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EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT—

July-Superintendent Waller, 35. Educational Congress State Appropriation, 36. To Readers of The Pennsylvania School Journat, 36. Lower Merion Township: Ex-State Supt. Hickok, 37. University Extension: Summer Meeting at University of Pennsylvania, 38. August A Good Law-Exhibit by Dr. Warren at the Fair-Not "the Oldest"-Reception to Prof. Robert M. Cargo, 86. Dr. Theo. B. Noss-Advice from a Lady at Chicago, 87. "Death's Crown, "-Now or Never: The Columbian Exposition-Auxiliary Supervision of Schools, 88. Township High Schools, 89. September-Good on All Lines, 127. Promotion Without Examination-School Legislation, 129. Does the Superintendent Earn His Salary? 130. House for the Teacher-Success in Teaching, 131. Elementary Instruction, 132. Decency and Good Morals, 133. Upright Penmanship-Training of the Hand, 134. Dawn of a New Age, 135. Congress of Education, 136.

October-Autumn Arbor Day: Official Circular, 173. School Arbor Day, 174. Our Subscription List, 175. Class in Reading, 176. Wilkes-Barre, 177. Ends of Teaching, 178. Mercersburg College: Dr. E. E. Higbee, 179. Teachers at the Fair, 180. November-Statistics

of Public Schools of Pennsylvania, Erie, Titusville and Edinboro, 220. School Outhouses: Circular of Co. Supt. Taylor, 221. Educational Exhibits at World's Fair, 222. Prof. Josiah Jackson, 223. The Good Ship "Welcome," 224. Fall Arbor Day, etc., 225. December-The Study of Children-Teachers at World's Fair, 257. Two Venerable Men, 258. School Outhouses, 258. The County Institute, 260. Should School Examinations be Abolished? 261. "By Their Fruits": The Men Who Were Made Under the Old Regime, 262. Provisional Certificates, 263. Personal Interest-Growth of Children, 266. Commercial High School, 268.

January-Get Back to First Principles-Wedding Bells, 304. Rural Schools-Classical Studies, 305. Young Teachefs-Hazleton High School-Superannuated Teachers, 306. Elections in School Houses, 307. Convention of Superintendents, 308. Teachers' Institutes, 309. Alexander Ramsey, 310. Our Forestry Interest, 311. "Article X.-Education:" Its Evolution in Our State Constitution of 1873, 313. Cigarette Smoking-School Boys' League, 315.

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February-Editorial Notes, 347. College Graduates, 349. The Golden Egg, 351. The University of the State of New York, 352. "Overthrift, 353. Directors' Institute, 354. lumbian Stamps, 356. Reading the Bible, 357. School Outhouses: Law of State of New York, 357. Modified Foot-Ball, 358. State School Funds: Proper Distribution of State Appropriation, 361.

March-Our Free List-Philadelphia Schools and the Appropriation-Pennsylvania Ranks Thirteenth Among the States, 414. State Meeting in July-Childhood Impressions, 415. Our Colleges The Altoona Meeting, 416. The Goddess Educa, etc., 417. April-Arbor Day Proclamation of Governor

Pattison, 435- Dr. Wm. T. Harris Re-appointed, 436. National Association at Asbury Park, 437. Statistics of the United States"What Hath God Wrought," 439. Spring Arbor Day, 441. Colonial Times, 442. Darby Borough, 443. Farmer and the Farm: Education of the Farmer's Sons and Daughters 444. Sloyd in Pittsburg-Vaccination in the Public Schools, 447. Kansas Leads," 448. Business Methods, 449. The Right Man:

Good Fortune of Phila. High School, 449. May-Editorial Notes, 488. Programme of State Teachers' Association, 492. High School Commencements, 493. The Good Work Goes On, 494. Public Sehools, 495. The Modest Hero, 496. Exhibition of School Work at State Meeting, 497. New Science Hall-"Fiat Money," 498. Nineteenth Arbor Day at Lancaster: Addresses of Dr. J. T. Rothrock and State Supt. Schaeffer, 499. June-The Human Eye-Summer Schools, 544. Dr. Higbee's Teubner Classics-College Outrages, 545. Delaware Boundary, 546. The State Association, 547. A Country Education, 548. National Meeting at Asbury Park, Programme, 549. New School Boards, 550. Good News from Iowa, 551. Cultivate the Memory, 552. New Seminary Building-Gettysburg, 553. Committee of Ten: Suggestions, 554. Educational Exhibit at the World's Fair, 51. Educational Interest of the Commonwealth.Sixtieth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Pennsylvania: Certificates of College GraduatesGraduation in Public Schools-Free Text Books-The Five Millions-State Normal Schools-Dying Teachers-Holidays-Continuous School Year-Nathan C. Schaeffer, 281. Educational Values, True Standard of, 327. Education of Girls-M. V. E. Cabell, 210. Edward Thring, 169.

