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Ford City, in Armstrong county, and Jeannette, in Westmoreland county, had no existence at the time of the triennial assessment of 1889. The number of taxables in the former in 1891 was 190; in 1892, 534. The appropriation for 1892 was $656.45; in 1893 it was $1,725.89. In the latter, Jeannette, the taxables in 1891 were 51; in 1892, 707. The appropriation for 1891 was $69.15; for 1893 it was $2,285.02.

The foregoing statement may help the public to understand the method according to which the appropriation for the support of Common Schools is distributed and paid to the several districts. It may also serve to allay the fear which some directors have felt lest their appropriation had been cut off on account of possible irregularities in the annual report. The State Treasurer promised that after the payment of the sums due the National Guard, and of some other heavy appropriations, he would increase the weekly amount, and the increase for the week beginning September 18th is a fulfillment of that promise.

COUNTY INSTITUTES.

HE annual session of the County Teach

Centre Clearfield. Clinton. Fayette. Fulton Lycoming.

.

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Lock Haven

. Dec. 18.

McConnellsburg. Dec. 18.

Clearfield.

Uniontown.

Muncy.

Northumberland. Sunbury

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Dec. 18.

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Pottsville.

Somerset
Warren.

Greensburg.
Tunkhannock

Dec. 18.

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Beaver.

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Indiana.

New Wilmington. Dec. 25.

Greenville

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Jan. 1, 1894.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.

3. Question. Does the law passed at the last session of the Legislature in reference to allowing the children of soldiers to go to any school which they may select, permit those children to go into an adjoining district to attend school?

Answer: Under the provisions of the fol

counties of the State at the times and places lowing act the children of soldiers may claim

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school privileges in a district other than the one in which they have a permanent residence, provided they have at least a temporary residence during the school term in the district in which application is made, but not otherwise. We give the act as approved by Governor Pattison April 18, 1893.

"An Act relative to the admission and instruction of children of soldiers of the late war of the rebellion, in the common schools of districts outside of those in which their parents, guardians or others entitled to their custody may reside.

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Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by authority of the same, That any child or children of any person who was a soldier in the service of the United States, in the late war of the rebellion, being, or who shall be, temporarily or otherwise within any school district of the Commonwealth, shall, upon application, be entitled to admission and instruction, the same as resident children, in the proper common school of such district, and notwithstanding such child or children may have, or shall, come into such district for the purpose of attendance at such school, and the residence of the parents, guardian or other person or persons entitled by law to the custody of such child or children be in another district."

ITEMS FROM REPORTS.

ADAMS-Supt. Thoman; Directors are taking special pains in the selection of textbooks, trying to adopt such as in their judgment are best adapted to the schools. In a number of districts selections have already been made; in others the matter is undergoing careful consideration. There is no doubt that the late law is giving to many a great deal of embarrassment. This is not unnatural, since the plan, as also the intention of the law, is not fully understood. Time is the only means which will practically solve the important problem of free text-books and their usefulness in our public schools.

ARMSTRONG-Supt. Jackson: In Kiskiminetas township two new schools have been established; in Apollo one, and in Ford City one. The school boards have all made preparations to furnish supplies and books this term.

BEDFORD-Supt. Potts : Bedford township is building a two-room brick house to take the place of the old frame house at Wolfsburg. Bloomfield builds an additional room at Baker's Summit, increases the number of its schools, and makes an arrangement whereby advanced pupils from other districts in the township can be accommodated at the advanced school at Baker's Summit -virtually making it a district High | School. Broad Top builds a four-room house at Hopewell; Juniata, a new house in the McGir district and furnishes two other houses with good seating and slate boards. New Paris furnishes one more room and employs one more teacher. West Providence builds a four-room house in the Furnace district; Southampton, a two-room house at Chaneysville, in place of the one burned down. Woodbury also builds a new one to take the place of one burned. East St. Clair furnishes all its houses with good seating and teachers' desks. We spent in this county last year more than $20,000 for school apparatus. The commencement in Everett was looked upon by all as a great

success.

