twenty lights, and on the lower cornice | aisle, was Missouri's offering to the Ex
eight hundred globes cast their mellow rays on the lagoon and near-by structures. Inside the building two thousand lights are blazing, equal to thirty-two thousand candle power. It is the exterior view of the building, however, that attracts the attention of the crowds. The ribs on the dome look from afar as if studded with diamonds, and the blazing globes on the upper and lower cornices make a sight that people go into raptures over. Nothing like it in the way of illumination was ever before seen.
The Mines and Mining building, filled as it is with pyramids of metallic ore and crystal, presents an appearance gorgeous and most attractive. The electric current had been turned on early, and the great number of arc lights hanging beneath the lofty ceiling sparkled and twinkled like so many stars. There was not a spot throughout the entire structure, huge as it is, where any of the numerous columns and gallery supports cast a shadow. In the south of the building and immediately to the right of the entrance is the Colorado exhibit. This consists of specimens of the mineral ores and crystal formations native to the state. They are arranged on shelves, in cases, and are built into mounds and pyramids. Shining upon them, the white arc lights produced a most beautiful effect. The particles of metal exposed among the base rock shone by the reflected light, and the crystal specimens emitted all the prismatic colors. During the early evening hundreds of people passed into the south entrance, only to stop on the threshold, apparently struck dumb with surprise and admiration at the scene before them. Many, weary with the day's excitement and intending only to glance into the interior, when once their gaze caught the electro-mineral effect, put forth extra energy and plodded through. Every step towards the north exit was a surprise.
On the left, a little distance from the south end, was the exhibit made by a great iron firm of Germany, the foremost objects of attraction of which were the tree made of various-sized tubes and the Cleopatra needles constructed of railroad iron. Instead of leaves the limbs of the iron tree were ablaze with yellow incandescent globes, and no golden-leaved maple of famed New England ever presented a spectacle one-tenth so charming. Beyond this and on the right side of the
position. Arranged neatly and so as to obtain the full effects of the blazing sun overhead, this exhibit of minerals and mining appliances attracted much attention. In the centre of the building stood the obelisk made of solid blocks of coal cut to represent huge blocks of black marble. Standing about this, many people wondered where were the coal fields whose veins were of a thickness equal to the blocks, but a guard near by astonished all beholders by answering their question, "Pennsylvania has greater ones."
Once past the obelisk, few stopped again until near the north exit. But there all paused and lingered, and even when the greater part of the electric lights were extinguished they were still loath to leave a place so bewitchingly attractive. The object of chief admiration was the exhibit of New South Wales. It is situated on the west side of the aisle, the space being marked at the south end by a great pyramid of silver ore which shines under the glare of an arc light.
At the north end of the exhibit is a large column covered with silver leaf, on the top of which stands Atlas, supporting the earth upon his shoulders. Between the silver pyramid and the column are pyramids and obelisks of red copper ore, tin, zinc and antimony. While behind these are arranged, in cases, very fine specimens of quartz and rock crystal, every one of which is a beauty, and needs only to be seen by electric light to elicit exclamations of wonder and atonishment.
The Agricultural building was a blaze of glory. Such fruits of the soil as are there arranged in all sorts of peculiar shapes were never before gathered together. There were great ears of corn, with twenty rows, from Australia, huge heads of wheat from India, and grain of every kind from every portion of the earth. Not grain alone, but the products of grain, malt and distilled liquors, in white bottles, were displayed around colored globes and, seen after the electric current was turned on, showed the spirits in their most attractive form.
In the great Manufactures building the lofty coronas shone with a brilliancy notseen before. Every globe was glowing with the power of two thousand candles, while lower down around the galleries others of equal magnitude were hung, Newly painted show cases glistened, and the wares of silver and gold and porcelain
within them were shown to their best ad- | vantage. The Austrian exhibit appeared especially fine to the visitors, and the tower clock was so illuminated that the hours and minutes could be read from any portion of the thirty-three acre building.
But the illumination of last night, brilliant as it was, formed only a part of what may be expected. When the full strength of the dynamos in Machinery Hall is used, when every street lamp is lighted, when lights gleam in the windows of the Art Palace, and the Government building, and every tower and dome from Cottage Grove avenue and Midway Plaisance to the cliff-dwellers' caves and the cattle shows, it will make Jackson Park a place at night unrivaled in the wide world.
SEEING THE EXPOSITION.
