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whom the school is thus made as attrac- Second: Hence, it will be answered, tive as the home!
the end of education is to fit for the In all schools there are pupils who are struggle of life; or, still more practically, strong in certain branches and weak in to fit to make a living, to take one's others. Sometimes a boy who is deficient part in the industrial and economic life in one study, is kept back on that account of the world. The method then would and loses valuable time because he can be to give a good acquaintance with the not be promoted with his classmates. three “R's, and even
some manual Supt. James M. Coughlin of Wilkes- training ; and, for one who is to be in the Barre proposes to remedy this difficulty ranks of capital, acquaintance with the by uniting grammar grades C, B and A scientific branches connected with his (6th, 7th and 8th years) into one school, branch of industry. Now, all this is, ingiving each teacher her special branches deed, indispensable; but all over the and allowing greater flexibility in the world to-day a loud cry is going up from classification. Certain pupils may thus all classes, declaring that human life recite in a more advanced class in Arith- means more than this, and that therefore metic and in a less advanced class in education must have higher and broader Grammar. Those who are weak in ends. Spelling may be organized into a special Third: Then some will say that the class for extra drill. In this way the end of education is to make man acchildren will not be treated as if they quainted with all his rights and duties, existed for a rigid system of grading, but and fit him to fill his place in human sotheir welfare will shape the classification. ciety.
ciety. The method then would add This will not only save valuable time, but training in social and political matters; also help to keep up the interest in study. also in physiology and hygiene ; also the
cultivation of a public spirit aiding to
better social conditions. Again, all this BISHOP KEANE ON THE ENDS
is important, and even indispensable; but OF TEACHING.
Professor Ingram shows in his Compend
ium of Political Economy that all this is T the Educational Congress recently insufficient without a philosophy of Al
held in Chicago, four days were spent truism which will be Divine in its authorin studying educational methods. Bishop ity—in a word, without the teaching and Keane, President of the Catholic Uni- influence of religion. versity of America, Washington, D. C., Fourth : Some protest against this, and delivered an address on the last evening, say that the cure for all the ills of huin which he pointed out that methods of manity is to be found in the advance of teaching are always shaped and moulded science. Then the method would be to by the ends aimed at. The address was train man for scientific research, and for terse, clear, forceful, and very suggestive. the advancement of the “Cosmic EvoluThe following summary of its leading tion.” But Huxley has lately acknowlpoints deserves the perusal of all earnest edged (in his Romanes lecture at Oxford teachers;
last May) that science and the Cosmic A right understanding of methods pre- Evolution do not suffice for the needs of supposes a right understanding of the human life, because they do not imply ends aimed at. What then are the ends the survival of the best, and because they to be aimed at in education ? Socrates have no room for ethical principles. found it was easier to ask such a question Hence the discussion lately had in Philthan to have it answered satisfactorily; adelphia as to the best means of introducyet every intelligent educator ought to ing ethical teaching in the schools; a dishave a correct answer to this question. cussion, however, so clouded and unsatisVarious answers to it may, however, bei factory that it would sadden the heart not expected.
only of a Christian, but even of Socrates. First: Some may say that the end of Socrates and Professor Ingram are right. education is to impart information. Then Science calls for philosophy, and philosoits method would be to drill the memory, phy for religion.
phy for religion. Three great books are and to store it with typical facts. But open before man: The book of Nature, mankind recognizes that education must the book of Humanity, the book of Dihave a more practical end than merely to vinity. The end and aim of education is stock the mind with information.
to give an acquaintance with each of the
three. The method is indicated by the is a fine disciplinarian, and under his end. In elementary education knowledge management high hopes are entained for in each of these three books will be very the future of "Mercersburg." rudimentary, but it must comprise the The opening exercises were held in the fundamental and essential. As education church. The Board of Regents and the
. rises acquaintance with each of the three students marched thither from the college books must grow more complete; other- building. The address upon this interestwise, man's intellectual development will ing occasion was by the Rev. Ellis W. be one-sided and his life will topple over. Kremer of Harrisburg, a member of the Life must be balanced by the three; they last class graduated from the Theological are the tripod on which life and all its re- Seminary before its removal to Lancaster lations can stand immovable.
