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part of our organization, and contribute | usually favorable, and we hope to permuch to its usefulness.
fect our organization and extend the Our happiest time is the Thanksgiving work in different directions. We are season. As this festival approaches, pu- already making our plans for Thankspils are reminded of the loaded tables giving. A hard winter for the poor is around which they will be seated, of the feared ; many are without work, and the luxurious abundance of which they will capacity of our Society will undoubtedly partake, and that there are many in our be taxed to the utmost. As to our work city who will have scanty fare unless in the past, we hope that we have done some effort is made to relieve their wants. some good to others; we know that we The Bible lessons in the morning exer- have done good to ourselves. cises are appropriate to the occasion.
Inasmuch as ye did it to the least of these, ye did it unto me.” Young peo- SCHOOLS AND THE APPROPRIAple's hearts are easily touched. The
TIONS.* thought that any of their neighbors may go hungry, when they have so much, ADDRESS BY JUDGE MCMULLEN. moves them to active exertions.
Last year, over forty dinners were dis- HE common schools are the nurseries tributed the afternoon before Thanks established by the State for the reargiving, and real Thanksgiving dinners ing of its future citizens to lives of usefulthey were too. These are special dona- ness and honor. A full, conscientious tions, are not supplied from the regular and successful discharge of the office of fund in the treasury. Names and ad- teacher in them comprehends more than dresses of those needing assistance, if not the routine hearing of recitations in the already known to the society, are furnished ordinary branches of the common school by responsible persons. While the pupils curriculum. It includes the awakening are advised to contribute plain, nutritious of thought and a desire for knowledge, food, I am glad that in this case the and the implanting in the minds of the teacher's authority is in a measure disre- pupils, with their daily lessons, ideas of garded. Turkeys, chickens, celery, cran- conduct and morals that will tend to berries and fruit, form a part of the bill make their lives better and purer as their of fare. Butchers and grocers wax gen- | knowledge increases and their intellect erous, and our funds go farther than we expands; and no agency so far devised is dared to hope.
better calculated to awaken in the minds The materials for the dinner are sent of the teachers a realization of the digto a central part of the city, and wagons | nity and responsibility of their profession, for the distribution of the baskets are fur to increase their enthusiasm in the cause, nished by the pupils. The committee is and to inspire in them higher ambitions enlarged to meet the requirements of the and loftier ideals, than comparison of day, and a happy, busy time the workers views and methods, the discussion of the have. We all wish we could share in the various problems which arise in the propacking and distributing of the baskets, gress of educational ideas, and the asbut only a fortunate teacher or two, the sociation with others in the same calling, officers, and members of the committee for which these Institutes give the opporcan be spared, for the regular routine of tunity. the school must be continued. Never- We have had assembled in our midst theless the loving spirit of the day is felt during the present year a number of bodin all the departments. Two years ago ies of men and women in various enterthe principal of one of the ward schools prises, such as missionary societies, sent word to our society that her pupils Christian Temperance Unions, Christian wished to help us with the Thanksgiving Endeavor Societies, Sunday-school Condinner. The offer was gladly accepted. ventions and others, all devoted to the They were unable to contribute money, elevation and reformation of humanity; but when the potatoes and other vege- and all of them, without exception, in tables, the canned fruit, pies, and bread discussions as to the most effective way came pouring in, the question was asked, “What can we do with it all?"
* From an address by Hon. David McMullen,
President of the Lancaster School Board, before We begin our work in the Helping
the Lancaster County Teachers' Institute, Nov. Hand this year under circumstances un- 13th, 1893.