CARBON Supt. Beisel: Thirty-three out of forty-eight directors attended the seven examinations held in rural districts. Lower Towamensing is preparing for a graded school at Bowman's, by building an addition to the school-house. East Penn is building a new school-house. Lansford boro' erected a neat iron fence around the school-building in West Ward. Banks township made extensive repairs to the fences and buildings.

DELAWARE Supt. Smith: About one-half the schools in the county opened August 28; the others, September 4th; only one district as late as September 11th. Darby borough, Edgemont, Marcus Hook, Middletown, and Ridley Park increased teachers' salaries $5 per month, and Thornbury, $10 per month. In Radnor two male principals

were employed at largely increased salaries, one at Wayne, the other at Rosemont. The directors of Aston opened an additional school. In Marple the length of term has been reduced by half a month, making it nine months. This being a rural district, the attendance became quite small during the last two weeks, hence the change. In Media and Marcus Hook, the principals were elected for the term of three years.

ERIE Supt. Miller: Our directors all, so far as reported, have adopted the continuous term, and are adopting the graded course of study.

FRANKLIN Supt. Zumbro: Mr. Weidman Forster, a very intelligent and progressive director of Montgomery township, was obliged to resign his office on account of ill health. Mr. Cyrus Clever takes his place. Waynesboro has added two more teachers, Greencastle one, and Mercersburg one. The Greencastle building is being enlarged, and partly refurnished. Washington township has erected a new building, and graded the Plainfield school. They have also adopted

a

course of study. The township High School question is being agitated, and we predict its coming before many years. I examined 150 applicants for provisional certificates, and issued 117.

FULTON -Supt. Chestnut: Particular attention is paid to the examination in methods or theory. Every effort is made to have teachers study works on teaching. I also examine in mental arithmetic, which has not been done for a dozen years. examinations are rigid, so as to raise the standard of qualifications.

The

INDIANA Supt. Hammers: Several houses have been built during the summer, and the total number of schools increased by four. The free text-book law is very generally approved in this county. It is a long step in the right direction and one that will materially increase the efficiency of our schools. The prospects for a successful school-year are very flattering.

LACKAWANNA-Supt. Taylor: In reply to questions about classes graduated, school libraries, apparatus, furniture, buildings, grounds, district institutes, etc., I have received the following information: Principal R. N. Davis, of Archbald, reports: Graduates: a class of 5 in 1892, none this year. Library, 500 volumes bought chiefly by entertainments. A few volumes presented by citizens and publishers. Last year the Board gave the tuition fees of non-resident pupils to the library. Apparatus: 1 globe, 1 Yaggy's physiology chart, and 2 geography charts. Primary schools are sup plied with reading charts; grammar and high schools with International Dictionaries. Several schools have outline maps, and the Board has just ordered language charts. Furniture: buildings are tolerably well seated but none properly ventilated.

Principal E. D. Bovard, of Jermyn, reports: Graduates: a course of study adopted

in 1892 and eleven pupils graduated. Last year an assistant principal was elected, increasing the number of teachers to eight. Library: began last year, have 25 volumes Encyclopedia Britannica and 150 books. Apparatus: one large tellurian, three small globes, eight Andrews' wall maps, one Yaggy's chart, and a case of eight small anatomical charts. Building and grounds: large recitation room provided for the principal, and the grounds enclosed with an iron fence.

Principal John A. Moyles, of Winton, reports: Graduates, none, the pupils leaving school before they finish the course. Those

attending in the highest department are intending to teach, and leave school as soon as they get a certificate from the County Superintendent. Library: four years ago we gave an entertainment and bought some books; but, as we had no case for them, they became scattered and are now in the hands of the pupils; the Board has now ordered cases, and we shall collect the books and try to add to them. Apparatus: three globes, charts on physiology, geography, history, and astronomy; a few maps; very good slate black-boards. Buildings: well situated with one exception; trees have been planted around nearly all the buildings. One fault in the construction of our buildings is quite noticeable-they are generally too long for their width. We should have water and hose in every school-yard.

Principal Carrie A. Kenyon, of Blakely, reports: Graduates, none. Library, over 100 volumes and money to buy 30 or 40 more, procured entirely by means of entertainments. Apparatus: well supplied with charts, globes and dictionaries; three unabridged have just been ordered, one for each building. Buildings: a beautiful four-room building was opened in the Second Ward, in February, 1893, heated by the Smead system; the Central building is being provided with furnaces instead of the stoves.

