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"I shall be," and "I might have been!" What toil and trouble, time and tears, are recorded in these little wordsthe very stenography of life. How like a bugle-call is that "I shall be," from a young soul, strong in prophecy! "I shall be great, honored, affluent, good."

"I shall be," whispers the glad girl to herself, as with one foot upon the threshold of womanhood, she catches the breath from the summer-fields of life, “I shall be-loved by and by!" That is her aspiration; for to be loved is to be happy.

"I shall be," says the struggling boy, "I shall be the possessor of a little home of my own, and a little wife, some day, and the home shall be 'ours,' and the wife shall be mine, and then-and then

"" Who can fill out those “thens ?”’ Who, but the painter that has dipped his pen in sunset? Who, but the poet whose lips have been touched with a coal fresh from the altar of inspiration?

I shall be-victorious yet," murmurs the man in the middle watch, who had been battling with foes till nightfall, and is praying, like the Greek, for dawn again, that he may see to fight."

"I shall be," faintly breathes the languishing upon her couch of pain-"I shall be better to-morrow, or to-morrow;" and she lives on, because she hopes on, and she grows strong with the shall

be" she has uttered.

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And the strong man armed, who has "fought the good fight," and has "kept the faith," when they that sustained his extended hands through the battle are departing, and no Joshua to bid the declining sun "stand still," as he looks beyond the rugged hills of the world, and sees a window opened in heaven, and a wounded hand put forth in welcome, lays aside the armor he has worn so long and well, and going down into the dark river, he utters, with a hope glorified to faith, ** I shall be over the Jordan to-morrow!"

Before the memory has a tomb in itbefore it becomes the cemetery, the "Greenwood" of the soul-"I shall be is beautiful as an old ballad. When graves are digged therein, and willows are planted, and hopes are buried, and no light breaks out of the cloud, then "I shall be" is as grand as an old pæan. When

The battle is done, the harp unstrung,
Its music trembling, dying,

then "I shall be" is as sublime as an old prophecy.

But there is another tense in this Grammar of Life it were well to remember; the sparkling moment that dances out from the ripening hours, like golden grain, beneath the flails of Time, as we write, and ever as we write is gathered into the great garner of the Past.

There is an interjection it were well to remember:

אן

Trust no Future, howe'er pleasant; Let the dead Past bury its dead; Act, act in the living Present--Heart within, and God o'erhead!

READING.

BY G. P. BROWN.

N this world everything has the two elements of form and meaning. Neither element can exist without the other. If it is considered as form, it must be the form of something. If as meaning, it must be the meaning of something. Reading is no exception to this rule. To read is to recognize forms and interpret their meaning.

We may go from form to meaning or from meaning to form in learning to read. The maxim is only a half-truth which directs us to "always proceed from idea to word." When we interpret discourse we always proceed from form to meaning. When we construct discourse the movement is from meaning to form. In reading, the mind is both interpreting and constructing. We anticipate what is to follow quite as much as we interpret the meaning of the symbols that have caught the eye. Intelligent children miscall words, oftentimes, because of the activity of this constructive power. They piece out what they have already read with what they think ought to follow. The little child will see the word "hen" and pronounce it "chicken" because of the picture his imagination has completed in advance of seeing the word. His thought goes before his recognition of the word.

Much of the failure to teach children to read and establish an abiding interest in reading is caused by divorcing the form from the meaning in the child's attention. This is the fatal error in the Pollard system, which capable teachers, by care, are able to circumvent, but which must ever make this device, or any similar one, a failure when it becomes the leading idea in teaching children to read.

Words have a sight form and a sound

form. The sound form and the meaning | cultural education, but in this work

are joined into a much closer union in every child's mind than are the sight form and the meaning. Indeed, the sound form and the meaning are thought to be one and the same thing by the young children. It may be doubted whether a small child really knows the meaning of a word if he does not hear or imagine its sound. The meaning which a child puts into a word is always shown by his manner of pronouncing it. So, in describing a scene, the method of uttering the different words and sentences shows, more than anything else, what mental pictures the child is forming.

AGRICULTURAL TEACHING FOR RURAL SCHOOLS.

WHAT

BY DR. GEO. G. GROFF.

