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dawn of civilization, was proved by the throngs who visited the Rue de Cairo in the last Paris Exposition and who visit the exhibition now repeated in Chicago."
THIS pertinent advice of Henry D. Thoreau might be followed with profit: "Drive a nail home and clinch it so faithfully that you can wake up at night and think of your work with satisfaction,-a work of which you are not ashamed. And only so will God help you. Every nail driven should be another rivet in the machine of the universe, you carrying on the work."
THERE is a story of John Wesley, who was once walking with a brother who related to him his troubles, saying that he did not know what he should do. They were at that moment passing a stone fence to a meadow, over which a cow was looking. "Do you know," asked Wesley, "why the cow looks over the wall?" "No," replied the one in trouble. "I will tell you," said Wesley. "Because she cannot look through it; and that is what you must do with your troubleslook over them."
LAY aside for a day the spelling book, and try an exercise like the following: Let the pupils take their slates and write their own names in full; the teacher's surname; the name of the county in which they live, the State, their post-office address; the names of four winter amusements; of four summer amusements; how many days in this month; what we plant to get potatoes; a definition of a druggist; the names of six pieces of furniture; of six kinds of tools; the names of the seven days; name of the year, month, and day of the month; a verse of poetry, and a verse of Scripture from memory.
SPELLING some people think is becoming a lost art. We have not yet lost faith in the spelling book. Would it not be an interesting and profitable exercise for the Superintendent at County and Local Institutes, to have a carefully selected list of a hundred words given out, fifty on each of two days, these to be carefully corrected and reported upon? Prizes might be awarded to the best spellers. The state of New York, through the department of education, is looking up the spelling of the teachers. In each of fiftyeight county institutes one hundred words
have been given out for spelling. Here are the results in a sample of the work:
There were three county institutes held the last week of the season with a total attendance of 291 teachers. The figures show how many of the 291 missed the word: Alacrity 86, apothecaries 67, accommodate 140, accrued 81, asthmatic 69, abridgment 187, avaricious 94, alphabetical 39. affirmation 60, beneficent 125, collegiate 46, committees 110, censurable 93, consoled 14, coalesce 141, ceremonial 52, christening 45, consensus 230, debility 9, differentiate 129, duplicates 13, dominance 118, declaration 23, dismissal 31, diphtheria 104, extolled 129, elementary 20, effervescent 106, economic 70, emissary 141, embarrass 169, favorites 14, feminine 33, February 31, financial 30, gallows 69, grammatical 50, guarantee 95, homily 90, inseparable 77, incomparable 94, intelligent 36, Ithaca 133, impotent 44, inimitable 74, impetus 86, intercede 30, inflammatory 170, limiting 11, legislature 44, liberal 7, lathes 53, legality 23, mirrors 22, marriageable 98, matinee 68, moneys 106, medicinal 42, mercantile 81, malign 103, nutritious 92, nullify 54, omitted 41, obsequies 78, pluralities 28, prejudice 112, parliamentary 132, permissible 180, professor 51, quarantine 82, pitiless 44, phosphorescence 171, partisan 57, paroled 93, Poughkeepsie 51, possessed 51, regretting 60, rheumatic 32, requirement 25, resistance 30, suffrage 118, sensible 40, suffices 43, soliloquy 125, sustenance 95, Susquehanna 59, suicidal 51, sewerage 57, suburbs 82, subordinate 22, sinecure 128, susceptible 93, Tennessee 55, Tammany 18, umbrellas 25, vestibule 34, weird 139, inheritance 48.
ACCORDING to The Schoolmaster, "stability" was recently defined as being "the cleaning up of a stable," and an answer to some question about insurance had this passage, "The money is provided by the company to defray the expenses by the birth of members in pecuniary distress." In summer, it seems, "the day is longer owing to expansion by the heat;" and that season itself is thus explained: "Once a year we have the whole bright side of the sun turned towards us. Then it is summer. The sun is in the solstice and stands still." "What comes next to man in the scale of being?" inquired an examiner. quired an examiner. "His shirt," was the reply. Asked to give the distinction, if any, between a fort and fortress, a boy nicely defined them: "A fort is a place to put men in, and a fortress is a place to put women in." On being asked what the chief end of man was, another boy without hesitation said, "The end what's got his head on." A teacher asked a
juvenile class which of them had ever seen a magnet. A sharp urchin at once said he had seen lots of them. "Where?" inquired the teacher, surprised at his proficiency. "In the cheese." Being asked what conscience is, a boy replied, "An inward monitor." Asked what a monitor means, the ready answer was, "An ironclad vessel." Another lad was asked what he understood by "celerity," and "perhaps from experience," says the contemporary account, he described it as something to put hot plates down with."