It would be well to have a Socrates al- In the issue for September 14th of the ways in our midst, and it is to this that Chambersburg Valley Spirit we find a his questioning would surely lead us. very interesting sketch of the history of
the Mercersburg schools and of the men
that made them famous : Rev. Dr. FredMERCERSBURG COLLEGE. erick A. Rauch, a German scholar and
theologian of extraordinary attainments, THE reopening of the fall season of this who died at the early age of thirty-five,
school, whose reputation has extended of whose " Psychology" it is said that it wherever the German Reformed Church introduced this science to the attention of is known, and the influence of whose fam- American students, and won for its author ous teachers has gone far beyond into a wide reputation among the scholars of other faiths and the world at large, marks the world ; Rev. Drs. John W. Nevin and a new era in its history. The college Philip Schaff
, the latter of whom is still livbuilding has been much improved. | ing, and both names widely honored in the Nothing has been left undone by the new Christian world for profound scholarship President, Dr. Wm. M. Irvine, to make and great service to the cause of religion ; the place attractive and comfortable. Rev. Drs. Henry Harbaugh, Thos. G.
The school will be conducted as a first- Apple, E. E. Higbee, P.S. Davis, G. W. class academy during the coming two Aughinbaugh, Profs. Wm. M. Nevin, years. Nine-tenths of the unsatisfactory Jacob B. Kershner, Jos. H. Kershner, work done in the American colleges to- John B. Kieffer, and others. It is, indeed, day arises from the fact that students a goodly list of noble names. Among have entered them poorly prepared, and them there is one so familiar in the schools are thereby handicapped throughout the of Pennsylvania that we know the followentire course. This school will, be mod-ing reference to himself and his work eled in good measure after the plan here, will be read with interest by thoupursued in New England academies such sands. Says the writer : as Phillips-Exeter and Phillips-Andover. “Of the teachers and professors of MerBoys will be prepared for entering any cersburg College, Dr. Higbee stands forth college which they may select. On the pre-eminently as the most shining star in present roll there are represented as many the galaxy of splendid instructors with as seven religious denominations. These which that institution was favored from students are preparing to enter one or an- 1868 to 1880. No one who has not been other of some five or six colleges, which one of his pupils can form any adequate serves to show the breadth of base upon idea of the fullness of learning that was which the course is built.
his, or of the ease and grace with which Dr. Irvine is a man of fine scholarship he imparted it to others. He was at home and great energy. He was born at Bed- in every branch and department of learnford, Pa., where he attended the public ing. At one instant he might be solving schools for six years; after which he or demonstrating the most abstruse probspent three years at the Phillips-Exeter lem in the higher mathematics, and in the Academy, four years at Princeton Col- next breath quoting a passage from the lege, and three years at the Reformed ancient classics. All the realms of knowlTheological Seminary, always conspic-edge seemed to be his, and when his ideas uous for scholarship, oratorical and liter- leaped forth clothed in language most ary ability, and with a record still more simple, yet often so sublime, the student remarkable in the field of athletics. He sat in worshipful adoration of his master.
His indomitable energy, his unbounded flute and reading music from a card stuck enthusiasm, infused themselves into his into the toe of his boot, as an improvised pupils, and that which in other hands music rack. He was known as a farwas common and stale in his became en- sighted man, and I have little doubt that dowed with beauty and freshness."
he saw more of my book than I would Another writer in the Valley Spirit have cared to show him. But I never talks pleasantly of old-time college days asked him about it." as follows:
“Together we visited almost every nook and corner of the old place, and TEACHERS AT THE FAIR. there was scarcely a pause made in our rounds that did not suggest some interest- O no class of visitors have the almost ing reminiscence to my companion, the supernal glories of the Columbian orator of the day, who related them to me Exposition come with a deeper feeling of in a delightful manner. But it was while relief from the monotony of plodding standing in the old rooms formerly occu- routine nor with a greater uplifting of the pied by him and some of his fellow-stu- soul's immortal longings than to the dents that he warmed up to the recollec- teachers of the United States. As intions of the past. 'Here,' said he, ‘is the vited guests, or in their own excursion finest room in all the building—the only trains, or as individual passengers, they room from which you get a perfect view flocked thither during the months of June, of Mt. Parnell, and from this other win- July and August by tens of thousands, to dow, Arbutus Hills and the Seminary take in with throbbing heart, keen scruWoods.' I reminded him that the beau- tiny, and kindling imagination, the splentiful woods had long since disappeared dor of this peerless epitome of six thousand before the woodman's axe. Apparently years of the world's history, gathered into not caring to realize the fact, he continued: one clustering object lesson so diversified 'Seated at this window, I often played and vast that it eclipses beyond comparichess with Dr. Higbee, who was at the son all former exhibitions for the realistic window yonder,' pointing to the house or ideal entertainment and instruction of fifty yards or more across the campus. mankind. And then he related to me how at first by The informing and educating influences a wire from one window to the other, and of this vast summer school are so imafterward by a code of signals, they com- mense and so potential that it is a great municated the moves to each other. ** misfortune that all the teachers of the
“Once more upon the front porch, I continent could not have been there; and, espied the path which students were wont as youthful impressions are so vivid and to take as a short way to the college build- enduring, we could wish, fervently wish, ings at the other side of town. There that all the students in our colleges and was the very tree under which I had seminaries of learning, and all the pupils stopped one day on my way to Greek reci- in our public high schools, could have tation, to compare my lesson in Homer been there also. It would have been to with a few leaves of a 'pony' that one of many of them more than a "cycle in my fellow students had very considerately Cathay,” arousing higher intellectual loaned me.