/HAT the public schools should teach what they should not teach, is, and probably always will be, a question under discussion. To the writer, it seems plain that either the State should be content with teaching those rudiments of learning considered absolutely essential to the welfare of the citizen, or, if anything beyond this is attempted, it should be of such branches as will most generally be of value to the future citizen. It is held by the writer that of the subjects beyond the barest rudiments now taught in the public schools, more benefit is given to certain classes than to others. To illustrate: All the instruction

given is directly of value to professional men and women, as physicians, lawyers, journalists, etc., but not of value to housekeepers, farmers, etc. Herbert Spencer says that those subjects which instruct in self-preservation are the most important. There seems to be no question that country boys and girls should receive some instruction which shall directly aid them in the struggle for existence. This instruction must be had in the public schools or not at all.

Of all civilized countries, France is considered to be the most advanced and

the most progressive in matters of agricultural education. In the practice of agriculture, the same country probably leads the world, for in the last quarter of a century, she has doubled the produce of her farms. In all progressive European nations, much attention is given to agri

France leads. In 1850, she made instruction in agriculture optional in the public schools. In 1879, a law was passed, requiring all the Normal Colleges to prepare, and within six years to begin to give instruction to all teachers studying in these colleges, and within three years later, or in nine years from the passage of the law, instruction in agriculture was to be compulsory in all the public schools of the country.

The laws noted above provided for the gradual introduction of a new study into the schools. An examination of the budget of the Minister of Agriculture for 1891-92 shows the provision which the nation is making to maintain these new courses of instruction. In that year, $850.000 was provided for special agricultural instruction in special agricultural institutions: "First there is at Paris the Institute Agronomique, the Agricultural University, famous the world over for its investigations; then come three national schools of agriculture, one of horticulture, one of dairying, three of veterinary science, two of forestry, and two shepherds' schools. To the above, $481.000 was granted. In addition a professor of agriculture for each of the eighty-six departments of France, farm schools, apprentice schools, experimental stations, fields and colonies, and agricultural orphanages, subsidized to the extent of $369.000."

Certainly the above would seem liberal provision for agricultural education in a nation numbering 38,095,156! In the United States, the grant proposed by present laws is $25,000 to each experiment station per year, or a total of about $1,250,000, per year, besides the princely endowments made in government lands in 1866 to the agricultural colleges. This is for a population of about $70,000,000, or not quite double that of France. In France, the careful tillage of the soil surpasses that of England, as England surpasses the United States. The fields in France are free from weeds. The use of chemical manures is better understood, rotations are more scientifi

econo

cally followed, crops are more mically handled. It is said that in 1892 the French post-office savings banks had on deposit 2,800,000,000 francs (or $600,000,000) in 6,500,000 deposits!

COURSE OF INSTRUCTION.

The teachers in the public schools are

1894.]

AGRICULTURAL TEACHING FOR RURAL SCHOOLS.

presented with a general schedule, which is intended for their guidance. They are not however expected to follow it blindly, but rather to adapt it, each to his own tastes, and to the agricultural necessities of his own locality. The following is a summary of the schedule, as made in a recent lecture by Prof. C. C. James, A. M., Deputy Minister of Agriculture for Canada.

1. Infant Section. (5 to 7 years.) Object lessons and drawing.

2. Elementary Course. (7 to 9 years.) Lessons in the school garden.

3. Middle Course. (9 to 11 years.) Instruction in connection with reading, object lessons and excursions, lessons on the principal kinds of manures, on agricultural work, and on instruments of husbandry.

4. Superior Course. (11 to 13 years.) More methodical information on agricultural operations; the implements of husbandry; drainage, natural and artificial manures; seed-sowing and harvesting; domestic animals; farm accounts; principal processes of propagating the most useful vegetables grown in the district; tree cultivation; the most important graftings.

Many of the schools have small gardens attached, and have agricultural museums. The teacher is encouraged in many departments by prizes offered by the agricultural societies, and the work is supplemented by visits to first-class farms, dairies, and establishments where agricultural products are being handled.

The teaching of agriculture in the superior primary schools is of a more advanced nature, and is more frequently met with. Prof. Teegan thus refers to it: "The course extends over two years. It includes for boys practical ideas of vegetation, the different means of reproduction, the nature of different soils, manures, the principal agricultural machines, planting, transplanting, irrigation, the principal kinds of cultivation fol lowed in France, and particularly the productions of the district in which the school is situated; diseases of plants and their prevention; weeds, vegetables, fruits, flowers, green-houses, the cultivation of fruit trees; domestic animals; book-keeping, etc. The agricultural instruction is based on this general programme, but varied and extended to suit the needs of the locality. The practical illustrations are to be given in the school gardens and

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experimental fields, and during visits paid to farms of the surrounding districts. In some of these institutions, there is a special agricultural section, under the charge of a special professor. The number of such schools is, however, small."

