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MATT. V. persecute you, and shall say all you from their company, and shall

manner of evil against you falsely, reproach you, and cast out your 12 for my sake. Rejoice, and be ex- name as evil, for the Son of man's

ceeding glad : for great is your re- 23 sake. Rejoice ye in that day, and ward in heaven: for so persecuted leap for joy : for, behold, your rethey the prophets which were be- ward is great in heaven : for in the fore you."

like manner did their fathers unto 24 the prophets.' But woe unto you

that are rich! for ye have received 25 your consolation.

Woe unto you that are full! for ye shall hunger.

Woe unto you that laugh now! for 26 ye shall mourn and weep.

Woe unto you, when all men shall speak well of you! for so did their fathers

to the false prophets.

MATT. V. 13 Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, where

with shall it be salted ? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast 14 out, and to be trodden under foot of men. Ye are the light of the world. 15 A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid. Neither do men light a candle,

and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto alí 16 that are in the house. Let your light so shine before men, that they may

see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven. 17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets : I am not 18 come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and

earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be 19 fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least command

ments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom

of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called 20 great in the kingdom of heaven. For I say unto you, That except your

righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye

shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven, 21 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not 22 kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: but I

say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother,

Raca, shall be in danger of the council : but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, 23 shall be in danger of hell fire. Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar,

11 Kings 19. 10; 2 Chron. 16. 10; 24. 19-21; by observing the law and the traditions, a man Jer. 26. 8, 20–23.

might be justified before God, and even attain to ? The scribes and Pharisees : the former were the merit of supererogation; and accordingly they a learned profession, (not a religious sect,) whose were generally self-righteous, and manifested a business was to write copies of the law, and proud aversion to the gospel doctrine of justificaalso to expound its meaning; hence they were tion by faith, or salvation by grace (see Luke 18. called also lawyers (Matt. 22. 35 comp. with 9-14; Rom. 10. 3). Mark 12. 28) and doctors of the law (Luke 5. 17 3 Ex. 20. 13; Lev. 24. 21. comp. with 21). As religionists they generally 4 Christ here speaks of three degrees of punishfavoured the views and abetted the party of the ment, according to what was then known among Pharisees ; hence the mention of both together the Jews. 1. The judgment (xplois), or inferior in this and many other places (see particularly court of seven judges which existed in every city. in Matt. 23.)

2. The council (ovvedprov, commonly called SanheThe Pharisees were the most numerous sect drim), consisting of seventy men—"elders of the among the Jews, professing (as the name separ- people and the chief priests and scribes” (Luke atists imports) to distinguish themselves from 22. 66), who alone could inflict the severer punsuch religionists as the Sadducees by a peculiar ishments. 3. Hell fire (yéevva tou a vpós), properdevotedness and strictness

in the observance of ly gehenna of fire, so called from the Valley of the law; to which however they added the “tra- Hinnom (2178) on the south of Jerusalem, dition of the elders," and so made void the com- where once children had been burnt to Moloch, mands of God (see in § 67). They believed that,

and afterwards the dead bodies of beasts and ma


24 and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee; leave

there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy 25 brother, and then come and offer thy gift. Agree with thine adversary

quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary

deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou 26 be cast into prison. Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come

out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. 27 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time,' Thou shalt not com28 mit adultery: but I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to 29 lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. And if

thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profit

able for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole 30 body should be cast into hell. And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off,

and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members

should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. 31 It hath been said,? Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a 32 writing of divorcement: but I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away

his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery :

and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery. 33 Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou

shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths: 34 but I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's 35 throne: nor by the earth; for it is his footstool : neither by Jerusalem; 36 for it is the city of the great King. Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, 37 because thou canst not make one hair white or black. But let your com

munication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these

cometh of evil. 38 Ye have heard that it hath been said,4 An eye for an eye, and a tooth 39 for a tooth: but I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whoso

ever shall smite thee on thy right

cheek, turn to him the other also. 40 And if any man will sue thee at the 29 And unto him that smiteth thee

law, and take away thy coat, let him on the one cheek offer also the 41 have thy cloke also. And whoso- other; and him that taketh away

ever shall compel thee to go a mile, thy cloke forbid not to take thy 42 go with him twain. Give to him 30 coat also. Give to every man that

that asketh thee, and from him that asketh of thee; and of him that would borrow of thee turn not thou taketh away thy goods ask them away.

