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ture, pattern making, designing of calico, and economic botany studied in relation to the native woods. Garments are made by the girls in grades from the third to the eighth, and the sewing throughout seems very good.

"The penmanship in the Pittsburgh schools in all grades below the high school is good, and in the sixth and seventh years there is some good language work.

One fails, however, to find

any central line of thought as the basis of the language lessons. There are some creditable applications of drawing to wood carving, and an exhibition of sloyd as carried on in one school. Allegheny sends the strongest line of language work from Pennsylvania. Geography and elementary science furnish the materials for thought expression, and pen drawings are freely used as an auxiliary. The language work from Hazleton consists mainly in writing from pictures, while that from Altoona is largely descriptions from natural objects. Chester has some strong compositions on the native woods, and Titusville some good drawings from nature. Harrisburg has a very complete exhibit of work in drawing, including a good deal of work in designing and use of color. The state normal schools have very meager exhibits. The school at Slippery Rock has submitted the fullest line of work done by pupils, and the school at Millersville has a very creditable display of lesson plans, schedules, and photographs.

"Pennsylvania State College exhibits an interesting piece of apparatus-a dy

mo for electrolytic work-designed and made by the students. Bryn Mawr College for Women exhibits the best de of buildings and grounds to be found in the educational exhibits, and the University of Pennsylvania illustrates very fully her working laboratory in physicology, The giant microtome, designed by Dr. Milton J. Greenman, attracts very general interest. The dyed cotton, woolen, and silk yarns from Lehigh University are of special interest to the students of chemistry, as well as the chemically pure salts prepared by students. Girard College has a full line of work in wood and iron, and the Ogontz School is represented by a good series of photographs and water-color paintings.

"New Jersey has solved the problem of economy of space. Her exhibit is compact and satisfactory, and represents a wide

range of educational interests. The state normal school exhibit is one of the best. The music charts made by the teachers in the primary schools of Trenton are unique. The pen drawings from the New Brunswick high school are interesting, as are also the zoological drawings from Jersey City. Some of the best language work comes from Plainfield, and the best clay modeling from Morristown. Camden sends from her fifth grade a varied line of work in tin-cups, dippers, pans, funnels, etc. The wood carving from Montclair and South Orange is excellent. The exhibit from the state normal school is very satisfactory. The papers submitted by the classes in the history of education and psychology show healthy lines of study. In the latter subject no text-book is used. The students are given problems and experiments, the results of which form an interesting feature of the exhibit. The pen and language work of the model school is uniformly good. A very pretty and costly piece of work in the New Jersey exhibit is a large satin map of the state, made by the students of the Institute of the Holy Angels at Fort Lee. Princeton University submits 3,000 volumes written by graduates and officers of that institution, which is scarcely more than a third of the whole number that have been written. There is also from Princeton a very satisfactory series of photographs of the student life-social, literary, religious, and athletic."


NE of the sunniest faces, and happiest

souls, it was our good fortune to meet at the Pennsylvania State College on Thanksgiving day last November, and on Washington's Birthday in February last, was Prof. Josiah Jackson, who was buried at Longwood Cemetery in Chester county a few days since. He was sixty-four years of age. For some years he has been professor of mathematics at the State College. He belonged to the Society of Friends, and in his younger days was prominent in the Underground railway,

both drove and guided," as he used to say, recalling pleasantly those exciting times. Lieut. E. W. McCaskey, an officer of the College, says, in a private letter: 'He was esteemed and loved by us all, for he was whole-souled, hearty and helpful. In mathematics he was an author


ity. He was always firm but just, gave many 'conditions' to students, and then helped them out. In our Friday Club he was senior of the Literary section, and often the life of our company."