I had no reason to suppose aspirations, perhaps kindling an ambition that any one was near at hand to molest to enter the lists in the world of achieveme in this new and rather doubtful way ment, not only to do but to outdo all that of preparing a lesson in Greek. Ere long,
Ere long, former generations have accomplished, however, I was startled by a step in the thus adding to the world's welfare and grass, and a familiar voice that said in hastening the dawn of predicted millenpassing, “Taking the near cut, are you?' nial glory. and as I looked up, Dr. Higbee had passed To the mass of mere sight-seers the by and was on his way toward the college. Exposition, transcendant though it be in It has been an open question to me to this its multiplied attractions, is merely a day whether his words 'near cut' referred spectacle and little more ; but to men of to my way of reaching the recitation room thought and women of culture-among or of learning the lesson. However, the whom are many engaged in the instrucdoubt was thrown a little against me a tion of youth—it has a deeper significance few days later when I visited Dr. Hig- and more enlightened and enduring inbee's study and found him playing the fluence. To them the exhibits present
themselves as the products of educated tion, and useful to their classes in history mind, in which unlettered ignorance has as never before. little part. Behind the products and the Following up this line of study we factors which created them they search think they will find the really great for the generic events which, in the prov- events which distinguished the close of idence of God, have led up to these latest the fifteenth and the beginning of the and most wonderful developments near sixteenth centuries to be: 1. The disthe close of this nineteenth century of the covery of the New World; 2. The genChristian era. They discover, by close eral introduction of the art of printing; scrutiny into history for the leading and 3. The right of individual knowledge. events of our modern civilization, that (1) The last of these is much the greatest and the translation of the Scriptures into the most influential, the first two being merely common tongue, and (2) the invention of auxiliary, but essential. But together the mariners' compass, seem to be the they paved the way for this prophetic chief of those controlling events. The age when “many run to and fro and one asserted the right of man to all the knowledge is increased.”. Looked upon knowledge within the scope of his facul- in this light especially, the all too brief ties and the bounds of his duties; the sojourn in the Enchanted Land other opened up the whole world to the Chicago will mean assured gain to our light of that knowledge.
teachers in the way of intellectual growth In the light of the great rapidity with and an enlarging mental horizon. which in this age we develop results In closing we take a suggestive parafrom causes, and adapt means to euds, we graph from the Philadelphia Ledger of sometimes forget how far back iu history September 23d, in which the writer says: we must look for the moving springs of “The people who have been to Chicago action that change the destiny of nations, and those who are yet to go there have and in the course of time transform the certain duties to perform when they get civilization of the ages. We generally back. The first of these, as they all refind that they made no noise at the time cognize, is to send everybody to the Fair and attracted comparatively little at- who can possibly go, between now and tention, yet in the slow evolution of the November ist. The second begins where centuries they became a transforming the first is ended. It is for them to show power that changed the world's history the lesson of the wonderful White City in and lifted the human race into light and their intercourse with their home-worlds life and freedom never before dreamed of. for the next year or two. They have The Columbian Exposition and the seen a realized dream of beauty and rational, constitutional liberty-civil and grace; seen the miracles of science and religious—which we enjoy, are the latest the marvels of industry, the wonders of exponents and fruitage of the underlying art, the variety in unity of the world's principles which came to the surface more people. Joined with the Congresses, the than 400 years ago, and made the daring World's Fair represents not only the voyages of Columbus possible and the achievements and the experience, but the civilization of to-day inevitable.