PATIENCE is the truest sign of courage. Ask old soldiers who have seen real war, and they will tell you that the bravest men, the men who endured best, not in fighting, but in standing for hours to be mowed down by cannon shot; who were most cheerful and patient in shipwreck and starvation and defeat-all those things ten times worse than fighting; ask old soldiers, I say, and they will tell you that the men who showed best in such miseries were generally the stillest, meekest men in the whole regiment. That is true fortitude; that is Christ's imagethe meekest of men, and the bravest, too. -Charles Kingsley.
KEEPING ONE'S MOUTH SHUT.-What a rare accomplishment it is to be able to keep one's mouth shut! A young man once applied to the proprietor of a large business house in New York for a confidential position. Upon being asked what his capabilities were, he replied that he did not know, without a trial, whether or not his work would be satisfactory to the proprietor, but he did know two thingshe knew he was perfectly honest, and he knew he was abundantly capable of keeping his mouth shut. The proprietor, appreciating how important were both these traits, engaged the young man at once. Many a man's success in business has been limited by a too free use of his tongue, concerning his own business affairs or those of his employer. But, if it is important to keep one's mouth shut in a physical sense and from a business standpoint, what a positive virtue does such an accomplishment become in a spiritual sense? David understood this when he prayed watch, O Lord, before my m lips." (T
sooner we should come to know the intrinsic value of golden silence, were we only to resolve, when speaking of other people, that unless, forsooth, we could say something good of them, we would keep our mouths shut. The tongue is, indeed, an unruly member; and if we cannot completely tame it, we can at least accomplish a great deal in that direction by the conscientious practice of keeping our mouths shut at such times as we are tempted to give utterance to words of "anger, wrath, malice, railing, shameful speaking."-S. S. Times.
IN a recent issue of the Sunday School Times, Prof. Robert Ellis Thompson presents a special reason why the Sabbath is needed amongst us. He says: "With every generation of our history the rush of activities becomes more absorbing and more strenuous, and the danger of ceasing to be men in becoming mere workers grows upon us. Societary circulation is swifter; invention brings man closer to man, and multiplies the demands on our time and thought, while seeming only to increase our comforts. The outward look on life leaves us less time for the upward look on God. The 'things seen and temporal' increase in number and interest, till we need an effort to get our gaze turned to the things unseen and eternal. So the need of the day of rest grows instead of diminishing, and experience forces men to see the uses of Sunday even for lower ends than these. We need it that man and beast may not be worn out by 'the pace that kills. We need it that men may preserve their mental sanity and retain their fitness for the best work they are capable of. But, after all, we need it most to keep us in that living relation to God which is needed to keep us men."
WHEN we make it the end of our existence to accumulate for ourselves any kind of advantage, we sever the ties which God has drawn to bind us to our fellow-men. What can be more pathetic than the spectacle of a mere rich man, who has not a friend outside his family circle, who is followed everywhere by the detectives he employs to guard a life which is valuable only to himself? Well might it be said of such a man, by the artist who painted his picture, that he had the look of a hunted animal. But this is no more than an extreme illustration of a tendency which is more or less present in
all lives. We can maintain wholesome and true relations with our fellows only by refusing to make ourselves the centre to which we refer everything. "That way madness lies," while the only true sanity is in forgetting self in the joy of service to our fellow-men and to God.
No one can succeed as a teacher who is not himself a student. Close and constant study not only of the subjects to be taught, but of others outside of and beyond these, is the price that every one must pay for real success in the school-room.
I CONSIDER a human soul without education like marble in a quarry, which shows none of the inherent beauties until the skill of its polisher fetches out the colors, makes the surface shine, and discovers every ornamental cloud, spot and vein that runs throughout the body of it. -Addison.
WHY is it that a body of school teachers are so undemonstrative? The most eloquent speaker in the land can hardly extract applause from them. They will often sit like so many tombstones, without thinking that a little applause would revive and encourage the speaker. The president of a teachers' convention asked for opinions on corporal punishment, and other points on various subjects, and it was like drawing teeth to get an opinion out of them. Now, why should this be true? Are they too ignorant to talk on such subjects? We do not believe this. Is it not true that there are teachers in the land who have taught for years and never have spoken a word before an assembly of teachers? The writer is acquainted with such characters, and is free to confess that if these particular teachers had their just dues, they would be consigned to the waste-basket. They are too modest for any use.—Western School Journal.
