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in their season, many of them having been planted more than a year ago, that they might become fully accustomed to their surroundings. They were sent by European gardeners as exhibits, and have been more than a year in the care of the department of floriculture.
The advantages of the departments of landscape-gardening and floriculture as to materials for soil and growth are enormous. To have the deposits of thousands of years to draw upon in the black soil of the prairies, so that one of the little trains which minister to all the necessities of the park need only go out for a few miles along the lake shore and dig and bring in food for millions of plants, and to have all the blue lake water at hand wherewith to slake their thirsty bodies, are among the unconsidered advantages which will tend to the success of this great enterprise. To be able to cover the débris which litters the ground, and the sand which has been ploughed and powdered by thousands of feet since the building began, to cover it so deeply with a fertile deposit that the grass roots will never find it, and then spread the surface with a green carpet which accepts its place with joy, is certainly no small advantage.
There were few trees in Jackson Park before it was chosen for the place of the fair, but there can be no want of trees where architectural features are so abundant and turf and water omnipresent. A few clumps of white-leaved swamp-willows, which would be almost unnoticeable elsewhere, make quite a feature of themselves at one end of the long island which is a rose garden, and half hidden among the branches and reeds at the other end of it is a little log cabin known as The Hunter's Camp. It is just a little oneroomed cabin with a stick and mud chimney, but the sticks and mud hide a carefully built cone of brick, which makes roaring fires a safe possibility. The cabin is filled with hunters' weapons and traps, and lined with skins which seem by right to belong to the bears and catamounts and mountain-lions which do their part of the great fair on the two bridges. It serves also to remind one that within the memory of a living generation hunting and. trapping were sufficient and serious occupations for men whose lives were as like that of the Indian tribes as stationary could be like migratory ones.
During the months when the decoration of the building was in progress, this partic
ular camp was a place where the painters and sculptors of the ideal city gathered at night to sit in the firelight, while pipes and cigars sent their curling incense to mingle with the smoke of the wood. It is needless to say how keen an enjoyment they found in the unwonted association of artistic labor. Each one being at work through the day in some improvised studio, or in the domes and vestibules which they were enriching, they gathered at night to discuss not only the relation of each other's work to the whole grand plan, but to consider principles and traditions of decoration, and to try them as applicable to the conditions obtaining in the ideal city. They exchanged opinions or theories, and gave each other the benefit of any little discovery of manipulation which made the difficult surface of the plaster more amenable to the application of pigments. The "master-painters and the sculptors and the builders were a pleasant crowd in a pleasant place. Outside, the little steam-launch which brought them lay bobbing and lapping upon the water of the lagoon. The moonlight on moon nights rained white beams over all the city, the palaces shone with a still radiance, and the groups of statues seemed to beckon each other from cornice to cornice. In the darks and yellow lights of the cabin's interior the men who were all the day mounted on ladders and scaffolds painting the interiors of the eight domes of the Liberal Arts Building took their innings of ease and friendly companionship-Blashfield, Beckwith, Weir, Reinhart, Reid, Cox, Shirlaw, and Simmons; Maynard, who painted the corridors of the Agricultural Building; Turner, who had and has a hand in everything; Melchers and McEwen, who were called from Paris to join this band of painters; the sculptors French, Martiny, Taft, and Macmonnies; and in the centre, the very hub of the company, Millet, the man who brought all these makers of beauty together, and gave to each his opportunity and his task. To a few of the men opportunity came speedily, before long waiting for lagging recognition of talent flattened the bead on the cup of life; but most of them have earned this pleasant opportunity of painting for the world twice over, and are perhaps all the more able and all the more placid in their acceptance of it for that. They recognize the fact that hand-in-hand work of the arts has begun in this country, and that hereafter no great effort of archi.
tecture will be considered complete without the companionship of sculpture and painting.
It is a tribute both to the East and the West that these men are most of them Eastern men: first to the skill of the men, and next to the breadth of the adminis tration in calling in from everywhere those who could do the most and best for the great work in hand.