not again. (Ver. 31 below on p. 37.] 43 Ye have heard that it hath been

said, Thou shalt love thy neigh44 bour, and hate thine enemy. But 27 --But I say unto you which hear,

I say unto you, Love your enemies, Love your enemies, do good to them bless them that curse you,6 do 28 which hate you, bless them that good to them that hate you, and curse you, and pray for them which

pray for them which despitefully use despitefully use you.45 you, and persecute you; that ye


may be the children of your Father
which is in heaven : for he maketh
his sun to rise on the evil and on the
good, and sendeth rain on the just

lefactors were consumed in a fire constantly kept
up (2 Kings 23. 10); hence it served as a figure
to denote the place of eternal torment, "where
the worm dieth not and the fire is not quenched
(Mark 9. 44).

1 Ex. 20. 14. 2 Deut. 24. 1.
3 Ex. 20. 7; Lev. 19. 12.
• Ex. 21. 24; Lev. 24. 20.
5 Comp. Lev. 19. 18; Deut. 23. 6.
6 Comp. Prov. 25. 21.



46 and on the unjust. For if ye love 32

For if ye love them which love you, what reward them which love you, what thank

have ye? do not even the publi- have ye? for sinners also love those 47 cans the same? And if ye salute 33 that love them. And if ye do good

your brethren only, what do ye more to them which do good to you, what than others? do not even the pub- thank have ye? for sinners also do licans so?

34 even the same. And if ye lend to

them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye? for sinners

also lend to sinners, to receive as 35 much again. But love ye your ene

mies, and do good, and lend, hoping for nothing again; and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the Highest: for he is kind unto the unthankful and to the

evil. 48 Be ye therefore perfect, even as 36 Be ye therefore merciful, as your

your Father which is in 'heaven is Father also is merciful,

perfect. VI. 1. Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them : 2 otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven. Therefore

when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the

hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have 3 glory of men. Verily. I say unto you, They have their reward. But when

thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth : 4 that thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret

himself shall reward thee openly. 5 And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are: for they

love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets,

that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their 6 reward. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou

hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father 7 which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly. But when ye pray, use not

vain repetitions, as the heathen do : for they think that they shall be heard for 8 their much speaking. Be not ye therefore like unto them: for your father 9 knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask him. After this man

ner therefore pray ye:Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy 10 name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. 11, 12 Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we for13 give our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from

evil : For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen. 14 For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also for15 give you; but if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Fa

ther forgive your trespasses. 16 Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance :3

for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily 17 I say unto you, They have their reward. But thou, when thou fastest, 18 anoint thine head, and wash thy face; that thou appear not unto men to fast,

but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in

secret, shall reward thee openly. 19 Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth 20 corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal: but lay up for your

selves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and

1 Acts 14. 17.

? Comp. Luke 11. 2–4; see in $ 88.

3 Comp. Isa. 58. 5—7.


31 you,


21 where thieves do not break through nor steal : for where your treasure is, 22 there will your heart be also. The light of the body is the eye: if there23 fore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light. But if thine

eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light 24 that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness! No man can

serve two masters : for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or

else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God 25 and mammon. Therefore 'I say unto you, Take no thought for your life,

what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye

shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment? 26 Behold the fowls of the air : for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor

gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not 27 much better than they? Which of you by taking thought can add one cu28 bit unto his stature? And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the 29 lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin : and

yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like 30 one of these. Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe


ye of little faith? Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed? 32 (for after all these things do the Gentiles seek :)_for your heavenly Father 33 knoweth that ye have need of all these things. But seek ye first the king

dom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added un34 to you. Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall

take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil

thereof. VII. 1. Judge not, that ye be not 37 Judge not, and ye shall not be 2 judged. For with what judgment judged: condemn not, and ye shall

ye judge, ye shall be judged: and not be condemned: forgive, and ye with what measure ye mete, it shall 38 shall be forgiven : give, and it shall be measured to you again.