SELAH MERRILL, United States Consul at Jerusalem, says in Scribner's Monthly: We are now at the Jerusalem station, which is 2,480 feet above the level of the station at Jaffa; and we have made the journey in three hours and a half. Two years and a half have been occupied in building the road, and the cost of it was not far from $2,000,000. Four dollars will buy a round trip ticket, first-class, good for two days, from Jerusalem to Jaffa. On Sunday, August 21, an engine
came within a few hundred yards of the Jerusalem station; but the track to it had not then been laid, and it was not until Saturday, August 27, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, that the first through train from Jaffa, with engine and passenger cars, actually arrived at the station. This is stated as official information, partly for the reason that some persons like to be exact in such matters, and partly because the report has, either through oversight or carelessness, been widely circulated that the first train arrived at Jerusalem on Sunday, August 21, which is not historically correct.
A WRITER in the Atlantic Monthly says: There are many men and women who have picked up a smattering of botany or ornithology in childhood, and find it afterwards a never-failing occupation, opening new vistas and revealing deep secrets, always within reach and always fascinating. Careful study of this kind sometimes breeds a contempt for large effects, keeps the eyes near earth on miscroscopic beauty; but how close it brings one to the intricate mystery of life! Science, too, has the great advantage of being accessible in fragments, and not requiring life-long familiarity for the appreciation of its pleasures. It is different from literature, which demands a patient apprenticeship, and is not open to the first comer. A busy man sees a great deal out of doors to interest him at odd moments; but he is not likely to make close friends of Homer and Dante.
No red-letter day in the calendar seems to have taken a firmer hold on the affections of the people than Arbor day. The observance is of the utmost importance in impressing on the children in the schools an idea of the beauty and usefulness of trees, and the necessity of preserving them. The honor of originating Arbor day belongs to Hon. J. Sterling Morton, present Secretary of Agriculture. Twentyone years ago, on the recommendation of Mr. Morton, the Nebraska State Board of Agriculture passed a resolution offering prizes for those who should plant the most trees. That year more than one million trees were planted in Nebraska. Since then the day has been celebrated annually, and the interest in tree-planting has taken other practical forms. The gain to the State in increased fertility and beauty can scarcely be computed. Other
States were not slow in perceiving that what was good in Nebraska would be good elsewhere, and one by one they encouraged tree-planting. Arbor Day is now observed in all parts of the Union, the States arranging the dates in accordance with nature's time for bringing forth the leaves in different latitudes.
IT has been settled by actual tests that a cablegram can be sent to London from the New York Exchange and an answer received in four minutes. Ordinarily the time is much longer, but on this occasion a special effort was made with the above remarkable result.
So much of the noblest life which the
world sees dissatisfies us with its partial-Robert Ball, in his valuable lectures THE Astronomer Royal for Ireland, Sir
ness; so many of the greatest men we see are great only upon certain sides, and have their other sides shrunken, flat and small, that it may be well for us to dwell upon the pictures of a humanity rich, full and strong all around, complete on every side, the perfect cube of human life, which comes down out of heaven from God.Phillips Brooks.
So many people have been inclined to argue from the well-known examples of marital unhappiness the inability of a gifted man and a gifted woman dwelling together in unity, that it is pleasant to read of the experience of Alphonse Daudet and his talented wife. I was quite a young fellow," the author tells us,
and had a great prejudice against literary women, especially against poetesses; but I came, saw, and was conquered, and I have remained under the charm ever since. People sometimes ask me if I approve of women writing. How should I not, when my own wife has always written, and when all that is best in my literary work is owing to her influence and suggestion?"
THE Churchman says: We have no manner of doubt of the potentialities of the human mind and of the human spirit, but, for ourselves, we do not look for the key to them in this life. Psychology and Pneumatology are as yet infant sciences, from the Baconian standpoint, and even Physiology is but a youth in knickerbockers. The sudden relish for everything which offers a short cut to the mysteries of human nature is probably a transient reaction from the hard material
Accordingly, addressing the first student, he said: 'Now, tell me which, does the earth go round the sun, or the sun go round the earth?' 'It is the earth
goes round the sun.' 'What do you say?' he inquired, turing rather suddenly on the next, who gasped out: 'Oh, sir-of course-it is the sun goes round the earth.' 'What do you say?' he shouted at the third unhappy victim. 'Oh, sir, it is-sometimes one way, sir, and sometimes the other.'"'