VERY railroad entering Chicago has been connected with the Belt Line which runs around the city, and which enters Jackson Park at the southwest corner. The terminus of this railroad system is the largest space set apart for railroads anywhere in the world. Even this is not all. As Jackson Park is on the lake front, the Exposition manage ment has provided that as many people as can be carried by boats may be landed at the piers of the Exposition.
Without going into details to show how many people can be carried by each of these means, I may mention the sum total to allay all fears of visitors being overcharged. One hundred thousand people every hour is the number which the Exposition management expects to be able to land at Jackson Park and to take away. I think I am not exaggerating when I say that there is not another spot on the face of the globe of the area of Jackson Park, that is to say about a square mile in extent, where one hundred thousand people could land or depart in an hour.
If the weather were fine, I should want to have my first view of the Exposition from the lake. The scene from the deck of one of the big steamers running to the Fair grounds is very wonderful and im posing, as we catch sight for the first time of the glittering domes, towers and terraces of the great buildings, over which a hundred thousand flags and streamers may flutter in the sunlight. As the boat draws nearer to the shore we
begin to make out the outlines of the buildings separately, and the great Manufactures Building, which looms up along the shore like a mountain, makes even the big vessel on which we sail look small as a fishing-boat.
As we land at the pier, and pass into the grounds beneath the shapely columns of the beautiful Peristyle, the scene which greets one makes him feel smaller than ever. We walk past huge structures so high that it is almost painful to look up to their roofs from where we stand, and come to the Administration Building, which is the crowning feature of the magnificent court which surrounds us. Then we ascend to the balcony below the dome of that building, to obtain a bird'seye view of the whole Exposition.
After climbing to this balcony by a winding stairway, we find ourselves looking west over an immense railway station, from which a score of tracks stretch away into the distance like the strings of a hundred kites. To the south is the Machinery Hall, its pinnacles tipped with queer little figures of angels with outstretched wings. These look scarcely bigger than dolls, although they are taller than a man. When we look below at the people walking about the grounds and see that they only seem as big as mice, we can understand why the figures. of angels look so small.
In front of the Administration Building is the grand court of the Exposition, which from this height presents a view never to be forgotten. Immediately below are three fountains that can hardly be equalled in the world. On either side of these fountains are others which can be seen best only at night. These are the electric fountains, which send forth sprays of every color imaginable, changing every instant, and blending together so beautifully that one would think that they spouted up rainbows instead of water. Farther off is the Great Basin, dotted with gondolas, electric launches, and other pleasure craft. At night this Basin appears like a scene from fairyland. Deep in the water can be seen electric lights of all colors, sparkling and flashing as though the bottom of the lake were paved with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and jewels of every kind.
But it is not alone from the dome of the Administration Building that a view of the World's Fair can be obtained. Let us take a trip on one of the pleasure
launches on the lagoon. These little boats glide along the water with no more noise or smoke than rowboats. As we look up from our cushioned seat at the gigantic pillars of the tall buildings, the flags which flutter from their tops seem like so many ribbons, and we can hardly realize that they are as big and long as they appeared from the dome of the Administration Building. And the great buildings themselves are not so powering as we inspect them over the foreground of sweet-smelling roses which surrounds the lagoon.
The noise of the crowds and the crashing of the bands which we hear in the distance are softened to sweet music as they come mingled with the murmurs of the waters of the lagoon, gently rippling over the myriad water-lilies which float lazily on its surface, or softly plashing against the marble balustrade which surrounds us. In and out we go under the broad arches of the bridges which span the lagoon, and furnish a cool shelter from the hot sun; out on the wide basin to the very foot of the big statue of the Republic, which from the boat appears to tower almost as high as the dome of the Administration Building; past the four big lions crouching at the base of Cleopatra's needle; or sailing away near the Wooded Island where the shrubs and flowers of every clime invite us ashore. It is the realization of a chapter of the Arabian Nights.
There is yet a third way of seeing the Exposition before we go through the buildings themselves. The elevated railway, which stretches like an immense serpent from one end of the grounds to the other, offers a view midway between that which we had from the dome and the view from the water. This brings us close to all the buildings, and allows us to inspect the wonderful carvings, statuary and mural paintings which adorn the exterior of these buildings. This railway, although only three miles in length, shows us more wonderful sights along the journey than we can find in three thousand miles in any other railway on • earth. In fact, it may be said to take us around the world, for the World's Fair is really a world in miniature. To go through all the buildings in a week we must get there early in the morning, and stay until the last thing at night. When we have finished all the buildings we must not forget to allow about a day for
seeing the Midway Plaisance. If you wish to see the funny little Javanese living just as they do in their own country; the Chinese in picturesque attire; the pudgy Eskimos in mud huts; German villagers in houses such as we have seen in picture-books; fierce-looking Arabs in turbans and red, baggy trousers-in fact, people of all countries going about their occupations just as they do in their far-off land-go to the Midway Plaisance.