Elections in School Houses, 307.
Electrical Wonderland, 76.
Electric Roads, 100.

Elementary Instruction, 132.
Emerson on Heroism, 465.

England's Greatest Schoolmaster, 141.
Ends of Teaching - Bishop Keane, 178.
Examinations, Where They Fail, 171.
Eye, The-George Wilson, 540.

Fall Arbor Day, 225.

Famine of the Soul-George W. Briggs, 333.
Farmer and the Farm-Editorial, 444.
Ferris Wheel, The, 8o.
"Fiat Money," 498.

First Ideas: Immense Stock in Early Years, 202.
Forest Fires in Pennsylvania, Destruction by:
Bulletin No. 22, Pennsylvania State College
Agricultural Station- Wm. A. Buckhout, 419.
Forestry in United States, 251.

Four Outlines: Better than Gold, 482.
From Fourteen to Twenty, 298.

Girls, Education of-M. V. E. Cabell, 210.
Good-Night (Music), 234.
Good Ship Welcome, 224.

Grace and Truth-David Swing, 236.
Grammar of Life-B. F. Taylor, 291.
Grammar School Course-J. M. Coughlin, 409.
Ground Plan of a Rural School House (Illus-
trated)-J. W. Leech, 472.

Growth of Children, 266.

Half an Hour with Plato, 206.
Hand, The-George Wilson, 97.
Happiest Life Spent for Others-Parochial
School Question-Color of School Room Walls
-Prizes for Spelling-A Little Science, 189.
Henry Ward Beecher on Heredity, 515.
Heroism-R. W. Emerson, 465.
High School Commencements, 493.
High Schools in Boroughs, 274.

High School, Place of-E. T. Jeffers, 393.

Holidays: Spiritual and Physical Benefit-M.
E. Sangster, 33.

Home Library, 527.

How Old is the Earth? 474.

How to Read a Book, 165.

How the Young are Decoyed, 166.

Huxley, Thoughts from, 300.

Importance of the Class in Reading, 176.
"Inasmuch :" High School Helping Hand, 252.
Interesting Exercises, 98.

Items from Reports, 46, 138, 184, 229, 267, 321,
366, 434, 504, 558.

John Milton as Educator-Phillips Brooks, 214.
Jolly Old Saint Nicholas (Song), 280.

Jones's Dream: "Record as Director," 331.
Josiah Jackson, 223.

Joy the Root of Morality-Edwin Arnold, 518.
Keeping up with Children, 157.

Lack of Education, 519.

Late at School, 255.

Latitude and Longitude, 289.

Lazy Boy, The, 250.

Lead Them to Think, 168.
Lesson on the Pansy, 99.
Lessons in Courtesy, 172.

Let Him First Be a Man-W. H. Venable, 533.
Letter of Pope Leo XIII.,

219.

Letter Writing: Neglected in Schools, 474.
Lighting of School Rooms-A. P. Marble, 480.
Like a Dream: The White City, 124.
Lindley Murray, 290.

Little Things, 372.

Lonely Little Girl, 107.

Looking Upon the Unseen, 202.

Man and His Works, 64.

Man or Monkey, 519.

Medical Profession, The-David Swing, 337.
Memoranda of General Armstrong, 530.
Mercersburg College, 179.

Midway Plaisance, 15.

Minutes, The (Poem), 519.
Modified Foot Ball, 358.

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Mollie Pitcher-Benj. M. Nead, 343.
Morning Exercises: "I Forgot It," etc., 340.
MUSIC PAGES: "The Old Cottage Clock," and
"Up the Hills," 48; “Speak Gently”—W.V.
Wallace, 94; "Do They Think of Me at
Home?"-C. W. Glover, 140; Robin Red-
breast: Good-bye, Good-bye to Summer,
187; "Good Night," and "The Better Wish,"
234; "Jolly Old Saint Nicholas," 280;
"Beu-
lah Land," and "All Hail the Power," 326;
"Try, Try Again," and "Little Things," 372;
"Twickenham Ferry"-Theo. Marzials, 510;
Pleasure Climbs to Every Mountain," 562.
Music Well Taught: Training Colleges in Eng-
land and Wales, 330.

New Peril to Children, 159.
Nineteenth Arbor Day, 499.

Notes From My Journal-C. F. Menninger, 213.

OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT.-Recent Legislation:
Relating to County Superintendents-Free
Text-Books for Schools-Permanent Certifi-
cates to College Graduates—Salaries of County
Superintendents-Appropriations to the State
Normal Schools-Suitable and Convenient
Outhouses in Interest of Decency-Children
of Soldiers-Auditors in Independent Dis-
tricts-School Accommodations-Tax Col-
lectors-Compulsory Education: Text of Bill
and Veto Message-New Dog Tax Law-
Items from Reports, 39. Borough Superinten-
dents Elected-Questions and Answers: De-
cision as to Free Text-Books and School Sup-
plies-Labor Day-State Trustee-Superin-
tendents' Salaries: Opinion of Attorney Gen-
eral Hensel-Paying School Directors: Bill
Vetoed-Items from Reports, 90. Annual
Session of County Teachers' Institutes-Care
of Free Text-Books-Items from Monthly Re-
ports, 137. College Graduate Certificates-
State Appropriation-County Institutes- Chil-
dren of Soldiers-Items from Reports, 182.
Legal Half Holidays Not School Holidays-
Certificates to College Graduates: Conditions
on Which Granted by the Department-Opin-
ion of Attorney-General Hensel-Items from
Reports, 227. Superintendent Elected-Ques-
tions and Answers-High Schools, Borough-
Permanent Certificates-Items from Reports,
269. Superintendent Elected-College Grad-
uate Certificates-Legal Decision as to Water
Tax-Relation of the High School to the Col-
lege in Pennsylvania-Items from Reports,
316. Free Text-Books and Subscription
Schools Suitable and Convenient Outhouses
on School Grounds-Soldiers' Orphans' In-
dustrial School-Items from Reports of Super-
intendents, 364. Certificates to College Grad-
uates--Duty of School Boards: Publishing
Annual Financial Statement-Vaccination :
Text of Decision by Judge Metzgar, of Wil-
liamsport-Items from Reports, 452.
Blank Form for District Reports-Normal
School Examinations-Items from Reports-
Normal School Trustees, 504. To Superinten-
dents-College graduates, 556. Course of
Study at Normal Schools, 557. Normal School
Trustees-Items from Reports, 558.

Old Land Measures, 98.

One Girl: What She Did, 116.

New

Our Call to Duty: Many Ages and Many Think-
ers, 345; Texts for Sermons; Substance of
Many Books, 475.

Our Hope: Gentlemen of School Boys-M. W.
Sutherland, 244.

Over Exercise, 248.

Pansy, Lesson on the, 99.
Parental Responsibility, 241.
Parliament of Religions, 108.
Pay Attention, 230.

Paying School Directors, 92.
Pennsylvania at the World's Fair, 70.
Permanent Certificates Granted, 277.
Personality of Teachers, 160.
Personal Influence-Henry Drummond, 144.
Personal Religion-Lyman Abbott, 518.
Pleasure Climbs to Every Mountain (Song), 562.
Poems and Stories-Sarah L. Arnold, 521.
Points or No Points-W. W. Deatrick, 114.
Plato, Half an Hour With-H. M. King, 206.

Pollution of Pennsylvania Waters-Henry C. Ford, 486.

Praise as a Stimulus to Effort-Louise Foster, 31. Primary Spelling Lesson, 529.

Prince Bismarck in Berlin-Edwin B. Chubb, 425.
Professor's Awakening, 117.

Professor Blackie and His Pupil, 515.
Promotion of Pupils, 150.
Provisional Certificates, 263.

Psychology as a Fad, 162.
Public Schools, 496.

Purifying the Air of School Rooms-W. W.
Frantz, 122.

Purity of Heart Strengthens the Mind, 152.
Queen's School at Burano, 160.

Questions and Answers, 183, 227, 269, 316.
Rapid Reckoning, 165.

Reading-G. P. Brown, 293.

Reading Books Discarded at Springfield-Thos. M. Balliet, 162.

Reading the Bible, 357.

Reading, Method in, 164.

Relation of High and Normal Schools, 379. Relation of High School to College, 318. Relation of Mind and Brain-T. M. Balliet, 34. Remember in Speaking, 212.

Responsibility of Parent-K. T. Wiggin, 241. Right Kind of Recreation: Outing Club for the Season, 431.

Robin Redbreast (Music), 187.

Rote Teaching: "Words Without Meaning," 341.
Routes of Travel, 126.

Rural Public Schools-H. N. Jarchow, 485.
Rural School, The, 119.

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Short Sightedness, 106.

Showing the Spectrum-W. W. Deatrick, 158.

