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§ 13. THE GENEALOGIES.' MATT. I. 1-17.

LUKE III. 2338, inverted. 1 The book of the generation of Je- 38 The son of God, the son of Adam,

sus Christ, the Son of David, the 37 the son of Seth, the son of Enos, the son of Abraham.3

son of Cainan, the son of Maleleel,

the son of Jared, the son of Enoch, 36 the son of Mathusala, the son of Lamech, the son of

Noe, the son of Sem, the son of Arphaxad, the son of 35 Cainan, the son of Sala, the son of Heber, the son of 34 Phalec, the son of Ragau, the son of Saruch, the son

of Nachor, the son of Thara, the son 2 Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac of Abraham, the son of Isaac, the son

begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas 33 of Jacob, the son of Juda, the son of 3 and his brethren; and Judas begat

Phares and Zara of Thamar; and Phares, the son of Esrom, the son of

Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom 4 begat Aram; and Aram begat Ami- 32 Aram, the son of Aminadab, the son

nadab; and Aminadab begat Naas

son; and Naasson_begat Salmon; of Naasson, the son of Salmon, the son 5 and Salmon begat Booz of Rachab; of Booz, the son of Obed, the son of

and Booz begat Obed of Ruth; and 6 Obed begat Jesse; and Jesse begat 31 Jesse, the son of David, the son of David the king;

And David the king begat Solo- Nathan, the son of Mattatha, the son mon of her that had been the wife of 30 of Menan, the son of Melea, the son 7 Urias; and Solomon begat Robo

am; and Roboam begat Abia; and of Eliakim, the son of Jonan, the son 8 Abia begat Asa; and Asa begat

Josaphat; and Josaphat begat Jo- of Joseph, the son of Juda, the son of 9 ram; and Joram begat Ozias; and

Ozias begat Joatham; and Joatham 29 Simeon, the son of Levi, the son of

begat Achaz; and Achaz begat Matthat, the son of Jorim, the son 10 Ezekias; and Ezekias begat Manas

ses; and Manasses begat Amon; 28 of Eliezer, the son of Jose, the son of 11 and Amon begat Josias; and Josias Er, the son of Elmodam, the son of

begat Jechonias and his brethren, about the time they were carried Cosam, the son of Addi, the son of away to Babylon.

27 Melchi, the son of Neri, the son of 12 And after they were brought to

Babylon, Jechonias begat Salathiel; Salathiel, the son of Zorobabel, the 13 and Salathiel begat Zorobabel ; and 26 son of Rhesa, the son of Joanna, the

Zorobabel begat Abiud; and Abiud son of Juda, the son of Joseph, the

begat Eliakim; and Eliakim begat son of Semei, the son of Mattathias, 14 Azor; and Azor begat Sadoc; and 25 the son of Maath, the son of Nagge,

Sadoc begat Achim, and Achim be- the son of Esli, the son of Naum, the 15 gat Eliud ; and Eliud begat Eleazar; son of Amos, the son of Mattathias,

1 See the Note on this section in the Appendix. traces it rather to Adam. The two genealogies ? The words which was the son are supplied in thus prove Jesus to be-1. The Son of David, who our version all through, and as such ought to be should, according to promise, sit on the throne of in italics. It would be better, however, to sup- Israel (Isa. 9. 6, 7; Luke 1. 32; Acts 2. 30). 2. The ply simply son of, and to understand it of Jesus, Seed of Abraham, in whom all nations of the earth all through the list. This change is accordingly should be blessed, according to the covenant made in the text, especially because it facilitates made with the father of the faithful (Gen. 22. 18; the inversion of Luke's order.

Gal. 3. 14–16). 3. The Son of man, or“ the seed 3 Matthew, as writing particularly for Jews, of the woman,” who should bruise the serpent's traces our Lord's descent only to David and to head (Gen. 3. 15; Heb. 2. 14). Abraham; but Luke, as writing for Gentiles,

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and Eleazar begat Matthan; and 24 the son of Joseph, the son of Janna, 16 Matthan begat Jacob; and Jacob the son of Melchi, the son of Levi,

begat Joseph the husband of Mary, the son of Matthat, the son of Heli, of whom was born Jesus, who is 23 the son of Joseph, —And Jesus himcalled Christ.

self ... being (as was supposed) — 17 So all the generations from Abra

ham to David are fourteen generations; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations.