Professor James sums up the following conclusions in reference to the work being done in France in agricultural education:

I. France has found it advisable to supplement the work of her agricultural colleges by introducing agriculture as a special study into her general school system.

2. The work has been begun by training the teachers first, and while general methods have been prescribed, the system is sufficiently elastic to meet the varying abilities of teachers and pupils.

3. The work is as yet only in the first stage of development, and although all the rural children of France have not been reached, and the end aimed at has not yet been attained, the success achieved is very encouraging, and worthy of imitation by other nations.

WHAT CAN BE DONE IN THE UNITED STATES?

I. In the establishment of the Agricultural Colleges and of the Government and State Experiment Stations, the work has already been begun. From these institutions, professors of agriculture should be drawn capable of giving instruction to the teachers in the State Normal Schools. A law, similar to that in France, should be enacted requiring, after five or six years, that all students in the Normal Schools should be instructed in the elements of Agricultural Science, and in three years later, agriculture should be compulsory in all the rural public schools of the State. This will give time for thorough preparation for the work. Pennsylvania, as an illustration, has one Agricultural College, and thirteen State Normal Schools. In the Agricultural College (or in other similar colleges), men capable of teaching agriculture in the Normal Schools can be trained. To the Normal Schools public school teachers must resort for preparation, before undertaking the new work in agricultural science. Thus in ten years, using the machinery now possessed by the State, the new instruction could be introduced into every rural school in the State, and what is true of Pennsylvania,

is generally true of New York and other states.

Prof. James in the lecture already referred to aptly says:

1. All, or nearly all, depends on the teacher. To one interested in the progress of agriculture, informed upon the principles of the sciences involved, acquainted with rational methods of teaching, and fully determined to impart agricultural instruction, the entire difficulty is easily settled. But in the case of teachers who have been brought up in cities and towns, who are unacquainted with agricultural work, who have no bias towards agriculture, and who may be merely teaching as a convenience for a couple of years whereby to earn a little money, the difficulty may be well-nigh insurmountable, and there is absolute necessity that some training and direction be given before the work is undertaken; otherwise it were better to let it alone entirely.

2. Trustees desiring agriculture to be taught in their schools must insist upon its being taught, and must be willing to assist in providing whatever means may be necessary. It may even be found advisable to grant a bonus to teachers competent to give instruction in this branch, especially if they must incur increased expense in fitting themselves for such work. Charts may be required; some agricultural papers may be found helpful, but the entire outlay need not be very large.

3. Too much should not be attempted at first. The work should be introduced gradually, and the understanding at the outset should be very definite that, by teaching agriculture in the public schools, it is not intended to teach how to plow, how to harvest, or how to feed stock, but rather the why and the wherefore, and to arouse an interest in agricultural operations.

4. The principal aim and object of instruction in our public schools should be the creation of a sentiment in favor of agricultural work, and the gradual development of a love for the country and its healthful life, the arousing of a noble ambition in the young minds to become progressive and successful agriculturists, the spreading abroad of the idea that the industrious, thoughtful, honest farmer is the most valuable citizen-a man to be respected, appreciated and honored by every member of the community.

Besides the agencies already noted for the promotion of agricultural science in the rural schools, attention may be called to the numerous colleges and scientific schools throughout the country not dependent upon the State for support. Many of these would send out graduates capable of filling positions at the Normal Schools and in the Agricultural Colleges. These schools would stimulate a healthful rivalry with the agricultural colleges, from which rivalry a higher and better order of work would result, than if but one class of schools existed.

The Farmers' Institutes, now so popular, could also be utilized in advancing this work. The teachers of Agriculture in the Normal Schools could in a large measure aid in the Institutes, and thus make the work in the new course popular in a shorter time than might otherwise be the case. Some of the work which would actually be done in the Normal and public schools, could be introduced at the Institutes with profit, and this too would hasten the introduction of the courses on agriculture into the schools.

The importance of the early establishment of school gardens, such as exist in Germany and France, should not be lost sight of. sight of. The writer's ideal is, a permanency in tenure of office for teachers, somewhat like that which exists on the continent. Next a home, (house, garden, orchard, pasture lot,) beside the schoolhouse for the use of the teacher. In a small way, these grounds should be used for experimental purposes, and should in part be supported from the public funds, just as any other department of the school. To these grounds, almost daily, the teacher could take his class for object lessons. The children could here be taught the elements of Botany, Geology, Zoology and Chemistry. They could be taught how to graft, to transplant, to propagate in different ways, the theory of different methods of culture, lessons in germination of seeds, pruning, pollination, varieties of soils, kinds of minerals and rocks, etc. The garden beside each school-house is no idle dream. Arbor Day is leading up to it. Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pa.