Six Thousand Square Miles—J.T. Rothrock, 422.

Slate Blackboards, 255.

Sloyd in Pittsburgh, 447.

Soldiers' Orphans' Industrial School, 365.

Solemn Words of Truth and Soberness-David Swing, 95.

Some Needed Legislation-R. K. Buehrle, 388.
Song of the Brook, 470.

Sowing and Reaping, 104.
Speak Gently (Music), 94.

Spelling and Writing Problems-T. B. Noss, 303.
Spring Arbor Day, 441.

State Appropriation, 182.

State Board of Health, Circular to Directors, 477.
State Buildings at Chicago, 85.

State School Funds, 361.
Stories for the School, 527.

Study of English High and Graded Schools, 405.
Success in Teaching, 131.

"Sum-Books :" Reminiscences of School Days, T. J. Chapman, 297.

Supt. W. A. Derremer: In Memoriam-Lelia E. Patridge, 423.

Talking-Carrie Norton, 532.

Teach Children to Work, 247.

Teachers at the World's Fair, 180.

Teaching Spelling, 100.
Tennyson's Death Bed, 299.
That New Scholar, 538.
The Better Wish (Song), 234.
The Christian Shadow, 104.
The Eye-George Wilson, 540.
The Golden Egg, 351.
The Home Library, 524.
The Hand-George Wilson, 97.
The Model Hero, 496.

The Old Cottage Clock (Song), 48.
The Poetic in Children, 158.

The Professor's Awakening, 117.

The Schools and the Appropriation-David McMullen, 253.

The Spelling Problem, 256.

The Spirit Stays: "The Bonny Face of Lucy Stone," 335.

The Swallow: An Egyptian and a Circassian Tale, 216.

The Teachers' Institute: What a Good Institute Does, etc., 154.

The Training of the Boy: Address to Pittsburg Teachers-W. F. Oldham, 425.

The Vanishing State Forest: Work of Forestry Commission, 432.

Thomas Arnold: England's Typical and Greatest Schoolmaster, 141.

Those Deep Words, Grace and Truth: The Physical and Moral Worlds are Full of the Creator's Goodness-David Swing, 235. Thoughts from Huxley, 300.

Tobacco and Color Blindness, 516.

Township High Schools, 89.

Training of the Hand, 134.

Triumph for Women, 68.

Truancy and Irregular Attendance-S. A. Baer,

401.

True Standard of Educational Values, 327.
Try, Try Again (Song), 372.

Tyndall's Influence on the Teaching of Natural
Science, 422.

Twickenham Ferry (Music), 510.

Two, Too, To, 151.

Uncle Tom's Cabin: Epoch-Making-Book, 205.
Unequal Distribution of State Aid, 390.
University Extension, 39, 148.

University of the State of New York, 352.
Upright Penmanship, 134.

Up the Hills (Music)-Rossini, 48.
Urgent Needs of the Schools, 374.
Vaccination in Schools, 447.
Voting for a School Motto, 517.
What is Staff? 23.

What One Girl Did, 116.

What We Know of the Sun, 196.

Where Examinations Fail-E. E. Hale, 171.
Where They Read Most: The Homes in the
Country, 333.

Who Can Tell?-Alfred Bayliss, 335.
Wilkes-Barre Schools, 178.
Wise Decision, a, 256.

Words to be Avoided, 517.

Work: Its Perennial Nobleness and Sacredness -Thomas Carlyle, 32.

World's Fairs, 84.

Your Head to the Engine, 481.

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A LITTLE over two years ago the site department, and millions of dollars will

Fair at Chicago was practically a wild marsh. To-day it contains several hundred buildings, and Director-General Davis estimates the wealth represented by the buildings and exhibits as something like $150,000,000. Fifty nations and thirtyseven colonies are represented. Added to these are the United States Government and the various states and territories of the Union.

Roughly speaking, the grounds contain six hundred acres. They are over a mile long and more than half a mile broad at the widest part. The distance from the middle of Chicago is seven miles. One side of the grounds runs along the great lake and the other side faces hundreds of hotels and stores hurriedly erected at the smallest possible cost. There is a strip of land six hundred feet wide and a mile long, extending from the main grounds eastward, and this is the Midway Plaisance which contains the side-shows and private enterprises. The whole Exposition will be open from an early hour in the morning until ten o'clock at night, and the price of admission is fifty cents.

