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INTRODUCTORY NOTE. Lord against Herod, ver. 31-33; which under the attendant circumstances cannot well be regarded as having been given in Galilee, and much less in Jerusalem, as Lightfoot supposes; Chron. Temp. N. T. Opp. II. p. 39. But Herod was lord also of Peræa ; and in that province he had imprisoned and put to death John the Baptist; Joseph. Ant. 18. 5. 2. It would therefore be natural, that our Lord, who had been less known in that region, and who now appeared there, followed by multitudes, should receive warning of the danger he was thus incurring. Hence this part of Luke (13. 10–17. 10) is here assigned to that period of our Lord's life and ministry, which was passed in "Peræa after the festival of dedication.
Our Lord first withdrew soon after that festival from the plots of the Jews into Peræa. "He went away again beyond Jordan, into the place where John at first baptized ; and there he abode. And many resorted unto him” and believed ; John 10. 40–42. How long Jesus remained in that region before he was recalled by the death of Lazarus, can be only matter of conjecture. In that interval, Lightfoot places all this part of Luke after ch. 13. 22 ; see Opp. II. p. 39. In this Robinson does not agree; because the language of John does not necessarily imply that our Lord at this time made any journey or circuit in Peræa itself. At least it could not then and there be said of him in any sense, that he went through their cities and villages, teaching, and journeying towards Jerusalem,” Luke 13. 22; for he had just departed from Jerusalem, and was recalled to Bethany by a special message from the sisters of Lazarus, John 11. 3, 7. All this would seem to imply rather, that Jesus remained during this excursion, at least mainly, in the district “where John had baptized ;" so that Martha and Mary knew at once where to send for him. It follows also as a natural inference, that this first sojourn beyond Jordan could not well have been a long one, nor probably have occupied more than a few weeks out of the four months intervening between the festival of dedication and the passover.
After the raising of Lazarus, Jesus again retired from the machinations of the Jews to "a country near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there continued with his disciples,”John 11. 54. The evangelist John records nothing more of his movements, until he again appears in Bethany six days before the passover, John 12. 1. But the expression used by John as to his sojourn at Ephraim, (kakɛī Olétpeße, there he passed the time,) does not preclude the idea of excursions from that place, nor of a circuitous route on his return to Bethany and Jerusalem at the passover. Now Matthew, Mark, and Luke affirm expressly, that on this return Jesus went up to Bethany from Jericho; and the two former narrate, expressly, that in thus reaching Jericho he had
into the coasts of Judea by the farther side of Jordan," where great multitudes followed him, and he healed them and taught them, as he was wont, Matt. 19. 1, 2; Mark 10.1. With all this the language of Luke 13. 22 agrees perfectly; "And he went through the cities and villages, teaching, and journeying towards Jerusalem;" as does also the mention of the multitudes in Luke 14. 25. With this too accords Luke 13. 31–35, including the warning against Herod and our Lord's reply; as also the touching lamentation over Jerusalem, where Jesus was so soon to perish. With this agrees, further, the fact, that the narrative of Luke subsequent to the portion in question, viz. Luke 18. 15, sq., is parallel with that of Matthew and Mark during this same journey: see $$ 105— 109.
Robinson, therefore, comes to the conclusion, that Luke 13. 22, with the transactions and discourses of which it forms the nucleus, is to be referred mainly to a journey of our Lord through the populous region of Peræa, on his return to Bethany after sojourning in Ephraim. There may also have been excursions from that city to the neighbouring villages of Judea, or even to the Jordan valley. This city Ephraim is considered by Robinson to be probably identical with Ephron and Ophrah of the Old Testament; and therefore apparently represented by the modern Taiyibeh, situated nearly twenty Roman miles N. N. E. of Jerusalem, and five or six Román miles N. E. of Bethel, on the borders of the desert which stretches along on the west of the Dead Sea and the valley of Jordan; see Note on § 93. It occupies a lofty site ; and from it one overlooks the adjacent desert, the Jordan with its great valley, and the mountains of Peræa beyond, with the Saracenic castle er-Rúbůd, near 'Ajlûn, in the northern part of Peræa, bearing about N. E. Even at the present day the hardy and industrious mountaineers of this place have much intercourse with the valley, and till the rich fields and reap the harvests of Jericho; see Bibl. Res. in Palest. II. p. 121. p. 276. It was therefore quite natural and easy for our Lord, from this point, to cross the valley and the Jordan, and then turn his course towards Jericho and Jerusalem; while at the same time he exercised his ministry among the cities and villages along the valley and in the eastern region.