A tired feeling" comes over even the liveliest vitality after prolonged sightseeing. The mere succession of wondrous sights and incidents comes in the end to be fatiguing. For this reason, and also to impart to a World's Fair the characteristics of a festival, which ought to be inseparable from it, the management has provided abundant means of rest, refreshment, and recreation. What could be more restful, for instance, than to leave the whirring wheels of Machinery Hall or the glare of the Electricity Building and repair to the Music Hall or to the Festival Hall, where almost every day some great musical entertainment will be provided? The best bands, musical associations, and choral associations in the United States will on these occasions interpret the works of eminent composers, and in many cases these performances will be under the direction of the composers themselves. Music will also be supplied at stands erected at various appropriate locations throughout the grounds, where at given hours the great military bands of this country and of Europe can be heard in the open air.
In the matter of physical refreshment nothing will be lacking either in quantity, quality, or variety. Sandwiches and coffee, on the every-day American plan, may be had almost anywhere at any time. But the visitor may test the cooking and table service of all nations. You may dine one day in France, the next in Italy, the next in Russia, the next in Turkey, and so on through a week, having your luncheon or dinner in Vienna, Cairo, Berlin, or Buda-Pesth, and limiting your expenditure according to your resources, at rates fixed by the Exposition management.
A week at the World's Fair will pass very quickly. It will be time to go home again almost before we know it. And as we take the train and leave the big city behind us, we realize that even Chicago is only a small dot on the face of
the earth, and insignificant as a spectacle | compared with the world in a nut-shell which we have seen at the World's Fair.Moses P. Handy, in Youth's Companion.
WHAT IS STAFF?
TAFF is the stuff-the incombustible
SANTA CLARA COUNTY
withstand the weather for a number of years. If it cracks or crumbles off, it can readily be repaired with a brush or trowel, from a tub of the liquid mixture.
A WEEK AT THE FAIR.
STA material with which the great Ext vast, varied, and many are the at
position buildings are covered; the facile garment of white which clothes their huge, gaunt skeletons of iron and timber. Not only are the structures clad in staff, but the hundreds of columns, pediments, capitals, and all the profuse general ornamentation, as also the gigantic statuary groups and allegorical pieces, are all of staff. Without staff, indeed, these enormous buildings would be impossible, at anything like the present cost. almost say that without staff the Fair, in its present aspects, could not have come into existence. This protean substance is a mixture of plaster-often called plaster of Paris-and, a small percentage of cement, into which are introduced frequent fibres of hemp, jute or Sisal grass, to give it toughness, so that it may be bent, sawed, nailed or bored, at will. It is cast in molds. The plaster and cement are first wet up to the consistency of thick treacle, a layer of which is spread on the well-lubricated mold. Next follows a layer of the long, tough fibres; over this is poured another coating of the liquid plaster, covering in the fibre and gradually filling the mold to the required depth.
There are molds of a hundred, yes a thousand, different patterns and sizes, from those for casting plain staff-board, for walls, to those for the most complex, beautiful or fantastic ornamentation. case of statues and statuary groups, the models are first fashioned in clay, then coated with staff. • The interiors of the staff-sheds, where the mixing and casting are done, have been busy places during the past eighteen months, as well as very steamy and slushy. Many of the workmen are German, French or Italian, the art and practice of staff-making being better understood abroad than in the United States. The composition hardens sufficiently to be handled and taken away to the building in process of construction, in the course of half an hour. Staff is fireproof and, to a considerable extent, waterproof. If kept painted, it will
tractions of the Columbian Exposition, that visitors must proceed on some definite plan if they wish to gain any clear idea of the whole display. Otherwise they will have reason to regret, when too late, that they forgot or overlooked many important features.
Most visitors will probably have not more than one week in Chicago, although the Fair well deserves months of constant sight-seeing, and thoroughly seen, would be in itself a liberal education. A plan for the week is as follows:
First Day: A View of the Grounds.Let us suppose that the visitor has secured lodgings and is now at one of the six entrance gates, or, better still, is landing at the pier from the lake-side, guide-book in haud, and note book and pencil in pocket. How shall the firstday best be spent?
