what is that to thee? Follow thou me. Then went this saying abroad

among the brethren, that that disciple should not die: yet Jesus said not unto him, He shall not die; but, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is

that to thee? 24 This is the disciple which testifieth of these things, and wrote these things :

and we know that his testimony is true,

$ 170. JESUS MEETS HIS APOSTLES AND ABOUT FIVE HUNDRED BRETHREN ON A

MOUNTAIN IN GALILEE.

MATT. XXVIII. 16-20. 16 — Into a mountain where? Jesus 6 17 had appointed them. And when

1 COR. XV. 6. After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of

Comp. Matt. 26. 33.

ed of our Lord for a solemn and more public in? The third time. There can be no doubt that terview, not only with the eleven, whom he had our Lord sought Peter's confession thrice, because already met more than once, but with all his disthe denial had been thrice repeated. Peter ap- ciples in Galilee; and that therefore it was on pears in this beautiful and touching narrative as this same occasion, when, according to Paul," he one fully restored in spirit by repentance, and as was seen of above five hundred brethren at once." also fully and formally reinstated in the apostle- That the interview in Matthew was not confined ship by his gracious Lord, "that great Shepherd to the eleven alone, seems evident from the fact of the sheep” (Heb. 13. 20). Here is a most strik- that “some doubted;" for this could hardly be ing illustration of the chastening and humbling supposed true of any of the eleven, after what effect of true repentance. Peter, before the hour had already happened to them in Jerusalem and of his trial and his fall, professed to have more Galilee, and after having been appointed to meet love to his Master than the others had (Mark 14. their risen Lord at this very time and place. The 29; John 13. 37), but now he claims no pre-emi- appearance to the five hundred must at any rate nence nor institutes any comparison, being con- be referred to Galilee ; for even after our Lord's tent simply to declare with meekness his sincere ascension, the number of the names in Jerusalem love.

were together only about a hundred and twenty, 3 John 16. 30. 4 2 Pet. 1. 14.

Acts 1. 15. And further, Paul in enumerating 5 John 13. 23-25.

the appearances of Jesus, in 1 Cor. 15. 5—8, spe6 That he tarry till I come. The apostle John cifies only those to apostles, with this single excepwas alive when Christ came to destroy Jerusalem tion; which therefore seems of itself to imply, (A. D. 70), and died a natural death about A. D. that the eleven also were here included. Robin100. But Peter was, according to the intimation son therefore, with many leading commentators, in verse 19, put to death as a martyr, probably regards the interviews thus described by Matthew in Rome, A. D. 67.

and Paul, as identical. It was a great and solemn 7 Matt. 26. 32.

occasion. Our Lord had directed, that the ele. 8 The set time had now come; and the eleven ven, and all his disciples in Galilee, should thus disciples went away into the mountain, “ where be convened upon the mountain. It was the Jesus had appointed them."

It would seem pro

closing scene of his ministry in Galilee. Here bable, that this time and place had been appoint- | his life had been spent. Here most of his mighty

MATT. XXVIII.

1 Cor. xv. they saw him, they worshipped him: whom the greater part remain unto 18 but some doubted. And Jesus this present, but some are fallen

came and spake unto them, saying, asleep.

All power is given unto me in hea19 ven and in earth.? Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them 20 in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost : teach

ing; them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you : and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

§ 171. OUR LORD IS SEEN OF JAMES; THEN OF ALL THE APOSTLES. 4–Jerusalem.

1 COR. XV. 7. 7 After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles.

ACTS I. 3—8. 3 To whom also he showed himself alive after his passion by many infalli

ble proofs, being seen of them forty days, and speaking of the things per4 taining to the kingdom of God: and, being assembled together with them,

commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait 5 for the promise of the Father, which, saith he, ye have heard of me. For

John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy 6 Ghost not many days hence. When they therefore were come together,

they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the 7 kingdom to Israel? And he said unto them, It is not for you to know the 8 times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power. But ye

shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses 6 unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.

§ 172. THE ASCENSION.-Bethany.

LUKE XXIV. 50–53. 50 And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands,

and blessed them.

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works had been done, and his discourses held. to Jerusalem, after the return of the apostles Here his followers were as yet most numerous. from Galilee. He therefore here takes leave on earth of those Afterwards, our Lord again, according to Paul, among whom he had lived and laboured longest ; was seen of all the apostles." This was appaand repeats to all his disciples in public the so- rently an appointed meeting; the same which lemn charge which he had already given in pri- Luké speaks of in Jerusalem, immediately before vate to the apostles : “Go ye therefore and teach the ascension. It was of course the Lord's last all nations ;-and lo, I am with you always, even interview with his apostles. unto the end of the world." It was doubtless the 6 Luke 24. 49.

6 John 15. 27. Lord's last interview with his disciples in that ? During the preceding discourse, Acts 1. 7, 8 region; his last great act in Galilee.

($ 171), or in immediate connexion with it, our Acts 2. 36 ; Phil. 2. 9, 10.

Lord leads the apostles out as far as to Bethany ? Comp. John 4. 1; Mark 16. 15, 16; Acts 2. (έως εις Βηθανίαν); and lifting up his hands he 38–41.

blessed them, Luke 24. 50. This act of blessing 3 Acts 2. 42.

must be understood, by all the laws of language, * Luke relates, in Acts 1. 3, that Jesus showed as having taken place at or near Bethany. And himself alive to the apostles " after his passion, it came to pass, WHILE he blessed them, he was by many infallible proofs, being seen of them parted from them, and carried up into heaven." forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining Our Lord's ascension, then, took place at or near to the kingdom of God." This would seem to Bethany. Indeed, the sacred writer could hardly imply interviews and communications as to which have found words to express the fact more dewe have little more than this very general notice. finitely and fully; and a doubt on this point could One of these may have been the appearance to never have suggested itself to the mind of any James, mentioned by Paul only (1 Cor. 15. 7), reader, but for the language of the same writer in and subsequent to that to the five hundred bre- Acts 1. 12, where he relates that after the ascenthren. It may be referred with most probability sion the disciples “ returned unto Jerusalem from

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