Prof. Richard Darlington writes of him in the West Chester Local News of October 14th: "The death of Josiah Jackson recalls to my mind the days we spent together at Jonathan Gause's Academy, Greenwood Dell, a mile south of Marshallton. He was teacher and I was pupil. The venerable principal, Jonathan Gause, was the business manager of the institution, but Josiah Jackson was the teacher whose big brain did the work of the school-room. Of all the instructors I have ever had, including college professors, I remember none quite like Josiah Jackson. It has seemed to me that in some respects he was a little their superior. To high mathematical attainments he added a keen perception of everything that was valuable in an instructor of youth. He was then about twenty-one years of age. To my young mind he seemed almost intuitively to grasp the difficult problems of mathematics and hurl them from him with a vigor that was unusual. He was a born teacher. Outside of his chosen field I do not think he would greatly excel. His modesty was proverbial. Jonathan Gause looked upon him with pardonable pride. He was then an old man. He had seen his pupil of a few years before leap to the front. He well knew that Josiah Jackson's hold upon the school was not to be mistaken. I have not seen the subject of this sketch for many years. He has been pursuing his labors at the Agricultural College near Bellefonte for a long time. Kennett Square has furnished some good men in the walks of professional life. For quickness of intellect, thoroughness in mathematical acquirements and a generous heart, Josiah Jackson had no superior among them all. He was not a ready debater, neither was he an orator, hence it was in the quieter walks of life that he showed his fine culture and great acquirements. It was not in the " pomp of heraldry" that he appeared to great advantage. His modesty was adapted to the school-room, and amid the quiet labors of his own classes he did his perfect work. As they lay him to rest in the Longwood Cemetery to-day, the pupils of his early manhood will one and all recall the qualities of head and heart they so

much prized, and as one of them who held him in high esteem, I cannot refrain from offering this little tribute to his memory as the grave closes over him, and removes him from life of usefulness for which he was so admirably fitted."


DR. EDWARD BROOKS, Superintend ent of Public Schools of Philadelphia, at a recent meeting of the Board of Controllers, recommended the observance by the city schools of the day on which William Penn landed from the ship "Welcome." He said, in presenting the subject:

"On the 27th of October, 1682, the good ship Welcome' sailed up the harbor and landed on the shores of the Delaware. On the deck of this vessel stood a man who bore to the new world a new gospel of civil liberty. New England, with patriotic purpose, commemorates the landing of the Mayflower, and the relation of that event to national liberty. Pennsylvania, and especially Philadel phia, should, it would seem, with the same patriotic purpose commemorate the landing of the Welcome. I would therefore recommend that the Superintendent be authorized to direct the teachers of the public schools to hold such exercises on the anniversity of the landing of the 'good ship Welcome' as may fittingly commemorate that event, and teach a lesson of patriotism to the children of the city."


In pursuance of this recommendation, the Board of Public Education, through the proper committee, authorized Superintendent Brooks to arrange for the celebration of the event in the public schools with fitting ceremonies. principals and teachers of the public schools were therefore requested to arrange a programme of exercises for Friday, Oct. 27th, suitable for the commemoration of this event. It was suggested that the programme might include any of the followings topics: 1, Brief sketch of the life of Penn.; 2, Voyage and landing of the Welcome; 3, Penn's views of government; 4, Penn's views of education; 5, Penn's treatment of the Indians; 6, Penn's "Treaty Tree;" 7, The Penn House; 8, Singing of patriotic songs. These exercises to be a part of the regular schoolday's work, and to be varied in the different grades to suit the capacity of the

children. If the higher schools should think best to join in the celebration, they might find much of interest and profit to their students in the character and views of government and education of this great Founder of a Commonwealth. It is interesting to remember that he made provisions for a broad and thorough system of public education, and was an earnest advocate of manual training and industrial education. In his views of government and education, William Penn was undoubtedly the wisest and broadestminded man among all the early settlers of this country, and is thus a fitting subject for a lesson in patriotism to the pupils of our public schools.

The day was observed with enthusiasm in many of the schools. It is well for the youth of Philadelphia to know something of the man to whom we are all so greatly indebted. As the colossal statue of the Founder towers above the passing throng in the area of the Wm. Penn Building, so and even more grandly does the man himself tower above his cotemporaries in the history of the past.

It is gratifying, in this connection, to know that so many copies of the "Life of William Penn," compiled some years ago by the publisher of this Journal, have been called for through the mails within the past ten days by the teachers of Philadelphia. We are very glad thus to have been able to contribute something to the success of this "Welcome" memorial day. Let its observance be continued year after year in the schools, until the people of Philadelphia become acquainted with William Penn, whose parting benediction, full of love and tender solicitude as contained in a letter dated August 12, 1684, written on shipboard on the eve of his return to England-might well be committed to memory by every school boy and school girl in the State of Pennsylvania:

"And thou, Philadelphia, the virgin settlement of this province, named before thou wert born, what love, what care, what service, and what travail has there been to bring thee forth and preserve thee from such as would abuse thee and defile thee! My soul prays to God for thee, that thou mayest stand forth in the day of trial, that thy children may be blessed of the Lord, and thy people saved by His power. My love to thee has been great, and the remembrance of thee affects my heart and mine eye. The God of eternal

strength keep and preserve thee to His glory and thy peace!"