PART II.

ANNOUNCEMENT AND INTRODUCTION OF OUR LORD'S

PUBLIC MINISTRY.

TIME : About one year.'

MARK I.1-8.

§ 14. THE MINISTRY OF JOHN THE BAPTIST.2- The desert. The Jordan.

LUKE III. 1-18. 1 NOW in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, Pontius Pilate

being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his bro

ther Philip tetrarch of Iturea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias 2 the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word

of God came unto John MATT. III. 1-12.

the son of Zacharias in 1 In those days came

1 The beginning of the 3 the wilderness. And he John the Baptist, gospel of Jesus Christ, came into all the coun

preaching in the wil- 4 the Son of God.-John try about Jordan, 2 derness of Judea, and did baptize in the wil- preaching the baptism

saying, Repent ye: for derness, and preach of repentance for the

the kingdom of heaven the baptism of repent- 4 remission of sins; as it 3 is at hand. For this is ance for the remission is written in the book

he that was spoken of 2 of sins.--As it is writ- of the words of Esaias by the prophet Esaias, ten in the prophets, the prophet, saying, saying, "The voice of Behold, I send my

The voice of one cryone crying in the wil

messenger before thy ing in the wilderness, derness,

Prepare ye the face, which shall pre- Prepare ye the way of way of the Lord, make pare thy way before

the Lord, make his 4 his paths straight. And 3 thee. The voice of one 5 paths straight. Every

the same John had his crying in the wilder- valley shall be filled, raiment of camel's ness,* Prepare ye the and every mountain

4

? This is made out by reckoning the six months of John's ministry before he baptized the Saviour, and about six more between that event and our Lord's first passover: see $21.

2 The time of John's entering on his ministry, as specified in Luke 3. 1, is stated in the second paragraph of the Note to 7, in the Appendix. 3 Mal. 3. 1; Isa. 40. 3.

4 Isa. 40. 3, sq.

MATT. III.

MARK I.

LUKE III. hair, and a leathern way of the Lord, make

and hill shall be girdle about his loins ; his paths straight. - brought low; and the and his meat was lo- 6 And John was clothed crooked shall be made

custs and wild honey. with camel's hair, and straight, and the rough 5 Then went out to him with a girdle of a skin ways shall be made

Jerusalem, and all Ju- about his loins; and he 6 smooth; and all flesh dea, and all the region did eat locusts and shall see the salvation

round about Jordan, 5 wild honey. And of God. 6 and were baptized of there went out unto him all the land of Judea, and

him in Jordan, confess- they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him ing their sins.

in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins.MATT. III.

LUKE III. 7 But when he saw many of the 7 Then said he to the multitude

Pharisees and Sadducees come to his that came forth to be baptized of baptism, he said unto them, Ogener- him, O generation of vipers, who ation of vipers, who hath warned hath warned you to flee from the

you to flee from the wrath to come? 8 wrath to come? Bring forth there8 Bring forth therefore fruits meet for fore fruits worthy of repentance, 9 repentance: and think not to say and begin not to say within your

within yourselves, We have Abra- selves, We have Abraham to our ham to our father : for I say unto father: for I say unto you, that you, that God is able of these stones God is able of these stones to

to raise up children unto Abraham. raise up children unto Abraham. 10 And now also the axe is laid unto 9 And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every

the root of the trees : every tree tree which bringeth not forth good therefore which bringeth not forth fruit is hewn down, and cast into good fruit is hewn down, and cast the fire.

10 into the fire. And the people asked 11 him, saying, What shall we do then? He answereth and

saith unto them, He that hath two coats, let him impart to

him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do 12 likewise. Then came also publicans? to be baptized, and 13 said unto him, Master, what shall we do? And he said

unto them, Exact no more than that which is appointed 14 you. And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying,

And what shall we do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely; and be con

tent with your wages. 15 And as the people were in expectation, and all men

mused in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ,

16 or not; John answered, saying unto them all,I indeed MATT. III.

baptize you with wa7 And preached, saying, 3 ter; but one mightier 11 I indeed 3 baptize you 8 -I indeed have bap- than I cometh, the

with water unto re- tized you with water; latchet of whose shoes pentance: but he that 7 --There cometh one I am not worthy to un1 Comp. Isa. 20. 2; Zech. 13. 4.