It is to be hoped that my readers are in better case than these unfortunate students; but yet it may be of some use to them to consider what kind of answer they would give if asked: "What is the sun?" If they would reply only "It is a ball of fire," their knowledge, true as it is, would be no advance on that of the ancients, who knew quite as much about the "Ruler of the Solar System."
TELESCOPES IN SCIENCE.
A summary, by no means exhaustive, of what we know, is to be the object of this and a succeeding paper. Formerly the astronomer had to rely on the telescope, reflecting or refracting, for his information. As the heat and light of the sun rendered it difficult to use the telescope, the astronomer's means of obtain
ing direct information about the sun's appearance and constitution were limited. But when it is remembered that the first practical discovery of the telescope was made in Holland in A. D. 1608, and that Galileo did not construct his first "optic glass" until A. D. 1609, its revelations during less than three centuries have been nothing short of astounding.
Here it may be well to warn the inexperienced never to attempt to look at the sun directly through a telescope, however small, or through a field glass, or opera glass. Telescopes can be fitted with proper apparatus for observing the sun, and observation is then safe, easy, and agreeable. A piece of smoked glass will enable any one to look at the sun with the naked eye. By placing the object By placing the object glass of a telescope at a hole in the shutter of a darkened room, and holding a sheet of white paper to receive the image through the eye-piece, a very good picture of the sun can be obtained at a distance from the eye-piece easily ascertained by experiment. Nearly every work on astronomy has a sketch illustrating this method. Elaborated with special apparatus, it is the method by which Father Perry, of Stonyhurst, England, has made his studies of the sun spots.
In spite of the magnificent improvements in telescopes, our knowledge of the sun's condition would be of a very meager kind indeed had we to depend entirely on the telescope. The spectroscope, however, comes to our aid. This is not the place to describe this instrument, which has enabled us to investigate the sources of light, their state and their motions. It must suffice to say that it is an adaptation of prisms, by which we can study many astronomical phenomena invisible to the telescope, as well as many chemical phe
Again, the photographic camera has been pressed into the service of the astronomer, and its sensitive eye and retentive retina, in the shape of lens and plate, are of exceedingly great value in modern work.
Armed with telescope, spectroscope and camera, trained to draw logical inferences, to make abstruse calculations, patient to wait for favorable opportunities, the astronomer is equipped for ascertaining the state of the sun and its surroundings, and its relations to the universe of which it is a member.
THE SUN IS A STAR.
If we stand under the dome of the sky on a star-light night we see a number of points of light of varied brilliancy. These are the stars. One or two may be planets, and the moon may even be visible; but we will pass them for the time. The spectroscope tells us that each of these stars is self-luminous. The telescope can tell us little or nothing about them, at such vast distances do they lie. Our sun is a self-luminous body. The planets and the moon are not. They shine by reflected light derived from the sun.
The number of stars visible to the naked eye from the earth is about 6,000; so that at any one time the greatest number visible to us will be about half of these, that is, about 3,000. In a powerful telescope about twenty million stars are visible; say about ten millions in each hemisphere. Now that the photographic camera is being used for catching each point of light, it is probable that sixty millions of stars will be recorded. All these are self-luminous.
Some of them are double, or companion stars, which revolve round a point situated between the couple. In the constellation of Lyra there is a double double, consisting of two pairs, each pair revolving round a common centre and the whole four also revolving round a point within their own system. There are scarlet stars, red stars, blue, green, white and yellow stars. Our sun is yellow. Some are variable in their brilliancy, shining at times with greater or less light. Our sun is probably variable. We hear also of new stars, temporary stars, and lost stars. Some day our sun may be a lost star-but we are anticipating.
Occasionally we see a "shooting star" moving rapidly across the sky. It is a meteor-myriads of which are circling round our sun, swarms of which become visible to us, especially in August and November. Their visibility is due to the fact that they are heated by their passage through our atmosphere, the rate of movement being frequently hundreds of miles a minute. At times, also, we see a comet adorning the heavens. Comets are partly self-luminous, and shine partly with the reflected light of the sun.
Our sun is not a meteor or a comet; it is a star-one of sixty millions. Analogy would lead us to suppose that, just as our sun has its attendant planets Mercury,