The Exposition is marked off into three great divisions. At the north end is the Art Palace, surrounded by the separate buildings of the States, Territories and foreign Governments. This is the social

be spent in the entertainment of visitors and in formal banquets. Going southward are to be found three-quarters of a mile of structures, representing manufactures, machinery, electricity, mining, agriculture, horticulture, forestry and minor material interests, with buildings. here and there representing woman, music, and the government of the grounds. The third division is the Midway Plaisance, dedicated to Oriental villages, Ferris wheel, balloons, bear pits, glass blowers, panoramas, barbaric theatres, and everything that goes to make up the side-show life of an international exposition. Here alone will the visitor be forced to pay extra. Outside of the Midway Plaisance everything is free after the general admission fee is paid, with the sole exception of the Esquimau Village and the Cave of the Cliff Dwellers.

It was the genius of Frederick L. Olmstead that turned the waters of Lake Michigan into lagoons, ponds, basins and canals, with bridges and terraces to beautify the place. Every main building can be reached by water. There are fifty electric launches and scores of gondolas oared by picturesque Venetians. It costs twenty-five cents a trip on the launches, and the gondolas can be employed at so

much an hour.

An intermural elevated electric railway

penetrates to all parts of the grounds, and visitors can make their rounds with great rapidity if they do not care to walk.

Around the great basin is grouped the formal architecture. At one end is the noble peristyle with its Corinthian columns, pierced in the middle by the great Columbian portal, on the top of which is a magnificent group representing a chariot drawn by four horses abreast. Flanking this quadriga are statues representing the States and Territories. The peristyle connects the Music Hall and Casino. where a grand orchestra will storm the gates of heaven with harmony. On either side of the basin are the facades of the Agricultural Building and the Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building. The principal corners of the Electricity Building and Machinery Hall are projected into this grand court of honor.

Between them is the Administration Building, which serves as a vast vestibule. The pomp and splendor of this structure are beyond description. It is in the form of four massive pavilions, united and crowned by a mighty golden dome that flashes 250 feet above the ground. Each of the pavilions is eighty-four feet square, and the dome is 120 feet in diameter. The colossal entrances are rich in sculpture, and the piers of the pavilions are crested with statuary. At every point the eye meets with some striking group. The interior of the dome is lit by an opening of fifty feet, the light disclosing panels enriched with sculpture and vast paintings representing the arts and sciences. Mr. Dodge's great fresco occupies the upper rim of the dome.

This is the seat of government. In the four pavilions are the headquarters of the Director-General, the Foreign Department, and the Department of Publicity and Promotion. Here the purely executive work is carried on, the construction headquarters being in the Service Building. During the construction period Director-General Davis has commanded more than fifteen thousand at a time, and Major Handy, of the Bureau of Publicity, has supplied a list of 70,000 correspondents. From this building messages are going out constantly to the most remote corners of the world.

It must be understood that the Exposition is a city, with a complete government. There are over fifty thousand exhibitors, and two persons for each interest represented would give a fixed population

of 100,000. There are well organized and equipped police and fire departments. The Columbian Guard is an independent body of police numbering in the neighborhood of two thousand men, largely made up of ex-soldiers. This body is commanded by Colonel Edmund Price, of the United States Army, and all of its superior officers are detailed from the army. The men are uniformed like soldiers, wear short swords and are under strict military discipline. They present a fine appearance scattered about the grounds. Police and fire stations are placed at strategic points, and the floors of all the buildings are patrolled night and day as a protection against fire.

Standing at the foot of the Administration Building the visitor is thrilled by his surroundings. Beside him, in the main entrance, is St. Gauden's fine statue of Columbus. In front of him is the wonderful McMonies fountain, and on either side of it the big fountains that throw up masses of electric-lighted water in thousands of tints at night. Beyond is the smooth basin which is crowded with gondolas and launches.

Farther on is the huge figure of the Republic rising out of the water on a pedestal with the peristyle as a background. To the left are the towers and recessed pilasters of Machinery Hall, the obelisk, and the small peristyle. The water that flows in front of Machinery Hall divides it from the Agricultural Building, whose florid capitals, masses of statuary and gilded dome, surmounted by Diana, add an indescribable richness to the general effect. On the north side is the grand façade of the largest building in the world, whose thirty acres are devoted to manufactures and liberal arts. walls of this edifice measure almost a mile, and the stupendous hinged arch spans the main floor at a height of 150 feet. Yet its fluted columns, triumphal arches and vast loggia have converted this architectural leviathan into a thing of beauty.

The

From the roof of this huge building. beams the biggest electric search light ever constructed. It has reflectors six feet in diameter, and gives a light of 194,000,000 candle power. It is asserted by those in charge of this light that people sixty miles away can read by the reflected illumination at night.

Following the canal, which is spanned by graceful bridges on which are life

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