A like difference is seen in the four copies of the 2 The publicans (tedūva.) were farmers of the title on the cross, Matt. 27. 37; Mark 15. 26 ; taxes imposed on the Jews by the Roman go- Luke 23. 38; John 19. 19. And still more, in the vernment. They were particularly odious to the solemn words of our Lord at the institution of people, who considered them as no better than the cup, Matt. 26. 28; Mark 14. 24; Luke 22. 20; traders in the slavery of their country, and more- 1 Cor. 11. 25. Similar varieties of expression in over found them often abusing their office for the different reports of the same language are the purpose of extortion (see Luke 19. 8).

found in the following passages, as well as very 3 There is a difference, here, in the words of many others : Matt. 3. 11; Mark 1. 7; Luke 3. the Baptist as quoted by the three Evangelists ; 16; John 1. 27.-Matt. 9. 11; Mark 5. 16; Luke so also in the utterance of the voice at Christ's 5. 30.--Matt. 15. 27; Mark 7. 28.- Matt. 16. 6-9; baptism, Matt. 3. 17; Mark 1. 11; Luke 3. 22. Mark 8. 17-19.—Matt. 20. 33; Mark 10. 51; Luke

MARK I.

MARK I.

LUKE III.

MATT. III. cometh after me is mightier than I after loose: he shall baptize mightier than I, whose me,the latchet of whose you with the Holy shoes I am not worthy shoes I am not worthy Ghost and with fire: to bear: he shall bap- to stoop down and un- 17 whose fan is in his tize you with the Hcly 8 loose :--but he shall hand, and he will

Ghost, and with fire: baptize you with the throughly purge his 12 whose fan is in his Holy Ghost.

floor, and will gather hand, and he will

the wheat into his garthroughly purge his floor, and gather ner; but the chaff he will burn with his wheat into the garner; but he will fire 'unquenchable. burn up the chaff with unquench- 18 And many other things in his exable fire.

hortation preached he unto the people. [Verses 19, 20, in § 24.]

§ 15. THE BAPTISM OF JESUS. 2- The Jordan. MATT. III. 13-17.

MARK I. 9-11.

LUKE III. 21-23. 13 Then cometh Jesus 9 And it came to pass 21 Now when all the

from Galilee to Jordan in those days, that people were baptized,

unto John, to be bap- Jesus came from Na- it came to pass, that 14 tized of him. But John zareth of Galilee, and Jesus also being bap

forbade him, saying, I was baptized of John tized, have need to be bap- in Jordan.

tized of thee, and com15 est thou to me? And Jesus answering said unto him,

Suffer it to be so now : for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness.

Then he suffered him. 16 And Jesus, when he 10 And straightway com

and praying, the was baptized, went up ing up out of the water, heaven was opened, straightway out of the he saw the heavens 22 and the Holy Ghost water: and, lo, the hea- opened, and the Spirit descended in a bodily vens were opened unto like a dove descend- shape like a dove upon him, and he saw the 11 ing upon him : and him, and a voice came Spirit of God descend- there

a voice

from heaven, which ing like a dove, and from heaven, saying, said, Thou art my be17 lighting upon him: and Thou art my beloved loved Son; in thee I

lo a voice from heaven, Son, in whom I am am well pleased. saying, This is my be- well pleased.

And Jesus himself loved Son, in whom I

began to be about thiram well pleased.

years

of

age.

MARK I.

came

23

§ 16. THE TEMPTATION.-Desert of Judea.
MATT. IV. 1-11.
MARK I. 12, 13.