hopes and dreams, and (by contrast) some Under the quickening incentive of what of the wickedness of the human race. It they have taken in at the World's Fair, is a dictionary with many meanings if our ambitious teachers thirsting for made clear, an encyclopædia, a vast knowledge will, for their own satisfaction geography, a history. It is at once stimas well as for the benefit of their pupils, ulating and humanizing. People who study the philosophy of history and the have had this bountiful experience must meaning of its strange panorama of events, reflect it and distribute it, for seasons to they will find the skeleton of dates and come, upon the majority of the stay-atdynasties, battles and bombardments, homes. They must show more than usual soon clothe itself with Alesh and blood, courtesy in the breadth of the lesson they and become instinct with moving life. have received. They must radiate goodThe soul of things once felt and seen will for peace and right-doing among must widen the mental horizon, making their fellows, for they have indeed redry husks luminous and radiant with a ceived a diploma, if not a degree. Before meaning they never before possessed. them has been unrolled, and understandFrom this high vantage ground teachers ingly, a great vision of what is possible will find themselves masters of the situa- in this world. Not merely of international peace, when armies shall give way “toleration” in a new form. It is not a to arbitrators, and the wealth of European little to say that for many people the nations be more evenly distributed for the vague and childlike conceptions of what public profit and pleasure, instead of be- Heaven will be like have been realized ing massed up into cannons and armed and even enhanced by the visions of the cruisers. They have seen how diverse great Exposition. The attitude of the peoples may be made to contribute to the crowd in the Fair grounds towards the education of each other, in simplicity, or individual, and of employés to the crowd, frugality, or temperance, or in bodily cus- seems also to be a little herald of millentom fitted to each one's native surround- nium, which must not expire when the ings. They have seen how even the Fair does. Its influences should permeate most widely removed religions can find the government of cities, and of public matter of interest and human sympathy business wherever the public is served. each in the other. They will have learned To do this the individual must radiate it a great lesson in the courtesy of crowds, strongly, must emphasize it, must live it, consideration, which is our old friend dispensing its spirit for all time to come."
,} in which the annual district reports and the HARRISBURG, October, 1893.
accompanying affidavits and certificates are THE following Permanent Teachers' Cer
received at the Department of Public Intificates have been issued to College struction. This general rule is adhered to so graduates under the Act of Assembly ap- far as it is practicable to do so, and no exproved May 10, 1893:
ception is made except in special cases where 1. David J. Waller, Jr., Bloomsburg, Columbia County, issued September 20, 1893,
there are valid reasons for doing otherwise.
The distribution is made upon the basis graduate Lafayette College, 1870.
of the number of taxables returned by the 2. Charles D. Thomas, Slatington, Lehigh County, issued September 20, 1893,
County Commissioners, ascertained at each
triennial assessment. The rate per taxable graduate Heidelberg College, 1889.
for the school year ending in June, 1892, was 3. J. Hiram Schwartz, Allentown, Pa., issued September 20, 1893, graduate Frank
$3.455; and for the year ending 1893, it is lin and Marshall Coliege, 1889.
$3.232. This rate is slightly diminished in counties which contribute to the salaries of Superintendents. The increase in the an
nual appropriation to five and half millions, STATE APPROPRIATION.
made at the last session of the Legislature,
will go into effect next year. N the Act for the support of the Public Since our population is gravitating away Schools, it is provided that warrants for
from the country districts towards manufacall appropriations for common school pụrposes shall be issued in amounts desig
turing centres, some surprising. changes
have occurred in the distribution of the apnated by the State Treasurer, and whenever
propriation. In Blythe Independent dishe shall notify the Superintendent of Public
trict, Schuylkill county, the return of taxaInstruction in writing that there are suffi
bles for 1889 was 51; the appropriation was cient funds in the State Treasury to pay the $174.98. The return of taxables for 1892 is same.”
36, and the appropriation for 1893, which is In accordance with this act the State Treasurer began paying at the rate of $150,
made upon the basis of this return, is $115.57.
The Directors of Schuylkill county have 000 per week on the first Monday in June, been liberal in the increase of the Superinand continued at the same rate up to the
tendent's salary, whereby the rate per taxaweek of September 18th, when the amount
ble for 1892 was reduced to $3.43i, and in was increased to $200,000. On account of
1893 to $3.2102. Very marked changes ocpaying Philadelphia and Pittsburg in part,
curred in the following districts: the former $750,000, and the latter $100,000, he may be said to have paid at the rate of
Philadelphia. $175,000 per week. The total amount sent Triennial return of taxables for 1889.
311,951 out to September 20th is $2,832, 100.77. The Triennial return of taxables for 1892.
296,078 State Treasurer no doubt has valid reasons for not allowing the Department of Public Decrease.
15,873 Instruction to send out the appropriation in Appropriation for 1892
$1,077.790.70 larger amounts.
Appropriation for 1893
956,924.10 The warrants are issued to the treasurers of the several School Districts in the order Decrease