be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that ye mete withal

it shall be measured to you again. 39 And he spake a parable unto them,

Can the blind lead the blind?

shall they not both fall into the 40 ditch? The disciple is not above

his master: but every one that is 3 And why beholdest thou the mote 41 perfect shall be as his master. And

that is in thy brother's eye, but con- why beholdest thou the mote that

siderest not the beam that is in thine is in thy brother's eye, but perceiv4 own eye? Or how wilt thou say to est not the beam that is in thine

thy brother, Let me pull out the 42 own eye? Either how canst thou

mote out of thine eye; and, behold, say to thy brother, Brother, let me 5 a beam is in thine own eye? Thou pull out the mote that is in thine

hypocrite, first cast out the beam eye, when thou thyself beholdest not out of thine own eye; and then the beam that is in thine own eye? shalt thou see clearly to cast out Thou hypocrite, cast out first the

the mote out of thy brother's eye. beam out of thine own eye, and then 6 Give not that which is holy unto shalt thou see clearly to pull out the 1 Comp. Luke 16. 9, 11, 13. ? Mammon is an Aramean word for riches, so

ance (from root gras). Here our Lord speaks of

wealth as personified into an idol god. called probably from the idea of support and reli

3 Phil. 4. 6; 1 Pet. 5. 7.

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the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls mote that is in thy brother's eye.before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn

again and rend you. 7 Ask, and it shall be given you;

seek, and ye shall find; knock, and 8 it shall be opened unto you: for

every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to

him that knocketh it shall be open9 ed. Or what man is there of you,

whom if his son ask bread, will hé 10 give him a stone? or if he ask a 11 fish, will he give him a serpent? If

ye then, being evil,? know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your Father which is in heaven give

good things 12 to them that ask him? Therefore

all things whatsoever ye would 31 And as ye would that men should do that men should do to you, do ye to you, do ye also to them likewise. even so to them: for this is the

law and the prophets. 13 Enter ye in at the strait gate :

for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruc

tion, and many there be which go 14 in thereat: because strait is the

gate, and narrow is the way, which

leadeth unto life, and few there be 15 that find it. Beware of false pro

phets, which come to you in sheep's

clothing, but inwardly they are 16 ravening wolves.3 Ye 'shall know

them by their fruits. Do men 44 For every tree is known by his

gather grapes of thorns, or figs of own fruit. For of thorns men do not 17 thistles? Even so every good tree gather figs, nor of a bramble bush

bringeth forth good fruit; but a 43 gather they grapes.-For a good tree

corrupt tree bringeth forth evil bringeth not forth corrupt fruit; 18 fruit." A good tree cannot bring neither doth a corrupt tree bring

forth evil fruit, neither can a cor- 45 forth good fruit.-A good man out

rupt tree bring forth good fruit. of the good treasure of his heart 19 Every tree that bringeth not forth bringeth forth that which is good;

good fruit is hewn down, and cast and an evil man out of the evil trea20 into the fire. Wherefore by their sure of his heart bringeth forth that 21 fruits ye shall know them. Not which is evil : for of the abundance

every one that saith unto me, of the heart his mouth speaketh. Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that

doeth the will of my Father which 22 is in heaven. Many will say to me

in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name ? and Comp. Luke 11. 9—13.

versal depravity of our race. ? Being evil: here is a striking testimony borne 3 Comp. Acts 20. 29, 30. by Christ, in an incidental manner, to the uni

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