LUKE IV. 1-13. Then was Jesuş led 12 And immediately 1 And Jesus being full up of the spirit into the Spirit driveth him of the Holy Ghost re

1

18. 41.—Matt. 21. 9; Mark 11. 9; Luke 19. 38.- 1 Acts 1. 5; 2. 2–4; 11. 15. Matt. 26. 39; Mark 14. 36; Luke 22. 42.-Matt. ? As to the time of the baptism, as indicated in 28. 5, 6; Mark 16. 6; Luke 24. 5, 6.-All these Luke 3. 23, see Note to $ 7, in the Appendix. examples go only to show, that where the evan- 3 Comp. Num. 4. 3, 35, 39, 43, 47. gelists profess to record the expressions used by 4 That the temptation of Jesus took place imour Lord and others, they usually give them ac- mediately after his baptism, appears from Mark cording to the sense, and not according to the 1. 12; and also from a comparison of John 1. 29, letter. As Le Clerc expresses it; “ Apostoli 35, 44.-According to Mark and Luke, Jesus was magis sententiam, quam locutiones, exprimere subjected to temptation during the forty days. volunt;" Harm. p. 518.

Matthew and Luke specify three instances of him for a season."

MATT. IV.

MARKI.

LUKE IV. the wilderness to be into the wilderness. turned from Jordan,

tempted of the devil. 13 And he was there in and was led by the 2 And when he had fast- the wilderness forty Spirit into the wilder

ed forty days and for- days, tempted of Sa- 2 ness, being forty days ty nights, he was af- tan; and was with the tempted of the devil.

terward an hungred. wild beasts; and the And in those days he 3 And when the tempter angels ministered unto did eat nothing: and came to him, he said, him.

when they were ended, If thou be the Son of

3 he afterward hungered. And the God, command that these stones be devil said unto him, If thou be the 4 made bread. But he answered and Son of God, command this stone

said, It is written,' Man shall not 4 that it be made bread. And Jesus live by bread alone, but by every answered him, saying, It is written,

word that proceedeth out of the That man shall not live by bread 5 mouth of God. Then the devil alone, but by every word of God.

taketh him up into the holy city, 9 —And he brought him to Jerusalem,

and setteth him on a pinnacle of and set him on a pinnacle of the 6 the temple, and saith unto him, If temple, and said unto him, If thou

thou be the Son of God, cast thy- be the Son of God, cast thyself self down : for it is written,? He 10 down from hence: for it is writshall give his angels charge con- ten,? He shall give his angels cerning thee: and in their hands charge over thee, to keep thee : they shall bear thee up, lest at any 11 and in their hands they shall bear

time thou dash thy foot against a thee up, lest at any time thou dash 7 stone. Jesus said unto him, It is 12 thy foot against a stone. And Jesus written again,

answering said unto him, It is said,3 Thou shalt not Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy 8 tempt the Lord thy God. Again, 5 God.–And the devil, taking him up

the devil taketh him up into an ex- into an high mountain, showed unto ceeding high mountain, and show- him all the kingdoms of the world

eth him all the kingdoms of the 6 in a moment of time. And the 9 world, and the glory of them; and devil said unto him, All this power

saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, and the glory of will I give thee,

them: for that is delivered unto me;

and to whomsoever I will I give it.

if thou wilt fall 7 If thou therefore wilt worship me, 10 down and worship me. Then saith 8 all shall be thine. And Jesus an

Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, swered and said unto him, Get thee Satan: for it is written, Thou behind me, Satan: for it is written, shalt worship the Lord thy God, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy

and him only shalt thou serve. God, and him only shalt thou serve. 11 Then the devil leaveth him, and, be- 13 –And when the devil had ended all

hold, angels came and ministered the temptation, he departed from unto him.

temptation, but in a different order. One of these
apparently must have occurred at the end of the
forty days. The order of Matthew is perhaps the
most natural of the two; it is, at least, clearly in-
dicated by the words then-again.
1 Deut. 8. 3.

2 Psa. 91. 11. 3 Deut. 6. 16.

4 Deut. 6. 13. 5 All the temptation (trávta meiparuóv), rather crery temptation, the three cases being regarded as types or samples of the three classes into which all temptations may be divided ; namely, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride

of life, according to 1 John 2. 16. Taking the
cases in Matthew's order, the first is addressed to
a natural appetite, and is a sample of sensual
temptations; the second, to the principle of os-
tentation, or the display of superior worth in God's
estimation, a sample of temptations addressed to
the pride (áračoveia, vain-glory) of life; the third,
to the love of wealth, honour, and power, a sample
of temptations addressed to the lust of the eyes.
See Greswell, vol. ii. p. 186.

6 Comp. Heb. 4. 15.
? Comp. John 14. 30.

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