to accomplish their benevolent work, base might not carry out the mandate in a their chief hope on reaching the children sufficiently liberal spirit, they added this
, of the land through the medium of the clause, “and shall appropriate at least common schools. We have already, as a one million dollars each year for that result of their efforts in this direction, the purpose." This seems to have been statute recently enacted, making it com- somewhat in advance of the Legislative pulsory to teach physiology and hygiene mind, and that body, for the succeeding with special reference to the effect on the years up to 1882, while making the annual human system of alcoholic drinks, stimu- appropriation of $1,000,000, in obedience lants and narcotics, and they came near to the requirements of the fundamental giving us at the late session of the Leg- law, carefully provided that County Supislature a compulsory education law. er intendents' salaries and an annual Whether such legislation be considered allowance to Normal Schools of from wise or otherwise, the effort made to se- $20,000 in 1874 to $32,000 in 1882, should cure it emphasizes the fact that all be paid out of this fund. thoughtful people who are striving upon In 1883 a more liberal spirit began to different lines to improve the condition of pervade the lawmakers, and from that humanity recognize the fact that in the time until 1886, both years inclusive, the common school, as regards the great mass County Superintendents and Normal of the people, must be laid the foundation Schools were separately provided for, and upon which alone can be successfully the $1,000,000 went to the common reared the superstructure of moral worth, schools without deduction. From 1886 integrity and self-respecting manhood, so a new start seems to have been made, and essential to the development of good citi- for the years 1887 and 1888 each one and zens and useful members of society. a half millions were appropriated. For
If, as a great advocate of universal ed- the years 1889 and 1890 the amount was ucation has said, “an uneducated ballot raised to $2,000,000; for the succeeding is the winding-sheet of liberty," then two years $5,000,000 a year was allowed, there can be no other office so directly and the last Legislature appropriated for bearing upon the perpetuity of our free the years 1893 and 1894 the magnificent institutions as that of the teacher of the sum of five and a half millions. common school.
These figures show that the people of The idea of universal education is the State have a rapidly-growing desire steadily and rapidly gaining ground with for more efficient education. The desire the people of this Commonwealth. of the people for anything can be pretty brief glance at the legislation on the sub- accurately measured by their willingness ject will illustrate this.
to pay for it; and having within a few The original idea of common schools years more than doubled their appropriwas to provide only for the free education ation for schools, they will look to the dis
The constitution of 1790, tricts and the teachers for a corresponding as that of 1838, directed that “the Legis- improvement in the work accomplished. lature shall, as soon as conveniently may How to secure such improvement is a be, provide by law for the establishment proper subject for consideration in Teachof schools throughout the State in such ers' Institutes. It will probably be sought manner that the poor may be taught for through the medium of longer school gratis;" and as late as 1851 it required a terms, better school facilities, free textdecision of the Supreme Court to settle books, higher wages, and, let me respectthe fact that a law providing for the es- fully suggest, higher qualifications and tablishment of schools for all who might | greater permanence in the teacher's prochoose to attend them was not unconsti- fession. Long terms, good buildings and tutional.
apparatus are very essential, but a vastly When our present constitution was more important feature is a thoroughly formed, in 1873, the framers of it made competent teacher. the provision emphatic that “the General I am well aware that salaries of eighAssembly shall provide for the mainte- teen, fifteen, and even less than thirteen nance and support of a thorough and dollars a month, such as prevailed in effective system of public schools wherein some districts in the State during the all the children of this Commonwealth year covered by the last published annual above the age of six years may be edu- report of the State Superintendent, are cated;” and for fear that the Legislature not great inducements for laborious and
of the poor.
costly preparation for a permanent pro- without letting the offender understand fession; but, happily, such districts are that you do not expect a repetition of the few. High-grade certificates in most dis- offence. tricts of the State command fairly remun- If possible, create a friendly rivalry beerative wages, and it seems to me worthy tween your school and some other school of consideration whether the time has not in the same town in this matter, and have come when the suggestion of the late reports given at stated intervals. Create State Superintendent should be acted a feeling among the pupils against tardiupon, and either the standard required ness, and then the problem is solved. for provisional certificates be raised, or the Once this feeling is well established, note number of such certificates that may be the look of disdain that will greet the ocissued to the same person be limited. casional late comer as he enters the room. Some such provision would tend to elimi- Teach the children to come to you to be nate from the ranks of the profession excused before the school begins, if they many unworthy teachers, increase the
are obliged to go on an errand and fear demand for the well-qualified, and be a that they cannot return in time for the long step in advance in the cause of bet- beginning of the session. ter education.