Principal M. W. Cummings, of Olyphant, reports: Graduates: eight passed, four not. Library: about 300 volumes, Appleton's Encyclopedia including annuals furnished by the Board; with exception of a few presented, the books were all bought with proceeds of entertainments. Apparatus: three Andrews' globes, one Kennedy's mathematical forms, three Yaggy's physiology charts, Yaggy's geography study, five Appleton's primary reading charts, five complete charts (American Book Company), including all subjects, eight language charts, two sets geometrical solids.

Principal M. J. Lloyd, of Dickson City, reports: Graduates: first class graduated was that of last June, nine members. Library: begun at the Central school and will be increased next year. Building: new four-room building, costing at least $5,000, in course of erection, will take the place of old No. 1; at No. 2 arrangements are being made to heat by steam. Weekly institutes were

held last year by the teachers of No. 2 school. Much good was accomplished by these meetings.

LEBANON-Supt. Snoke: The outlook for the coming term is promising. All our districts, excepting six, have a term longer than the minimum required by law. We have no district that pays less than $40 per month for satisfactory teaching. We therefore retained almost all our older teachers. While the salary and the term are still not what they should be, our directors, encouraged by the generous State aid, are moving forward. Independent District adopted a course of study and partially regraded the schools. South Lebanon erected a building at Avon. This gives us two more graded schools. Heidelberg erected a single-room building. Both these houses are complete, well lighted and heated, furnished with slate blackboards and the latest improved furniture. South Annville painted and papered all the rooms, twelve in number. This is a step in the right direction. No other district in the county has its rooms in a more attractive and homelike condition. We hope many others will do likewise. All our Boards have fully complied with the requirements of the law, in regard to free books and supplies. Our directors and teachers deserve much credit for deep interest manifested in this line of work. I feel confident that if our patrons do their share in introducing a universal free system of books, we will be eminently successful in carrying out the requirements of the law.

LEHIGH-Supt. Rupp: I propose to hold a meeting of teachers and directors in each district prior to the opening of the schools; have held one in Hanover township. The meeting was attended by all the directors and all the teachers but two. The textbooks require considerable attention this year. Nearly all the districts have made their adoptions. In a few districts the term was increased, and in a few the salary also. In one district, Lower Milford, the term was reduced from six and a half months to the minimum. I am advising the different school boards to subscribe for The Pennsylvania School Journal, feeling assured that it will be greatly to their benefit.

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LYCOMING-Supt. Becht: The most important of recent educational events was the meeting of the "Teachers' Exchange.' About thirty teachers were present. The following questions were discussed: "The Responsibility of the Teacher in the Care of Free Text-books;" "Drawing in the Ungraded Schools:" and a talk on "Civics," by Prof. D. D. Hower, of the Muncy Normal School.

MIFFLIN Supt. Cooper: An unusually large number of young people have been examined with a view to enter the profession of teaching. A number of these have shown careful preparation for the work; others either fail to understand the requirements of our public schools, or are willing to enter

upon the responsible work of teaching without adequate preparation. Directors should be careful in the employment of teachers, and should indicate a decided preference for those who hold the best certificates. "No teacher can teach what he does not know." Teachers who have long been engaged in the work should not expect special favors, but should keep themselves booked ready for the work.

MONROE Supt. Serfass: Most of the public examinations were held during August, and the presence of directors and citizens indicated an interest in the work. The school boards throughout the county have been taking active measures to meet the requirements of the law pertaining to free textbooks and general supplies. In many districts the teachers' wages have been increased, and in several new buildings are being erected. The borough of Stroudsburg erected a large addition to the high school building. The entire structure is of brickan ornament to the town, a source of compliment to the enterprising board of directors, and an honor to the people. The East Stroudsburg Normal School opened September 4th with an attendance beyond all expectation.

The

NORTHUMBERLAND--Supt. Shipman: During the month I visited nearly all the schools of Mt. Carmel township; they have now been in session about one month. directors are enclosing all the schoolgrounds with substantial board fences, and preparing to comply with the recent Act of Assembly in regard to outhouses. The general reports from various sections indicate progress. I held twenty-six public examinations.