INTRODUCTORY NOTE. Robinson has therefore inserted the whole of Luke 13. 11--17. 10 after the mention of our Lord's sojourn at Ephraim, as belonging naturally to that period and to this returnjourney through Peræa. And then it only remained to let Luke 17. 20—18. 14 follow directly afterwards; because there is no mark nor authority for placing it any where else ; and because too it immediately precedes, and thus connects with, that portion of Luke which is subsequently parallel to Matthew and Mark. Not that it is intended by any means to assert, that all the events and the discourses of our Lord here given, are recorded by Luke in their exact chronological order; for this portion of his Gospel presents very much the appearance of a collection of discourses and transactions in themselves disconnected. Yet,
as there are no marks nor evidence, internal or external, by which to arrange them differently, it seems hardly advisable, on mere conjecture, to abandon the order in which they have been left to us by Luke himself.
If it be objected, that this arrangement crowds too many incidents and discourses into this journey through Peræa, the reply is not difficult. Matthew and Mark confine their previous narratives chiefly to Galilee; and give comparatively little of what took place later in Peræa. Luke, besides recounting the like events in Galilee, has a large amount of matter peculiar to himself, without any definite notation of time and place; and it is therefore not unnatural to suppose, that an important portion of it may relate to this last journey. Again, there is room for allowing to this journey in Peræa an interval of time, amply sufficient for all these transactions, and indeed many more. If we assume, that our Lord's first sojourn beyond Jordan, his return to Bethany, and the subsequent departure to Ephraim, occupied even two months, (which is a large allowance,) there still remained nearly two months before the passover, in which to make excursions from Ephraim, and also to traverse leisurely the distance through Peræa to Bethany, requiring in itself, at the utmost, not more than five days of travel. If now we compare the transactions thus spread out over these two months, (or not improbably over a longer interval,) with those recorded during the following six days next before the passover (see Part VII.), we shall hardly be impressed with the idea, that too much in proportion is thus allotted to this journey.
HIS PUBLIC TEACHING.
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JOHN VII. 11-53. VIII. I.
11, 12 THEN the Jews sought him at the feast, and said, Where is he? And
there was much murmuring among the people concerning him ; for some
said, He is a good man: others said, .Nay; but he deceiveth the people. 13, 14 Howbeit no man spake openly of him for fear of the Jews.? Now about 15 the midst of the feast Jesus went up into the temple, and taught. And the
Jews marvelled, saying, How knoweth this man letters, having never 16 learned ?3 Jesus answered them, and said, My doctrine is not mine, but 17 his that sent me. If any man will do 4 his will, he shall know of the doc18 trine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself. He that speaketh
of himself seeketh his own glory: but he that seeketh his glory that sent 19 him, the same is true, and no unrighteousness is in him. Did not Moses
give you the law, and yet none of you keepeth the law? Why go ye about 20 to kill me? The people answered and said, Thou hast a devil: who goeth 21 about to kill thee? Jesus answered and said unto them, I have done one 22 work, and ye all marvel. Moses therefore gave unto you circumcision ;
(not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers ;) and ye on the sabbath day 23 circumcise a man.” If a man on the sabbath day receive circumcision, that
the law of Moses should not be broken; are ye angry at me, because I have
1 Jesus had now been absent from Jerusalem a year and six months, since his second passover. ? Comp. Acts 5. 13. 3 Matt. 13. 54. * Will do (0éan Toicīv), better rendered, wish
to do, &c. Does not this saying of our Lord's teach us, that unbelief is a fault of the heart rather than of the head, or in other words, that theological error cannot be innocently held ?