These words, sweet and reverent and solemn, should speak for ages in Philadelphia in enduring brass-or, better still, cut deep in letters of gold upon polished black marble, in a style similar to a very fine tablet in Old Trinity Church, New York, than which we have never seen anything more satisfactory-which might be set into the east or west face of the second arch of the south entrance of the Public Building on Broad street. As the statue surmounting the lofty tower, at an elevation of five hundred feet, will challenge the eye for ages, so this benediction will touch the heart of the passer-by generation after generation, so long as this mighty structure shall stand and teeming thousands pass each day through its massive archways.


HE semi-annual observance of Arbor

THD semi-ann has resulted in the plant

ing of thousands and tens of thousands of trees. Some self-elected wise folk have laughed at the small results the day has yet been able to show in the way of making good the annual destruction of the woodlands. But it is the thoughtless man who despises "the day of small things," who sees the acorn sprout and says, Why plant a thing like that! It is no tree!" No, but give it time and it may one day be the giant oak.

The sentiment in favor of tree culture is spreading. Thanks to the fostering influence of Arbor Day, it is growing to be the thought, the purpose and the habit of not a few good people to plant a tree or trees in observance of each recurring day, whether named by the Chief Executive in April or by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction in October.

This genial holiday is nine years old in Pennsylvania. It has had its eighteenth semi-annual observance, since its first appointment, in 1885, under the influence of Dr. E. E. Higbee, then State Superintendent of Public Instruction. The official circular of State Superintendent Schaeffer, announcing the date to be observed by the schools, was commended by newspapers in all parts of the Commonwealth, and the result has been the planting of many trees. It was the School Arbor Day, and the schools, with

out exception anywhere, from highest to lowest, should observe it as recommended by the Department of Public Instruction. Especially should this be done by the Normal Schools, in the way of good example, and so to impress the thought of tree-planting upon the embryo teacher that it may become the habit of a lifetime. No one can estimate how far the influence of such a teacher may be felt in determining the habits of pupils in this as well as in other directions.

The schools must be aroused and encouraged to do this work. Lancaster

county is doing well for Arbor Day. If the State at large were doing equally well, Pennsylvania would be second only to Nebraska in its Arbor Day record. The information we have from our local nurserymen is that the demand, for hard wood trees especially, has left but little stock of that kind upon their hands.

The programme at the Lancaster High School provided for the planting of one hundred and twenty-five trees-most of which were smokehouse apple trees-in the morning by the boys at their homes, or in the yards of friends, after full instructions as to how the planting should be done. Some trees were also planted by the girls. In the afternoon attention was invited to a programme, musical and literary, also including athletics in the gymnasium. The readings were appropriate to the occasion. The vocal and instrumental music, under the direction of Prof. Matz and Thorbahn, is always an excellent feature of the day, and everybody enjoyed both chorus and orchestra. The school was attractive also from the display of flowers and plants that covered the desk and filled the window spaces. The Morning News commenting upon the fact that so many apple trees were planted, says: "One-half were apple of the Smokehouse variety. Surely if the other half too had been Smokehouse apple, no mistake would have been made. In the first place they are a hardy tree, and are never destroyed by borers, and then the fruitwell, any one who has scratched the frosty covering from a November apple pile and found "Smokys" underneath knows something of the good things of this life. Bellflower, Rambo, Baldwin and Pound apple are all right for weekdays, but for a Sunday morsel of delightful spicy juiciness take a bite of Smokehouse."

An editor of the Lancaster New Era, who always finds pleasure in attending

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these Arbor Day exercises, says in an art article on "Arbor Day and Music: " There are still some persons, we believe, and among them are School Directors, who can see no utility in teaching music in the public schools; who believe that the time devoted to this study is so much time lost. It deserves to be said, however, that this class of anti-progressionists is rapidly disappearing, and that a few years may witness their permanent disappearance. If some of them could have been present at the Arbor Day exercises in the Lancaster High School building on last Friday afternoon, we incline to the belief that the lingering remnant would make its final exist still more expeditiously.