Perchance you may find an individual
case that can not be reached in the way LATE AT SCHOOL.
mentioned. If so, there will doubtless be
some equally simple way of dealing sucS the first of January is in all depart- cessfully with it. Some work may be
found that the child likes to do before ments of life a time for making new resolutions and new beginnings, so in the
school, and that will assure his presence life of the teacher is the opening of the
in the room on time. A kind talk with school year an excellent time to put into
a careless parent may be all that is
needed. operation new plans conceived for the
At any rate, convince yourself welfare of this little kingdom. The fore
that you are doing your best to prevent most aim of all good teachers is to begin
tardiness, and in most cases it will in conwell, for well begun is half done. Not
sequence cease to be a drawback to your
school-Southern Ed. Journal. only should the year itself be begun well, but during the first few weeks it should be the constant aim of every teacher to
SLATE BLACK BOARDS. see that her pupils are beginning to understand that she expects them to be in
WHATEVER threatens harm to the eyes their places promptly every morning and that tardiness will not be tolerated. No
of pupils in the school rooni, should re
ceive careful attention. school can attain the best results if the
Dr. George G. children are allowed to begin their work
Groff, of Bucknell University, a member at the hour that may prove most conven
of the State Board of Health, writes The ient to themselves. Once the habit of
Once the habit of Journal as follows: tardiness is formed, it is very difficult to
Attention has been called to the fact that
light is reflected from the surfaces of slate overcome, hence the necessity of using
boards in an injurious manner. One City the utmost care to prevent its being
Superintendent informs the writer that he formed. So many have at this season has been compelled to lessen the amount of new classes and new schools to work with work to be copied from the board. A County that our opportunities are excellent, and Superintendent writes that he cannot sit in there can be but small excuse for us if we
a certain high school, without experiencing allow the habit of being late to grow to
painful sensations, if he faces the slate boards. any great proportions in our schools.
Have other teachers observed the same ?
Is a slate board more trying to the eyes than Let the children see from your manner
slated surfaces ? Is a slated surface to be that you do not intend to tolerate tardi
preferred to a true slate board ? ness on the part of any pupil. Oblige Will not Superintendents and teachers them always to bring you a written ex- who care for the general health of the chilcuse from their parents when they come
dren in their charge, and especially for the to school late. Never allow them to
eyesight of the children, communicate with
the subscriber in reference to this matter? come into the school-room and take their
Answers to the questions are earnestly soplaces with the rest of the children until
licited. Address they have explained to you the cause of
DR. GEO. G. GROFF, their tardiness. Accept no trivial excuses
THE SPELLING PROBLEM. language lessons, to be followed by writ
ten exercises, so much the better. If T a recent teachers' examination, a you are a busy teacher, with a room full certain would-be teacher wrote the
of restless hands and eyes to keep busy, word thare" five times and the word
the written work must be arranged to watter” twice in giving one solution.
take as little of your time as possible. Of course, this young lady was not “di- For such cases I know nothing better vinely gifted with the spelling inspira- than the language tablets published by tion;" nevertheless there was something
the American Book Company. The leswrong in the very foundation of her edu- sons are all prepared, and require but cation. If her teacher had done her work little explanation from the teacher. If well, away back in the primary grade, you are looking for something of this she would never have been allowed to kind, send for Nos. 1, 2, and 3, and leave the first reader until she could spell select the one suited to your class. They “there" correctly, no matter how well cost 10 cents apiece, and each pupil she read. Just here is where so many
should have one. Each lesson should be teachers fail in foundation work.
written on the slate once or twice before It is partially a fault of modern methods, copying in the tablets. This gives optoo. With true characteristic American portunity for correcting from memory the rush, we hurry through the learning of errors of the preceding day. There is no new words without taking time to ob
factor which enters so largely into the acserve their spelling. By so doing we en
quirement of good spelling as this daily tirely overlook the training of the power practice in the use of written words. of observation, and thus lose the use of
Western School Journal. the only faculty which can teach us to spell. In these days, when speed is the ruling spirit in all branches of business,
A WISE DECISION. the temptation is great to allow pupils to learn to read without paying much at- VEARS ago a young man, working his tention to the spelling. Reading can be own way through college, took charge so rapidly acquired in this way—but at of a district school in Massachusetts durwhat a cost! Upon the primary teacher, and ing the winter term. Three boys especupon the primary teacher almost wholly, ially engaged his attention and interest. rests the responsibility of poor spelling. They were bright, wide-awake lads, kept
For the first two or three years of school together in their classes, and were never life, reading and spelling should be kept tardy. One night he asked them to reeven. Experience teaches that we can main after school was dismissed. They do this without injury to good mental came up to his desk and stood in a row, development. By insisting upon this we waiting, with some anxiety, to know why unconsciously develop the habit of ob- they had been kept. serving words, not altogether as a whole Boys, I want you to go to college, all but as to the letters used in their forma- three of you,” said the teacher. tion; and the habit thus formed will cling “Go to college !" If he had said “Go through a lifelong education. This is no to Central Africa,” they could not have detriment to good reading, and as new been more astonished. The idea had words must be acquired more slowly, the never entered their minds. second and third readers may not be “Yes," continued the teacher; “I reached so soon as we could desire; but know you are surprised, but you can do when they are reached, there is the satis- it as well as I. Go home, think it over, faction of knowing that the foundation talk it over, and come to me again." has been well laid. No word should be The three boys were poor.