Certainly in seeing the grand buildings, the external aspects of the Fair, the architecture, the beauty of the grounds, the statuary, the fountains, the whole panorama of effects. Do not hurry here, whatever else you have to cut short. Take time-take the early, cool morning hours if possible, for calm contemplation of these veritable wonders. Let this great poem of human art and effort so impress itself on the mind as to remain there to the end of your days. Do not be diverted by the hurrying crowds, but commune with your own thoughts. At each distinctly new prospect sit down for a few minutes on a bench, and so absorb the views as they unfold.
The great Building of the Manufactures and Liberal Arts may well be the point. of departure for this first day's walk. It will be best not even to enter it on this day, save to walk along the great outer colonnades. Now you come to the lofty" statue of the Republic, the calm, majestic embodiment of the Genius of America. It stands on the basin near the south end. of the Liberal Arts Building. On the left-facing the Basin--you catch glimpses. of the pale-blue lake, from between the white Corinthian columns of the Peri
style, flanked on either hand by Music Hall and the Casino, where one may well pause to listen to the music which will be performed here on most days of the Fair.
Passing around the foot or lake end of the Basin and turning westward, we confront the noble Building of Agriculture, its swelling dome surmounted by St. Gauden's famous statue of Diana. Next comes Machinery Hall, in many respects the most beautiful of the buildings, with its pleasing combinations of classic and Moorish architecture. From within resound the whir and rattle of machines; but these for this day shall be passed by. Turn then to contemplate the towering dome of the Administration Building, where the Executive offices of the Exposition are located. Pass between two other buildings, that on the left devoted to Mining, and this ou the right to Electricity in all its myriad scientific and mechanical applications.
Before us now opens a truly imposing panorama canals, bridges, flowers, shrubbery, fouutains, stretching away for half a mile. Back a little at our left rises the long front of the Transportation Building, with its "Goiden Door." Farther to the north, on that same side, swells the immense dome of Horticultural Hall; a palace of flowers, palms, ferns, grottoes and fountains. Directly across the Lagoon from the Horticultural Hall stands the substantial United States Government Building, its dome purposely suggesting that of the Capitol at Washington. Beyond it on the left, still looking northward, is placed the pretty Fisheries Building, of Gothic aspect; Gothic_aspect; while over against it, across the Lagoon, rises the chaste, severely plain architecture of the Women's Building.
The State and Foreign Buildings.Farther down the vista on the right, the view is intercepted in part by the mellow tints of the largest of all the State Buildings, that of Illinois. Its eastern wing is outlined against the beautiful white Art Gallery which approximately heads the great park-way and closes in the view northward. Nowhere else in the world can so magnificent a plaza be found, enclosed by architecture so colossal and imposing. One can but regret that it is to endure but a single year. For this reason it should be the more carefully observed.
It will now be well to cross by one of
the Rialto bridges to Wooded Island, or Rose Island, sixteen acres in extent, situated in the midst of the great Lagoon, where are the "Hooden" and other Japanese exhibits in the midst of flowergardens. Afterwards, walking more deliberately, one may approach, in turn, each of the six buildings last above named, and inspect them more closely. Previously we had taken but a distant view of them from the foot of the grand park-way.
Several hours will be found to have elapsed already, and refreshment at some of the many restaurants may by this time be needed. Afterward, take an excursion of a mile or more among the numerous State Buildings, which form a small city of themselves, and a very handsome one, at the north end of the grounds. While here one should visit the Eskimo Village, or Innuit Colony, located in the extreme northwestern corner of the grounds, where some sixty Eskimos may be seen at home.
A trip to the buildings of various foreign nations, situated mainly at the northeast side of the grounds, can now conveniently be made, and the model of a Battle-Ship, the Illinois, which it is difficult to believe is only a brick structure, built up from the bottom of the lake, may be visited at the pier hard by. Thence, passing down the water front of the Liberal Arts Building, there may yet be daylight for visiting the Convent of La Rabida, associated historically with the sadly troubled life of Columbus; the Forestry Building, the Krupp Gun House, the Leather Building, the Stock Pavilion, the Sawmill and the Cattle Sheds. Some of these may have to be neglected, or given but a cursory glance, in passing; for by this time the eyes and feet of visitors will be alike tired. Yet if this programme be adhered to, the best of the outward aspects of the Fair will have been seen.
Second Day: The Manufactures Building. The visitor may now be said to have seen the Fair in its out-of-door aspects. Next come the more especially interesting indoor features. One full day of the six should be devoted to the immensely varied exhibits in the great Building of the Manufactures and Liberal Arts. A month, indeed, might be spent here. The building itself is a fair, one had almost said a city, of streets, shops and stores. It covers the area of a good