5 Lev. 12. 3.
24 made a man every whit whole on the sabbath day?' Judge not according
to the appearance, but judge righteous judgment. 25 Then said some of them of Jerusalern, Is not this he, whom they seek to 26 kill? But, lo, he speaketh boldly, and they say nothing unto him. Do the 27 rulers know indeed that this is the very Christ? Howbeit we know this man
whence he is : but when Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence he is. 28 Then cried Jesus in the temple as he taught, saying, Ye both know me, and ye know whence I am: and I am not come of myself
, but he that sent me 29 is true, whom ye know not. But I know him: for I am from him, and he 30 hath sent me. Then they sought to take him: but no man laid hands on
him, because his hour? was not yet come. 31 And many of the people believed on him, and said, When Christ cometh, 32 will he do more miracles than these which this man háth done? The Phari
sees heard that the people murmured such things concerning him; and the 33 Pharisees and the chief priests sent officers to take him. Then said Jesus
unto them, Yet a little while am I with you, and then I go unto him that 34 sent me. Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, thither 35 ye cannot come. Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he
go, that we shall not find him ? will he go unto the dispersed among the 36 Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles? What manner of saying is this that he
said, Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, thither ye
cannot come? 37 In the last day, that great day of the feast,» Jesus stood and cried, saying, 38 If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on
me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living 39 water. (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him
should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given ;5 because that 40 Jesus was not yet glorified.) Many of the people therefore, when they 41 heard this saying, said, Of a truth this is the Prophet. Others said, This is 42 the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee? Hath not the
Scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the 43 town of Bethlehem, where David was? 6 So there was a division among the 44 people because of him. And some of them would have taken him; but no
man laid hands on him. 45 Then came the officers to the chief priests and Pharisees; and they said 46 unto them, Why have ye not brought him? The officers answered, Never 47 man spake like this man. Then answered them the Pharisees, Are ye also 48 deceived? Have any of the rulers or of the Pharisees believed on him? 49, 50 But this people who knoweth not the law are cursed. Nicodemus saith 51 unto them, (he that came to Jesus by night," being one of them,), Doth our 52 law judge any man, before it hear him, and know what he doeth? They
answered and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee? Search, and look:
for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet. 53. VIII. 1 And every man went unto his own house. Jesus went unto the § 84. THE WOMAN TAKEN IN ADULTERY.-Jerusalem.
mount of Olives.
1 John 5. 5-9.
took occasion from this celebration, probably then ? His hour, that is, to suffer and to die. Comp. going on before his eyes, to sound forth his graJohn 13. 1.
cious invitation. 3 On the last, the eighth, day of the feast of 4 Isa. 55. 1; 58. 11. Comp. Isa. 44. 3; Zech. 13. tabernacles, it was the custom to fetch water 1; 14.8. from the well of Siloam to be poured on the altar, 5 Comp. Acts 2. 33. in the midst of music and loud rejoicings; singing 6 Comp. Psa. 89. 4; 132. 11; Mic. 5. 2. the words, (Isa. 12. 3,) “With joy shall ye draw
7 John 3. 2. water out of the wells of salvation."-Our Lord * Comp. Deut. 19. 16–19.
JOHN VIII. 2-11.
And early in the morning he came again into the temple, and all the 3 people came unto him; and he sat down, and taught them. And the scribes
and Pharisees brought unto him a woman taken in adultery; and when 4 they had set her in the midst, they say unto him, Master, this woman was 5 taken in adultery, in the very act. Now Moses in the law commanded us, 6 that such should be stoned:1 but what sayest thou? This they said, tempting
him, that they might have to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with 7 his finger wrote on the ground, as though he heard them not. So when they
continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is 8 without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. And again he 9 stooped down, and wrote on the ground. And they which heard it, being
convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the
eldest, even unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman stand10 ing in the midst. When Jesus had lifted up himself, and saw none but the
woman, he said unto her, Woman, where are those thine accusers ? hath no 11 man condemned thee? "She said, No man, Lord. And Jesus said unto
her, Neither do I condemn thee: go, and sin no more.