The pageant of Columbus day, when the world first realized the magnitude of the Columbian Fair, is a thing of the past, but one who saw the sudden cessation of building activity, and the sudden whirlwind or cyclone of preparation which took its place, could not forget it. Forty acres of scrubbing had to be done on the floor of the great Liberal Arts Building; ninety thousand seats had to be prepared; carriages and horses and banners and music had to be forthcoming, and coffee and salads for the various and important dignitaries who graced the show. Chicago did this, as she does all practical things, with wonderful ability, generosity, and absolute success. The day came, a shining October day, a day made for .banners and trumpets, for pæans and congratulatory orations. Governors of States, officers of all the complicated and successful organization of the Columbian Exposition, commissioners from all the governments in the world, were here, many clad in wonderful and shining raiment —raiment which in democratic America is so seldom seen that it is positively exhilarating the scarlets and violets of the army and the church, the "precious blue" of Japanese officials, the white and blue and green and gold of Austria and Italy, the national and State commissioners, both men and women, gathered to the sound, to the ringing waves of a chorus of a thousand voices, and came into the sight of ninety thousand faces. And then, on the moment, something happened which was bewildering. Ninety thousand people suddenly rose and stood upon their feet and simultaneously waved and fluttered ninety thousand snowy pockethandkerchiefs; the air was cut into dusty spirals, which vibrated to the great ironribbed ceiling. It was a commotion of such proportions that it seemed like some action of the elements-like a flurry of great snowflakes in an unexpected October storm, which in a second wipes out a whole landscape. One had a sense of dizziness, as if the entire building rocked.
After this sensation came the music and the speeches, and the presentation of buildings, and of medals to master painters, and of all the things arranged for the great function; and finally it was over, and the great crowd disintegrated and melted away, each individual particle to its own place, and nothing was left of all the pageant, to even the most prominent and important partaker, but a gratified remembrance. Nothing concrete and positive save the medals in the pockets of the master painters. And the sun went down that day upon the unearthly beauty of the place which was the scene of the triumphant spectacle, and left it covered with the glory of a successful endeavor.
All this will be repeated in a certain way in the coming pageant on the 1st of May, and will honor a more fulfilled completeness, but it can hardly eclipse the glory of that one October day, when the wonder was new and young, and the hearts of men were less accustomed to the pride of achievement. Then or now, no words can express the beauty of the Dream City, for it is beyond even the unearthly glamour of a dream.-Candace Wheeler, in Harper's Magazine for May.
GO TO THE WORLD'S FAIR.
O to the World's Fair, if possible. It is the greatest opportunity one has ever had to see the whole civilized world represented by the best, and the best only, of its products of soil and mines, the manufactures and the institutions of all kinds. It is an opportunity such as no person is likely to enjoy again, and if, perchance, one should be privileged to see its equal, it would be of the greatest importance that he had seen the Columbian Exhibition by way of comparison.
You can go anywhere else, see anything else, study everything else some other year, but it is now or never with the Columbian Exposition. You cannot get a fifth part as much by the expenditure of five times as much in any other way this year, or in any way, at any cost, in any other year.
There are to be inconveniences, wet days, hot days, crowded trains, possibly; but what of those! Did you never have inconveniences in travel before? Would you give up your memories of Bar Harbor, the White Mountains, Newport, Saratoga, Washington, Toronto, Minne
apolis, the Rockies, or California, because of inconveniences? You are to be pitied if you would. You could not see, enjoy, or learn a tenth part as much without ten times the inconvenience in any other way. Have you never taught your pupils that there is no royal road to learning?
Make all your arrangements before you leave home. Take no chances of "getting in" after you get to Chicago. Go nowhere without the most definite lodging arrangements. Do not expect a dollar-and-a-half room for one dollar. Be sure that there is a restaurant in the building, and insist upon knowing the price of roast beef, fish balls, or some similar dish, pies, and coffee. You will then be able to judge of the general run of prices. You can eat on the grounds at the same rate as at any second-class hotel café in any city. Order nothing, buy nothing, until you know the price and see the quality.
You can easily live comfortably for a week for $16. You can get along very well for $12. Car fares, admissions, etc., mean $5 more, so that the bare necessities while there must be from $17 to $25 a week.
A week is a very comfortable allowance. The more the better; but it will pay to go for a week. It is safe to add to the round-trip car fare-long price-a third for sleeper and meals. Two good meals. a day are enough in traveling. One good square dinner is indispensable. If the round-trip car-fare-long price is $40, it will cost $75-less whatever reduction in rate is given. This means a full seven days there, and all the time consumed in travel extra.. All that you allow beyond the $75 means an approach to luxury.
Fares will in all probability be reduced. Spend extra money in extra days or extra personal comforts, rather than in purchases. The temptation will be to buy souvenirs or remembrances for your friends. Don't. You can do that some year when there is no Columbian Exposition from which to learn so much.
"It is better to rest." Well, if you are liable to absolutely break down, yes, for there is no compensation for ruined health; but do not defraud yourself by using that as an excuse.