Their considered learned until it can be spelled parents had all they could do to feed and orally, and written and pronounced clothe them decently, and allow them a quickly at sight. If you will insist upon term of schooling in the winter. One this, you will soon find how well thor- was the son of a shoemaker; another oughness pays.
came from a large family, and the farm The use of words in written, exercises that supported them was small and unis another help that should be required productive. daily after pupils reach the second reader, The boys stood still for à moment in if not before. If you have time for oral pure amazement. They then looked at
each other, and around the old school ! over, sir, and we have talked it over,
and house. The fire was going out in the we have decided that we will go.' box stove. The frost was setting thick Good,” said the teacher. You shall on the window panes. As the teacher | begin to study this winter with a college took out his watch, the ticking sounded course in view." loud and distinct through the stillness of Twenty years later two of the boys the room. Nothing more was said, though shook hands in the state capitol. One the four walked out together.
was the clerk of the house for eight years, The third night after the conversation, and afterwards its speaker. The other the boys asked the “master” to wait. was president of the senate. The third Again the three stood at the desk; one boy amassed a fortune in business. — spoke for all. “We have thought it Christian Register.
THE SCHOOL JOURNAL
for a central bureau of exchange to facilitate the massing of materials in the hands
of those who wish to use them. To proLANCASTER, DECEMBER, 1893.
vide a small fund for printing, an annual “Ye may be aye stickin' in a tree, Jock ; it will
fee of two dollars is to be paid by each be growin' when ye're sleepin'.” Scotch Farmer. member. The preliminary announcement
and the registration card can be obtained N. C. SCHAEFFER.
J. P. MCCASKEY. by addressing the Department of Public
Instruction, Harrisburg, Pa. YEAR ago
last summer sixty men and women from all over the United THESE are interesting school statistics : States and Canada, came together at The cost of instruction in the Prussian Clark University, Worcester, Massachu- Seminaries for the training of teachers setts, for the study of psychology and amounted last year to 4,944,481 marks, pedagogy in their advanced forms. Much or (counting four marks to a dollar) time was spent in discussing the study of $1,236, 120.25. Of this sum the State children. During the sessions of the contributed 3,361,445 marks, or $840,Educational Congress at Chicago, the 361.25. One person in 2,764 was preroom in which the study of children was paring to teach, or about seven times as discussed was crowded to overflowing for many as there are positions to be filled. three days. The feeling was general that The total number of children of school some measure should be taken to bring age in Prussia was 5,401,566. Of this the people interested in the subject into number over 91 per cent. attend the pubmore intimate working relations. A com- lic schools, and 774 per cent. attend privmittee of three was appointed to draft a ate schools. One and a half per cent. do plan of organization, and their report was not attend school, but receive regular inadopted the last day of the sessions. The struction. About one-fifth of one per cent. President of the society is Dr. G. Stanley are kept out of school on account of disHall, President of Clark University. The orderly and vicious conduct ; and only
. society will hold one annual meeting at one-fiftieth of one per cent., or 945 in all, the same time and place as the National are kept out of school contrary to law. Council of Education, or a day or two Pennsylvania has about one-fifth as many before the meeting of the National Edu- children at school, about one-third as cational Association. At this annual many teachers, and the cost of tuition per meeting, reports will be presented from pupil is one-seventh more than that in members in different parts of the country, Prussia. The want of a school census and an effort will be made to unify the prevents a comparison of the number of work of the year.
children out of school. Without doubt The officers of the Association formed one could find many times 945 children of an executive committee which is to issue school age out of school in Pennsylvania. a suggestive syllabus as soon as possible after each annual meeting to the members MORE than one hundred teachers of of the society, and which is to arrange Lancaster county, as reported at the