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It is only upon such occasions at the High School that the full value of the musical instruction in the schools shows itself. Although begun in the primary grades, the development is steadily continued until the best results are obtained in the most advanced classes, and in the High School orchestra. The music there would be creditable to almost any similar organization, and reflects infinite credit on the instructors who have been instrumental in bringing it about. If the parents of the children in that school were aware of the fine enjoyment that can be obtained through attending the public exercises occasionally held there, we are very sure that hundreds of them would present themselves to be entertained and delighted. The march of this study in the public schools everywhere will not only be onward, but its progress will be more rapid than ever with the passing years. It must continue to grow because music not only abounds throughout the entire economy of nature, but stirs the human soul as nothing else can.

"We must not close without some allusion to the celebration of Arbor Day proper in the same school. For nine years this day has been regularly observed there. During that time thousands of trees and shrubs have been planted by the pupils of the city schools, the High School alone having planted more than two thousand trees. Prior to the establishment of Arbor Day the school grounds in this city were, with a few exceptions, destitute of trees, vines and shrubbery. To-day every schoolyard in the city contains more or less of all these, carefully trained and cared for, not only beautifying and adorning the

grounds, but adding to their value, and, above all, aiding in cultivating and promoting the æsthetical tastes of the pupils. No one can estimate the wonderful

amount of good which this movement in our schools has already done, much less the ultimate benefits that must result from it in the generations to come."


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Tuesday of February of each year, and the first Tuesday after the first Monday of November of each yeur, as legal half holidays, from 12 o'clock noon until midnight of such days, for all purposes whatsoever, as regards the presenting for payment or acceptance, and as regards the protesting and giving notice of the dishonor of bills of exchange, checks, drafts and promissory notes, made after the passage of this Act."

An Act of Assembly approved May 31, 1893, P. L., page 188, entitled:


An Act designating the days and half days to be observed as legal holidays, and for the payment, accepting and protesting of bills, notes, drafts, checks and other negotiable paper, on such days" provides in Section 1, "That the following days and half days, namely: the first day of January, commonly called New Year's day, the twenty-second day of February, known as Washington's birthday, Good Friday, the thirtieth day of May, known as Memorial day, the Fourth of July, called Independence day, the first Saturday of September, known as Labor day, the first Tuesday after the first Monday of November, Election day, the twenty-fifth day of December, known as Christmas day, and every Saturday after twelve o'clock noon, until twelve o'clock midnight, each of which Saturdays is hereby designated a half holiday, and any day appointed or recommended by the Governor of this State, or the President of the United States, as a day of thanksgiving or fasting and prayer or other religious observances, shall for all purposes whatever as regards the presenting for payment or acceptance, and as regards the protesting and giving notice of the dishonor of bills of exchange, checks, drafts and promissory notes, made after the passage of this act, be treated and considered as the first day of the week, commonly called Sunday, and as public holidays and half holidays.'

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It is further provided, however, by the fourth section of the act of May 31, "That all the days and half days herein designated as legal holidays, shall be regarded as secular or business days for all other purposes than those mentioned in this act."

The purposes mentioned in this act have special reference and application to the maturity of commercial paper, the acceptance

and payment of bank checks, drafts, promthe act itself.

In placing a construction upon this provision of law, and the act of May 23, 1893, in connection with the act of June 25, 1885, P. L.. page 176, which provided for closing the schools on legal holidays, I am clearly of the opinion that the several boards of school directors and controllers are not required to close the public schools in their respective districts on the days designated as election days, but on the contrary, I would urge the directors and controllers to keep their schools in session on these days, for the purpose of preventing too many breaks in the regular school year.

Supt. Public Instruction.



4. Question: On what conditions are Permanent Certificates issued by the Department of Public Instruction to College Graduates without examination?

Answer: The following, from the forthcoming annual report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, presents the views of the Department, and indicates the course of action to be taken in this new and important direction:

The law requiring the issue of permanent certificates to college graduates brought to light a state of things truly astonishing. Under the Corporation Act of 1874 the county courts have been incorporating business colleges, schools of elocution, and other institutions of learning.

Some of these schools have, upon the basis of such charters, been conferring degrees upon students and others of very limited attainments. A lady, for instance, received the degree of B. A. who had read but five books of Cæsar, four books of Virgil, and four orations of Cicero. Arithmetic and penmanship were reported as part of her four collegiate years of study. A letter sent to the Department by the head of the institution abbreviates et cetera several times by the use of ect. instead of etc., and has pedagogical spelled pedagochical, not to mention other blemishes indicative of what Ben Jonson calls "small Latin and less Greek. Another institution was leased with its

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