Give no time to Chicago outside the grounds. Give a full half day to the grounds outside the buildings. Be sure that you see everything out of doors in Jackson Park and the Midway Plaisance. Enjoy the walks, the water, the bridges,
the trees, the shrubs, the flowers, the fountains, the out-of-door statuary, and the architecture. Give another half-day to the Central Boulevard and the foreign streets, booths, etc.
Give two long half-days to the educational exhibits and other things on that floor. That is time enough, but none too much. Do this work faithfully. On general principles-all these suggestions will be varied by individual tastes and needs the following is a fair use of the remaining eight half days: 1. Your state building and the next most interesting state building to you. 2. Horticulture, Agriculture, and Fishing. 3. Electricity and Mining. 4. Manufactures and Machinery. 5. Fine Arts and the Woman's Building. 6. Live Stock and Railroads. 7. Government and Special Exhibits of other nations. 8. Concentrate your energies upon what you have discovered that you most wish to see and that you have not seen. Make for yourself some such plan as this, and live up to it. If you want more time anywhere, wait until you have seen what you have planned to see, and save the time from other things for it. There is no better discipline than in. doing precisely what you have planned to do. It is a great weakness to be swerved by the fascination of the first things or by companions at such a time. Of course this programme is merely suggestive. Make a better one for yourself, but make one, and see something of all these things.
Unless absolutely necessary, never have more than one companion. Do very little talking. Indulge in no exclamations. The occasion should be urgent for you to call the attention of your companion away from what she is seeing by herself. Have a distinct understanding with your companion where you are to spend the half day and where you will meet at its close, and do not try to keep step meanwhile.
If possible, arrive in Chicago Wednesday morning, so as to have Sunday in the midst of your week. Rest absolutely on that day. You may not need the rest by that time, but you will have needed it by the next Wednesday.-A. E. Winship, Editor N. E. Educational Journal.
THE electric light power at the Columbian Exposition at Chicago is ten times as great as at the famous Paris Exposition in 1889, and three times as great as that for the entire city of Chicago.
The programme of the opening exercises was admirably conceived and perfectly carried out. It was brief, simple, dignified, picturesque, and at once solemnly and jubilantly impressive. The exercises began with a musical selection by the grand orchestra. Rev. W. H. Milburn, the blind chaplain of the United States congress, offered prayer. Couthout recited a poem, which was followed by music from the orchestra. President Palmer of the National Commission announced the completion of the buildings and their acceptance from the officers of the Exposition. Director General Davis then delivered a short address. President Cleveland made a brief and appropriate speech. On the table close to his left hand was the button, the pressure upon which was to start the machinery and make the opening of the Exposition an accomplished fact. It was an ordinary form of Victor telegraph key, like that in use in most telegraph offices, except that it was of gold instead of steel, and a button of ivory instead of rubber. It rested upon a pedestal upholstered in navy blue and golden yellow plush, and on the sides of the lower tier, in silver letters were the significant dates, " 1492" and "1893."
As the last words fell from his lips he pressed his finger upon the button. This was the signal for the demonstration, in fact difficult of imagination and infinitely more so of description. At one and the same instant the audience burst into cheers, the orchestra pealed forth the strains of "The Hallelujah," the wheels of the great Allis engine in Machinery Hall began to revolve, the electric fountains in the lagoon threw their torrents towards the sky, a flood of water gushed from the McMonnies fountain and rolled back again into the basin, the thunder of artillery came from the vessels in the Lake, the chimes in Manufacturers' Hall
and on the German building rang out a merry peal, and overhead the flags at the tops of poles in front of the platform fell apart and revealed two gilded models of the ships in which Columbus first sailed to American shores. At the same moment, also, hundreds of flags of all nations and all colors were unfurled within sight of the platform. The largest was a great "Old Glory," which fell into graceful folds from the top of the centre staff in front of the stand. The roof of the Manufacturers' building was gorgeous in red gonfalons, while the Agricultural building was dressed in ensigns of orange and white. It was a wonderful scene of transformation, and amid it all cannon continued to thunder and the crowd to cheer. It was fully ten minutes before the demonstration subsided. Then the band played "America," and the exercises. were ended. The Columbian Exposition was open to the nations of the world.
When the President touched the button which set the machinery in motion, started the play of the fountains, and unfurled these thousands of flags and banners in an instant, his act illustrated in most impressive fashion the progress which the Fair is held to celebrate. It illustrated, as scarcely anything else could do this, the marvelous way in which the genius of man has tamed the forces of nature to his uses. It impressed the mind with the stupendous powers that man has taken to himself through science and patient labor. A simple touch of the finger called into instant activity a force rivaling that of the tempest and the earthquake, but harnessed to man's uses and so completely under control that it may be set to thread a needle or to reduce granite hills to dust with equal ease.