PERRY-Supt. Arnold: A new schoolhouse has been built in Wheatfield township, also one in Juniata. The house in Duncannon has been entirely remodeled and now has five instead of four rooms. The arrangement is a great improvement and gives better light. A reading and directors' room has been added, also steam heat and slateblackboards. Prof. E. U. Aumiller, the late County Superintendent, has gone to Wrightsville to take charge of the schools of that place. Several of our best teachers go to other counties, where they receive better wages. There is dissatisfaction among many directors because the State appropriation apportioned to their district this year is much less than the amount they received last year. SNYDER-Supt. Bowersox: The regular examinations held throughout the county were very well attended by the directors and patrons. Increased interest is manifested by the citizens in the demand for good teachers. This is encouraging. The great majority of the country schools will begin the term October 2d. I am very glad to report that a number of school districts will raise their teachers' salaries; two, I regret to say, have reduced them. The directors throughout the county are putting the free text-book

law into effect, all the districts giving the matter earnest attention. Districts that heretofore refrained from assessing taxes, have now levied amounts more than required for free books. This is a step in the right direction.

SOMERSET Supt. Berkey: All regular examinations have been held; 346 applicants were examined; 251 provisional and 8 professional certificates were granted; 87 were rejected. Wages of teachers have been advanced in about half the districts.

SULLIVAN-Supt. Meylert: A five weeks Normal Institute was begun August 14, at Forksville. More than three-fourths of the teachers of the county are in attendance, and much interest is manifested. Tuition is free.

YORK-Supt. Gardner: Prof. S. H. Bradley, principal of the public schools of Wrightsville, died recently of Bright's dis

ease.

He had been ailing for some time, and although the duties of the recent school term were very laborious, yet he faithfully attended to them, notwithstanding the additional work of the recent commencement. The news of his death cast a gloom over the community, where he was so well known.

BRADFORD CITY-Supt. Roth: A new course of study for the high school was adopted by the Board of Controllers. It covers four years and includes a course designed to fit for any American college.

CHAMBERSBURG-Supt. Hockenberry: We have been moving forward. One of the largest buildings has been refurnished with the best desks in the market, repapered and painted, making it very comfortable and attractive. The high school will hereafter be conducted as one department instead of two. The whole second floor of the building has been turned into a high school room, with two class rooms. Success has at last crowned the efforts of those who for a number of years have advocated a united high school.

HAZLE TWP., (Luzerne Co.)-Supt. Mulhall: In accordance with the terms of the new law everything used in the schools has been furnished free to the pupils. One new room has been constructed; another opened at Harleigh. An excellent corps of teachers has been engaged, and everything bids fair for a successful term. MAHANOY CITY Supt. Miller: Our schools opened September 4th, for a term of nine months. Free text-books have been provided, and a neat substantial case placed in each of the seventeen buildings. Three new houses costing over $5000 will be ready for occupancy about September 15th.

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WILLIAMSPORT-Supt. Transeau: The most important educational event of the month is the furnishing of free text-books to all our pupils. There is a much better attendance in the beginning of this term than formerly, and we will make a great effort to maintain to the last day of the term this excellent beginning.

THE HEROIC.-The ordinary events of life are not strong enough to move the whole man; its deeper and more passionate moments show us what we really are. There is that within us which comes forth only upon some strong exterior call. This is the true use of the heroic, of a life transcending life's ordinary possibilities. Such a life is a direct call upon the soul, saying, "Friend, come up higher;" and the heart recognizes its voice, and exults in it, claims it as the voice of kindred risen to a more exalted sphere. It is

like air from a mountain summit, where we could not live, and yet which seems our native air and braces us in every nerve. Deeds of heroic daring, of sublime self-devotion, how they stir our hearts, often torpid in response to the ordinary appeals of duty and reason! In teaching, we trust too much to mere intelligence, forgetting that there are many gateways into the soul, and that feeling bursts through them all. Indeed, there is a vast region, the finest and purest in our nature, that can be reached only through sensation.

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