$ 85. FURTHER PUBLIC TEACHING OF OUR LORD. HE REPROVES THE UNBELIEVING
JEWS, AND ESCAPES FROM THEIR HANDS.-Jerusalem,
JOHN VIII. 12-59. 12 Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world :
he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of 13 life. The Pharisees therefore said unto him, Thou bearest record of thy14 self; thy record is not true. Jesus answered and said unto them, Though
I bear record of myself, yet my record is true : for I know whence I came,
and whither I go; but ye cannot tell whence I come, and whither I go. 15, 16 Ye judge after the flesh; I judge no man. And yet if I judge, my
judgment is true: for I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent me. 17, 18 It is also written in your law, that the testimony of two men is true. I
am one that bear witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth 19 witness of me. Then said they unto him, Where is thy Father? Jesus
answered, Ye neither know me, nor my Father: if ye had known me, ye 20 should have known my Father also. These words spake Jesus in the trea
sury,3 as he taught in the temple: and no man laid hands on him; for his
hour was not yet come. 21
Then said Jesus again unto them, I go my way, and ye shall seek me, 22 and shall die in your sins: whither I go, ye cannot come. Then said the
Jews, Will he kill himself? because he saith, Whither I go, ye cannot come. 23 And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of 24 this world; I am not of this world. I said therefore unto you, that ye shall
die in your sins: for if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall dié in your sins. 25 Then said they unto him, Who art thou? And Jesus saith unto them, Even 26 the same that I said unto you from the beginning. I have many things to
say and to judge of you: but he that sent me is true; and I speak to the 27 world those things which I have heard of him. They understood not that 28 he spake to them of the Father. Then said Jesus unto them, When ye have
lifted up 4 the Son of man, then shall ye know that I am hé, and that I do | Lev. 20. 10. Comp. Deut. 22. 21-24. (see Mark 12. 41–44); and these receptacles were 2 Deut. 17.6. Comp. Deut. 19. 15.
called “trumpets,” because the openings into 3. The treasury of the temple was in the court them were trumpet-like tubes, wide at the one of the women, where thirteen large boxes stood for receiving the free-will offerings of the people 4 Comp. John 3. 14.
end and narrow at the other.
nothing of myself; but as my Father hath taught me, I speak these things. 29 And he that sent me is with me : the Father hath not left me alone ; for I
do always those things that please him. 30, 31 As he spake these words, many believed on him. Then said Jesus to
those Jews which believed on him, If ye continue in my word, then are ye 32 my disciples indeed; and ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make 33 you free. They answered him, We be Abraham's seed, and were never in 34 bondage to any man: how sayest thou, Ye shall be made free? Jesus an
swered them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever committeth sin is 35 the servant of sin. And the servant abideth not in the house for ever: but 36 the Son abideth ever. If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall 37 be free indeed. I know that ye are Abraham's seed; but ye seek to kill 38 me, because my word hath no place in you. I speak that which I have
seen with my Father; and ye do that which ye have seen with your 39 father. They answered and said unto him, Abraham is our father. Jesus
saith unto them, If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of 40 Abraham. But now ye seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth, 41 which I have heard of God: this did not Abraham. Ye do the deeds of your
father. Then said they to him, We be not born of fornication; we have 42 one Father, even God. Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye
would love me: for I proceeded forth and came from God; neither came 43 I of myself, but he sent me. Why do ye not understand my speech? even 44 because ye cannot hear my word. Ye are of your father the devil, and the
lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer3 from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he
speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own : for he is a liar, and the father of it.* 45, 46 And because I tell you the truth, ye believe me not.
Which of you convinceth me of sin? And if I say the truth, why do ye not believe me? 47 He that is of God heareth God's words:5 ye therefore hear them not, because 48 ye are not of God. Then answered the Jews, and said unto him, Say we 49 not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil? Jesus answered, I 50 have not a devil; but I honour my Father, and ye
do dishonour me, And 51 I seek not mine own glory: there is one that seeketh and judgeth. Verily,
verily, I say unto you, If a man keep my saying, he shall never see death. 52 Then said the Jews unto him, Now we know that thou hast a devil. Abra
ham is dead, and the prophets; and thou sayest, If a man keep my saying, 53 he shall never taste of death. ‘Art thou greater than our father Abraham,
which is dead? and the prophets are dead: whom makest thou thyself? 54 Jesus answered, If I honour myself, my honour is nothing: it is my Father 55 that honoureth me; of whom ye say, that he is your God: yet ye have not
known him; but I'know him: and if I should say, I know him not, I shall 56 be a liar like unto you: but I know him, and keep his saying. Your father 57 Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad. Then said
the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen 58 Abraham? Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before 59 Abraham was, I am. Then took they up stones to cast at him : but Jesus
hid himself, and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by. (See in § 90.] 1 Rom. 6. 14, 18, 22.
• Comp. Acts 5. 3. ? Rom. 8. 2; Gal. 5. 1. 3 Gen. 3. 4, 5; 1 John 3. 8.
6 Gal. 3. 8; Rom. 4. 18-22; Heb. 11. 13.
5 1 John 4. 6.