For the simplicity, the dignity, and the impressiveness of the opening ceremonies we have to thank those whose tireless industry has created the Fair in an incredibly brief time and made it worthy the greatness of the Great Republic. It is by no means the least of their triumphs that they managed this ceremony well.
The Columbian Exposition is a truly and broadly national enterprise. The whole country has contributed to its creation, and the progress it illustrates is that of the entire Republic. But it is to the men of Chicago chiefly we owe the glory of the achievement. Their energy, skill, foresight, and labor have done the creative work. They have utilized talent,
organized enthusiasm, combined and coordinated the forces at command, and made productive the means which the country has furnished. And they have done it all with matchless ability and judgment. The dream city they have called into being for the uses of the Fair has cost something more precious than money. It has cost taste, genius and inspiration, and these are the gifts of Chicago. The country acknowledges its debt and pays it with unstinted admiration. New York World.
HE Midway Plaisance is a tract nearly a mile long and six hundred feet wide. It is a sort of international congress of life as seen in many climes. Should the visitor long to see the unusual and the picturesque, let him enter Jackson Park at the western entrance of the Midway on Cottage Grove avenue. Then the Fair proper is directly confronting him, and he has only to pass down an avenue replete with interest on all sides to find himself in the very centre of the Exposition.
Many days, even weeks, might be spent here. It is the place where the Exposition bondholders hope to reimburse themselves; and here the pilgrim thirsting for sight-seeing will be inclined to spend money freely. Here are acres of characteristic shops in which the oddest of odd things may be appreciated or secured. Streets of Cairo and Tunis, a Moorish palace, sections of Constantinople and Algiers, and Polynesian villages, provide adequate pictures of unfamiliar life, where barbaric jewelry, embroideries and all manner of curiosities are made and sold by natives. This section of the Exposition is brilliant with its gilded domes, multicolored flags, awnings and hangings, its rare rugs and precious metal fabrics; but no national pride has led to its enticing beauty. Here also are the cycloramas of Switzerland and several cities, as well as a realistic spectacle representing a descent into the burning crater of a volcano.
If you are thirsty, the first building reached on the eastern journey-Jackson Park lies due east from the entrance of the Midway Plaisance-is the Hungarian café. There Hungarian dishes and wines are served, while the visitor is entertained by a Hungarian band. A little farther along is the captive balloon, from which
at an altitude of 2,000 feet a complete view of the fair and surrounding country may be outlined. Next to be seen is the Chinese village and theatre, in which one. may absorb a part of a genuine Chinese play. To sit out the entire performance would require a long time, so after an installment of, say two hours, the visitor will be glad to pass to the Algerian and Tunisian village. There one may obtain a correct idea of the customs and life of the Moors and natives of Northern Africa, besides seeing some splendid specimens of Moorish architecture and decorations, such as are observed in the Spanish province of Granada and along the African coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
If the captive halloon has no attractions, the more timid can take a ride in the Ferris wheel, which is just opposite the Algerian village. It will take you 264 feet in mid-air, and in the twenty minutes it takes for the wheel to revolve a fine view may be had of the surrounding country. The axle of the wheel alone weighs sixty tons. It is the largest single piece of steel ever cast, and rests on opposite towers 130 feet high. Then there is the panorama of the volcano of Kilauea. This is a representation of the famous volcano of one of the Hawaiian islands. The visitor is taken upon an island in the centre of the volcano's crater, and views the scenery of lava and mountains which form the panorama. There are a village of Dahomey, and several villages of American Indians to be seen, and also an ice toboggan slide and an ice palace. These attractions will, it is said, be kept up during the hottest summer days.
After passing the Ferris wheel, the next greatest sight is the street in Cairo. This is an accurate representation of a section of the Khedive's domain, and contains 300 natives from Egypt, who daily perform their ceremonies, and go through with the usual scenes which make Egyptian life complete. Magicians, donkey boys, donkeys, dancers, priests and performers make the picture realistic, and the architecture of the temple and buildings aids in deluding the visitor into thinking he is in the land of the Pharoahs. Adjoining the street in Cairo is the Persian bazaar, where articles from the Shah's province may be bartered for. Across the road is the Moorish palace, and farther down the Plaisance is the Turkish village and Mosque. There the