And ever near us, though unseen,
The dear immortal spirits tread;
For all the boundless universe
Is life-there are no dead.

"SUM-BOOKS."'*

BY T. J. CHAPMAN, M. A.

"Boys, don't scare the fish!"

Looking up, we see Master Parker perched in a tree-top overhanging the water, gun in hand, intent on shooting the finny tribe.

What fragrant memories are connected with John Parker and our village school of forty years ago. He was a stout-set middle-aged man, whose strongest schoolroom excellences were discipline, reading, and sum-books. I am not sure that every reader of The Journal knows what a "sum-book" is, or was; but in a recent number of the Popular Science Monthly, in an account of the life of the late Professor Winchell, I was pleased to see it stated that in his boyhood days he had kept a "sum-book." My heart seemed to warm towards Professor Winchell, whom I had admired before.

A sum-book, as it existed in our school during the regime of John Parker, consisted of half a quire of foolscap stitched into a paper cover, and added to from time to time as necessity required until in some cases it grew into quite a formidable folio. In these books were most carefully entered the problems of the arithmetic, with the solutions at full length. Thus every boy had finally a complete key to the text-book in use. I

*These reminiscences of Professor Chapman bring vividly back the old Zook school house, with its "sum-books" and spelling matches of 1845-48, in which we were all so much interested. "Setting-down books" we called them in Lancaster county. The New Testament was our class reader, Comly's Speller our leading text-book, and enough ciphering in Pike's Arithmetic to make a goodly showing of "sums" fully worked out, often by the teacher or the older boys, for the "setting-down book." There was a little writing, for which the "Master" mended our goose-quill pens, and our brightest ink in the pleasant Fall was the red juice of pokeberries near by-a hint, too, of geography and mention of history. The old house was at the cross roads, but out of the windows was the cool woods, with dropping nuts and acorns, where we played "town ball;" where the birds sang, where we see the flash of the flicker's wing and hear the woodpecker tapping yet. It may be that the careful grading of the town is better; but, if the choice were ours, we would take again the country school and the old days of the setting-down book," where we were a child in touch with Mother Nature, with time to see her sky, and breathe her air, and live such life as can be lived nowhere away from the woods and the farm.--Ed.

see grave objections to the sum-book as a part of school-room practice; yet as the work was done in our school it had some very valuable features.

For one thing, it created a healthful spirit of emulation. John Parker made so much of it that every boy became possessed with a desire to have the neatest and handsomest sum-book in the school; and one result was such a display of penmanship in fancy head-lines in all the glory of black, blue and red inks, and a liberal use of gamboge, as I doubt has ever been produced elsewhere. There was a great rivalry among us; and as it was a rivalry in which the palm of superiority was gained not by depressing or wronging another, but by more earnest effort in a field which was equally open to all, it was of that kind of emulation to which St. Paul wished that he might "by any means" provoke his kinsmen: that he "might save some of them.' Some of the few good traits that characterize myself I attribute to John Parker: and the ancient sum-book. The main. objection to the sum-book which at present occurs to my mind, is the fact that it renders the text-book almost useless to a pupil after going over it once, as he then has a complete key to its mysteries, and. all further study and investigation are impracticable,-unless, indeed, he has. principle enough to lay the sum-book aside and resolutely abstain from consulting its pages. Other objections may bethought of.

But what has the opening of my littlepaper to do with all this? Nothing, except that it gave me an opportunity to introduce John Parker, whose memory I love, and to observe that he did not carry his school home with him. Of all people. the teacher should discard the shop when out of school. One who has honestly and faithfully done his duty during the hours of school, may very conscientiously drop it from his thoughts out of school hours. Indeed, I should think it his. duty as far as possible to do so; he owes. it to his school, he owes it to himself, to do this. If you are a man, go hunt, fish, throw a base-ball, pitch quoits, dig in a. garden; if a woman, go walk, play croquet, botanize, do anything to get away from thoughts of school and school-work. during at least a part of your hours of relaxation. So you will lengthen yonr days in the land, and increase your usefulness among the sons of men..

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